Matching Items (18)

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Regional-scale transport of air pollutants: impacts of Southern California emissions on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations

Description

In this study, WRF-Chem is utilized at high resolution (1.333 km grid spacing for the innermost domain) to investigate impacts of southern California anthropogenic emissions (SoCal) on Phoenix ground-level ozone

In this study, WRF-Chem is utilized at high resolution (1.333 km grid spacing for the innermost domain) to investigate impacts of southern California anthropogenic emissions (SoCal) on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations ([O[superscript 3]]) for a pair of recent exceedance episodes. First, WRF-Chem control simulations, based on the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2005 National Emissions Inventories (NEI05), are conducted to evaluate model performance. Compared with surface observations of hourly ozone, CO, NO[superscript X], and wind fields, the control simulations reproduce observed variability well. Simulated [O[superscript 3]] are comparable with the previous studies in this region. Next, the relative contribution of SoCal and Arizona local anthropogenic emissions (AZ) to ozone exceedances within the Phoenix metropolitan area is investigated via a trio of sensitivity simulations: (1) SoCal emissions are excluded, with all other emissions as in Control; (2) AZ emissions are excluded with all other emissions as in Control; and (3) SoCal and AZ emissions are excluded (i.e., all anthropogenic emissions are eliminated) to account only for Biogenic emissions and lateral boundary inflow (BILB). Based on the USEPA NEI05, results for the selected events indicate the impacts of AZ emissions are dominant on daily maximum 8 h average (DMA8) [O[superscript 3]] in Phoenix. SoCal contributions to DMA8 [O[superscript 3]] for the Phoenix metropolitan area range from a few ppbv to over 30 ppbv (10–30 % relative to Control experiments). [O[superscript 3]] from SoCal and AZ emissions exhibit the expected diurnal characteristics that are determined by physical and photochemical processes, while BILB contributions to DMA8 [O[superscript 3]] in Phoenix also play a key role.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-08-21

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Observation and simulation of wave breaking in the southern hemispheric stratosphere during VORCORE

Description

An interesting occurrence of a Rossby wave breaking event observed during the VORCORE experiment is presented and explained. Twenty-seven balloons were launched inside the Antarctic polar vortex. Almost all of

An interesting occurrence of a Rossby wave breaking event observed during the VORCORE experiment is presented and explained. Twenty-seven balloons were launched inside the Antarctic polar vortex. Almost all of these balloons evolved in the stratosphere around 500K within the vortex, except the one launched on 28 October 2005. In this case, the balloon was caught within a tongue of high potential vorticity (PV), and was ejected from the polar vortex. The evolution of this event is studied for the period between 19 and 25 November 2005. It is found that at the beginning of this period, the polar vortex experienced distortions due to the presence of Rossby waves. Then, these waves break and a tongue of high PV develops. On 25 November, the tongue became separated from the vortex and the balloon was ejected into the surf zone. Lagrangian simulations demonstrate that the air masses surrounding the balloon after its ejection were originating from the vortex edge. The wave breaking and the development of the tongue are confined within a region where a planetary Quasi-Stationary Wave 1 (QSW1) induces wind speeds with weaker values. The QSW1 causes asymmetry in the wind speed and the horizontal PV gradient along the edge of the polar vortex, resulting in a localized jet. Rossby waves with smaller scales propagating on top of this jet amplify as they enter the jet exit region and then break. The role of the QSW1 on the formation of the weak flow conditions that caused the non-linear wave breaking observed near the vortex edge is confirmed by three-dimensional numerical simulations using forcing with and without the contribution of the QSW1.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-04-16

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Kalman filter data assimilation: Targeting observations and parameter estimation

Description

This paper studies the effect of targeted observations on state and parameter estimates determined with Kalman filter data assimilation (DA) techniques. We first provide an analytical result demonstrating that targeting

This paper studies the effect of targeted observations on state and parameter estimates determined with Kalman filter data assimilation (DA) techniques. We first provide an analytical result demonstrating that targeting observations within the Kalman filter for a linear model can significantly reduce state estimation error as opposed to fixed or randomly located observations. We next conduct observing system simulation experiments for a chaotic model of meteorological interest, where we demonstrate that the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF) with targeted observations based on largest ensemble variance is skillful in providing more accurate state estimates than the LETKF with randomly located observations. Additionally, we find that a hybrid ensemble Kalman filter parameter estimation method accurately updates model parameters within the targeted observation context to further improve state estimation.

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Date Created
  • 2014-06-01

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A Numerical and Analytical Study of Wave Reflection and Transmission across the Tropopause

Description

A numerical study of wave-induced momentum transport across the tropopause in the presence of a stably stratified thin inversion layer is presented and discussed. This layer consists of a shar

A numerical study of wave-induced momentum transport across the tropopause in the presence of a stably stratified thin inversion layer is presented and discussed. This layer consists of a sharp increase in static stability within the tropopause. The wave propagation is modeled by numerically solving the Taylor-Goldstein equation, which governs the dynamics of internal waves in stably stratified shear flows. The waves are forced by a flow over a bell shaped mountain placed at the lower boundary of the domain. A perfectly radiating condition based on the group velocity of mountain waves is imposed at the top to avoid artificial wave reflection. A validation for the numerical method through comparisons with the corresponding analytical solutions will be provided. Then, the method is applied to more realistic profiles of the stability to study the impact of these profiles on wave propagation through the tropopause.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Simulating meteorological profiles to study noise propagation from freeways

Description

Forecasts of noise pollution from a highway line segment noise source are obtained from a sound propagation model utilizing effective sound speed profiles derived from a Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP)

Forecasts of noise pollution from a highway line segment noise source are obtained from a sound propagation model utilizing effective sound speed profiles derived from a Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) limited area forecast with 1 km horizontal resolution and near-ground vertical resolution finer than 20 m. Methods for temporal along with horizontal and vertical spatial nesting are demonstrated within the NWP model for maintaining forecast feasibility. It is shown that vertical nesting can improve the prediction of finer structures in near-ground temperature and velocity profiles, such as morning temperature inversions and low level jet-like features. Accurate representation of these features is shown to be important for modeling sound refraction phenomena and for enabling accurate noise assessment. Comparisons are made using the parabolic equation model for predictions with profiles derived from NWP simulations and from field experiment observations during mornings on November 7 and 8, 2006 in Phoenix, Arizona. The challenges faced in simulating accurate meteorological profiles at high resolution for sound propagation applications are highlighted and areas for possible improvement are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05-01

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Multiscale Modeling and Evaluation of Urban Surface Energy Balance in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

Description

Physical mechanisms of incongruency between observations and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model predictions are examined. Limitations of evaluation are constrained by (i) parameterizations of model physics, (ii) parameterizations of

Physical mechanisms of incongruency between observations and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model predictions are examined. Limitations of evaluation are constrained by (i) parameterizations of model physics, (ii) parameterizations of input data, (iii) model resolution, and (iv) flux observation resolution. Observations from a new 22.1-m flux tower situated within a residential neighborhood in Phoenix, Arizona, are utilized to evaluate the ability of the urbanized WRF to resolve finescale surface energy balance (SEB) when using the urban classes derived from the 30-m-resolution National Land Cover Database. Modeled SEB response to a large seasonal variation of net radiation forcing was tested during synoptically quiescent periods of high pressure in winter 2011 and premonsoon summer 2012. Results are presented from simulations employing five nested domains down to 333-m horizontal resolution. A comparative analysis of model cases testing parameterization of physical processes was done using four configurations of urban parameterization for the bulk urban scheme versus three representations with the Urban Canopy Model (UCM) scheme, and also for two types of planetary boundary layer parameterization: the local Mellor–Yamada–Janjić scheme and the nonlocal Yonsei University scheme. Diurnal variation in SEB constituent fluxes is examined in relation to surface-layer stability and modeled diagnostic variables. Improvement is found when adapting UCM for Phoenix with reduced errors in the SEB components. Finer model resolution is seen to have insignificant (<1 standard deviation) influence on mean absolute percent difference of 30-min diurnal mean SEB terms.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-06-11

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WIGNER FUNCTION APPROACH TO OSCILLATING SOLUTIONS OF THE 1D-QUINTIC NONLINEAR SCHRÖDINGER EQUATION

Description

In this paper, we study oscillating solutions of the 1D-quintic nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the help of Wigner's quasiprobability distribution in quantum phase space. An "absolute squeezing property", namely a

In this paper, we study oscillating solutions of the 1D-quintic nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the help of Wigner's quasiprobability distribution in quantum phase space. An "absolute squeezing property", namely a periodic in time total localization of wave packets at some finite spatial points without violation of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, is analyzed in this nonlinear model.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-08-15

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Spiral laser beams in inhomogeneous media

Description

Explicit solutions of the inhomogeneous paraxial wave equation in a linear and quadratic approximation are applied to wave fields with invariant features, such as oscillating laser beams in a parabolic

Explicit solutions of the inhomogeneous paraxial wave equation in a linear and quadratic approximation are applied to wave fields with invariant features, such as oscillating laser beams in a parabolic waveguide and spiral light beams in varying media. A similar effect of superfocusing of particle beams in a thin monocrystal film, harmonic oscillations of cold trapped atoms, and motion in magnetic field are also mentioned.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-08-15

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Drug Modeling Dynamics in the Treatment of Prostate Cancer

Description

Efforts to treat prostate cancer have seen an uptick, as the world’s most commoncancer in men continues to have increasing global incidence. Clinically, metastatic
prostate cancer is most commonly treated

Efforts to treat prostate cancer have seen an uptick, as the world’s most commoncancer in men continues to have increasing global incidence. Clinically, metastatic
prostate cancer is most commonly treated with hormonal therapy. The idea behind
hormonal therapy is to reduce androgen production, which prostate cancer cells
require for growth. Recently, the exploration of the synergistic effects of the drugs
used in hormonal therapy has begun. The aim was to build off of these recent
advancements and further refine the synergistic drug model. The advancements I
implement come by addressing biological shortcomings and improving the model’s
internal mechanistic structure. The drug families being modeled, anti-androgens,
and gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs, interact with androgen production in a
way that is not completely understood in the scientific community. Thus the models
representing the drugs show progress through their ability to capture their effect
on serum androgen. Prostate-specific antigen is the primary biomarker for prostate
cancer and is generally how population models on the subject are validated. Fitting
the model to clinical data and comparing it to other clinical models through the
ability to fit and forecast prostate-specific antigen and serum androgen is how this
improved model achieves validation. The improved model results further suggest that
the drugs’ dynamics should be considered in adaptive therapy for prostate cancer.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Investigations of environmental effects on freeway acoustics

Description

The role of environmental factors that influence atmospheric propagation of sound originating from freeway noise sources is studied with a combination of field experiments and numerical simulations. Acoustic propagation models

The role of environmental factors that influence atmospheric propagation of sound originating from freeway noise sources is studied with a combination of field experiments and numerical simulations. Acoustic propagation models are developed and adapted for refractive index depending upon meteorological conditions. A high-resolution multi-nested environmental forecasting model forced by coarse global analysis is applied to predict real meteorological profiles at fine scales. These profiles are then used as input for the acoustic models. Numerical methods for producing higher resolution acoustic refractive index fields are proposed. These include spatial and temporal nested meteorological simulations with vertical grid refinement. It is shown that vertical nesting can improve the prediction of finer structures in near-ground temperature and velocity profiles, such as morning temperature inversions and low level jet-like features. Accurate representation of these features is shown to be important for modeling sound refraction phenomena and for enabling accurate noise assessment. Comparisons are made using the acoustic model for predictions with profiles derived from meteorological simulations and from field experiment observations in Phoenix, Arizona. The challenges faced in simulating accurate meteorological profiles at high resolution for sound propagation applications are highlighted and areas for possible improvement are discussed.

A detailed evaluation of the environmental forecast is conducted by investigating the Surface Energy Balance (SEB) obtained from observations made with an eddy-covariance flux tower compared with SEB from simulations using several physical parameterizations of urban effects and planetary boundary layer schemes. Diurnal variation in SEB constituent fluxes are examined in relation to surface layer stability and modeled diagnostic variables. Improvement is found when adapting parameterizations for Phoenix with reduced errors in the SEB components. Finer model resolution (to 333 m) is seen to have insignificant ($<1\sigma$) influence on mean absolute percent difference of 30-minute diurnal mean SEB terms. A new method of representing inhomogeneous urban development density derived from observations of impervious surfaces with sub-grid scale resolution is then proposed for mesoscale applications. This method was implemented and evaluated within the environmental modeling framework. Finally, a new semi-implicit scheme based on Leapfrog and a fourth-order implicit time-filter is developed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014