Matching Items (86)

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University Student Knowledge and Perception of Influenza

Description

Influenza has shown its potential to affect and even kill millions of people within an extremely short time frame, yet studies and surveys show that the general public is not

Influenza has shown its potential to affect and even kill millions of people within an extremely short time frame, yet studies and surveys show that the general public is not well educated about the facts about influenza, including prevention and treatment. For this reason, public perception of influenza is extremely skewed, with people generally not taking the disease as seriously as they should given its severity. To investigate the inconsistencies between action and awareness of best available knowledge regarding influenza, this study conducted literature review and a survey of university students about their knowledge, perceptions, and action taken in relationship to influenza. Due to their dense living quarters, constant daily interactions, and mindset that they are "immune" to fairly common diseases like influenza, university students are a representative sample of urban populations. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 54% of the world's population lived in cities as of 2014 (Urban population growth). Between 2015 and 2020, the global urban population is expected to grow 1.84% per year, 1.63% between 2020 and 2025, and 1.44% between 2025 and 2030 (Urban population growth). Similar projections estimate that by 2017, an overwhelming majority of the world's population, even in less developed countries, will be living in cities (Urban population growth). Results of this study suggest possible reasons for the large gap between best available knowledge and the perceptions and actions of individuals on the other hand. This may lead to better-oriented influenza education initiatives, more effective prevention and treatment plans, and generally raise excitement and awareness surrounding public health and scientific communication.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-12

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Evaluating Social Factors Affecting Treatment of Acute Fibromyalgia Pain in the Emergency Department

Description

Fibromyalgia is a multi-systemic syndrome linked to musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, nausea, and other comorbid syndromes and chronic illnesses. However, difficulties evaluating and managing acute fibromyalgia symptoms may cause individuals to

Fibromyalgia is a multi-systemic syndrome linked to musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, nausea, and other comorbid syndromes and chronic illnesses. However, difficulties evaluating and managing acute fibromyalgia symptoms may cause individuals to present to the emergency department for pain control or further diagnostic workup. However, oligoanalgesia (the undertreatment of pain) detrimentally affects an individual's treatment while in the emergency department. Furthermore, social factors known to influence pain management, such as race, age, or past medical history, affect the diagnostic treatment and evaluation of fibromyalgia patients. As such, ethical evaluation of case studies will indicate how emergency physicians can better manage pain treatment in the emergency department.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Perception of Phase 1 Cancer Clinical Trials

Description

Mr. Green has stage 4 prostate cancer which has spread to the bones and liver and has become resistant to radiation and standard chemotherapy treatment. After 3 rounds of chemotherapy,

Mr. Green has stage 4 prostate cancer which has spread to the bones and liver and has become resistant to radiation and standard chemotherapy treatment. After 3 rounds of chemotherapy, his primary oncologist recommends that he participate in a clinical trial. He went to Dr. Red at the Saguaro Clinic after reading on the internet about a new Phase 1 clinical trial that the clinic is hosting, which is designed to target a specific receptor called AB-111 that may be present in malignant prostate, cervical, ovarian, and breast cells. After signing consent and completing the blood screens in the morning at the clinic, Mr. Green is told his liver enzymes are too high and the ranges specified in the protocol prohibit him from enrolling. Mr. Green is noticeably affected and distressed at this news, and Dr. Red recommends end-of-life care. Behind the scenes, this event is noted on official medical documents and trial study rosters as a "screen fail." This narrative, while fictional, is realistic because similar events occur in cancer clinical trial sites on a regular basis. I look at the inner "world" and mental journey of possible clinical trial candidates as they seek out information about clinical trials and gain understanding of their function \u2014 specifically in the context of Phase 1 cancer clinical trials. To whom is the language of the term "screen failure" useful? How does excluding individuals from clinical trials protect their health and does the integrity of the trial data supersede the person's curative goals? What is the message that cancer patients (potential research subjects) receive regarding clinical trials from sources outside their oncologists?

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-12

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From Fascism to Socialism: Liberalization and De-liberalization Trends of Abortion Policy of Spain

Description

Abstract: This project will examine the shifts in government abortion policy of Spain since World War II, in efforts to answer the causal question :Why has Spain so dramatically reversed

Abstract: This project will examine the shifts in government abortion policy of Spain since World War II, in efforts to answer the causal question :Why has Spain so dramatically reversed its abortion law mandates from one of the most liberal in Europe to one of the most restrictive? Spain's abortion policy is unique due to opposing forces between the Catholic Church and the socialist government and its universal health care policy. One must examine other historical and social factors to understand this policy. The purpose of this project is to understand how has the abortion policy of Spain (regarding its criminalization of women who receive abortion as well as those who perform them) changed over the last fifty years (approximately since the end of World War II). It will also examine what roles factors such as religion, culture, gender equality, and politics played in the development of these statures. Finally, the study will research the main groups that have been involved in this issue in the last fifty years and what their arguments are to support their opinions. Methods used to investigate this policy and its history of the criminalization of abortion policy in Spain since World War II will include a combination of literature review, government document review, and field research in Spain.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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From Monsters to Medicine: A Historical Analysis of Changes in the Field of Teratology Over the Twentieth Century

Description

This project focuses on the history of how teratogens, or agents which have the potential to cause birth defects, have been understood and tested for teratogenic potential in the US

This project focuses on the history of how teratogens, or agents which have the potential to cause birth defects, have been understood and tested for teratogenic potential in the US over the twentieth century. Prior to this time, teratogen studies were primarily concerned with cataloguing defects rather than exploring possible causes. At the turn of the twentieth century, experimental teratogen studies with the aim of elucidating mechanisms commenced. However, these early studies did not aim to discover human pregnancy outcomes and ways to prevent them, but simply focused on the results of exposing pregnant mammals to various physical and chemical insults. My project documents the change in understanding of teratogens over the twentieth century, the advancement of testing methods, and the causes of these advancements. Through the Embryo Project at Arizona State University (embryo.asu.edu), a digital encyclopedia for topics related to embryology, development, and reproductive medicine, I wrote ten encyclopedic articles that focused on chemical mechanisms of various teratogens, testing limitations in animal models, and legal and regulatory responses to well-known teratogens. As an extension of my previous work, this project bridges the current gap in research and focuses on contextualizing major events in the field of teratology to determine how these events led to various shifts in the understanding of birth defects and their causes, and how those conceptual shifts led to the creation of teratological testing guidelines. Results show that throughout the twentieth century, there are four distinct shifts in the understanding of teratogens: the first being 1900-1945, the second being 1946-1960, the third being 1961-1980, and the fourth being 1981-2000.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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The Opportunities and Challenges Presented to Pharmacists Concerning Low Health Literacy in Arizona

Description

More than 90 million Americans suffer from low health literacy levels that can lead to detrimental health practices. One of the greatest issues stemming from low health literacy is the

More than 90 million Americans suffer from low health literacy levels that can lead to detrimental health practices. One of the greatest issues stemming from low health literacy is the misuse of medication, which results in 125,000 deaths per year and close to $200 billion dollars in health care funds (Ngoh 2009). With their implementation into neighborhood settings and consequently the everyday lives of individuals, pharmacies show potential in being great assets towards increasing health literacy on an individual and societal level. However, pharmacists must first be made aware of the opportunities and challenges that exist concerning this effort. Through a three step literature review and corresponding comparative analysis, the results of this study show that pharmacists should focus on four main areas: overall assessment of health literacy in a pharmacy setting, individualization and tailoring of health/ medication plans, development of verbal and written communication tools, and the pharmacist-patient relationship. Each area presents a set of opportunities and challenges that must be accounted for in order to design more effective initiatives and tools in the pharmacists' aim to increase health literacy.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Visualizing the Embryo: Establishing Procedures for Digital image Production with the Embryo Project

Description

The Embryo Project (EP) Encyclopedia is an online database that has consolidated hundreds of development-related research articles, with subcategories addressing the context of such research. These articles are written by

The Embryo Project (EP) Encyclopedia is an online database that has consolidated hundreds of development-related research articles, with subcategories addressing the context of such research. These articles are written by undergraduate students, graduate students, and professionals in the fields of biology, history, and other fields, and are intended for a diverse audience of readers from both biology and non-biology related backgrounds. As the EP addresses a public audience, it is imperative to utilize all possible means to share the information that each article covers. Until 2013, the EP Encyclopedia did not present images in articles as no formal protocol for image development existed. I have created an image style guide that outlines the basic steps of creating and submitting an image that can complement an EP article and can enhance a reader's understanding of the discussed concept. In creating this style guide, I investigated similar protocols used by other scientific journals and medical professionals. I also used different programs and based my style guide off of the procedures I used in Adobe Illustrator CS6.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Perceptions versus reality of civil litigation and medical malpractice

Description

Civil litigation and medical malpractice both seem to be plagued by similar misperceptions. The general public, lawyers, physicians and our elected officials are all in considerable error regarding the reality

Civil litigation and medical malpractice both seem to be plagued by similar misperceptions. The general public, lawyers, physicians and our elected officials are all in considerable error regarding the reality behind civil litigation. The perception is that there are an increasing number of claims filed, and that in those cases that are filed the plaintiff is likely to win and be awarded a large sum of money. Regarding medical malpractice, in particular, is the belief that such litigation increases the over-all costs of healthcare by a significant dollar amount through the costs of litigation as well as the increasing instances of defensive medicine. Physicians further state that it is the absurd awards all too common in medical malpractice cases that are to blame for the out of control increases seen in medical malpractice premiums. These increases in premiums are said to have forced a large number of physicians out of practice that will hurt the general public's access to health care. These perceptions are at least reinforced by the media coverage that reports on the rare multimillion-dollar cases and from reports by insurance companies and physicians, in their attempt to lower their business costs by decreasing medical malpractice insurance premiums. By understanding the prevalence of such misperceptions, the truth behind the claims, and how such misinformation reaches the public and has spread to all levels of society, empirical data must be presented to the public in order to overcome the misperceptions.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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The Hwang Woo-Suk Scandal and the Development of Bioethics in South Korea

Description

In 2004, the South Korean geneticist Woo-Suk Hwang published what was widely regarded as the most important research result in biotechnology of the year. In the prestigious American journal Science,

In 2004, the South Korean geneticist Woo-Suk Hwang published what was widely regarded as the most important research result in biotechnology of the year. In the prestigious American journal Science, he claimed that he had succeeded in cloning a human blastocyst, an embryo in its early stages (Hwang et al. 2004). A year later, in a second Science article, he made the earth-shattering announcement that he had derived eleven embryonic stem cell lines using his cloning technique (Hwang et al. 2005). The international scientific community was stunned. American scientists publicly fretted that President George W. Bush‘s 2001 executive order limiting federal funding for stem-cell research in the United States had put American bioscience behind the Koreans‘ (Paarlberg 2005). These breakthroughs offered potential solutions to immune system rejection of transplanted organs and possible cures for diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, Parkinson‘s, Down‘s syndrome, and paralysis (Svenaeus 2007). However, within a year, Hwang was exposed as a fraud who had faked his results and pressured his female colleagues to donate eggs without informed consent. Despite protests against his methods from Korean religious and nongovernmental organizations, Hwang had used his prestige to ignore his ethical obligations. The Korean government, too, was slow to investigate Hwang and to subject his work to appropriate regulation.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012-12

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The Role of the Medical Scribe in Contemporary Medicine

Description

The use of medical scribes in emergency departments has been associated with faster patient discharge times, increased numbers of patients treated, and improved patient satisfaction ratings in previous research studies

The use of medical scribes in emergency departments has been associated with faster patient discharge times, increased numbers of patients treated, and improved patient satisfaction ratings in previous research studies and has also been correlated with improved levels of physician satisfaction as well as a high degree of gratification from scribes. For this paper, I examined the nature of scribing, essentially analyzing the role of the scribe in modern healthcare, and the effects of the occupation on the medical field. Though a shortage of prior research regarding medical scribing persisted, the data I received here mirrored some of the results from earlier studies, specifically those which proclaimed that physicians admit to increased work efficiency when accompanied by scribes. Unlike prior studies, however, this thesis presents novel information regarding scribes‘ perspectives of the profession, including some of the complaints they possess, which are most notably long and irregular shifts, far commute distances, and low wages. Through my research, which relied heavily on interviews and surveys and less heavily on EMR-simulating examinations, scribes were discovered to have a greater average typing speed (64 wpm) than physicians (30 wpm) and performed better in three drills that simulated different manners of patient charting. It was the opinion of all physicians that scribes were beneficial—both to them as physicians and to patients. Though scribes represented varying opinions about their role, the majority (9/11) of those who were interviewed classified scribing as a somewhat stressful job but also stated that they were mostly satisfied with their position.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012-12