Matching Items (19)

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State of health determination of batteries at various operating conditions

Description

Objective of the study is to get a clear idea on the cyclic performance of duty operation of Batteries. Batteries are an integral part of solar plants and wind energy

Objective of the study is to get a clear idea on the cyclic performance of duty operation of Batteries. Batteries are an integral part of solar plants and wind energy farms due to the fact that energy storage is vital in these places. Various types of losses related to the performance are clearly analyzed and studied. Assessment of State Of Health and State Of Charge is critical in order to maximize the performance and lifetime of a battery. Batteries were subjected to temperature and charge/discharge rate variations and found that the state of health degradation was severe at high temperature along with faster rate of charging compared to other evaluation conditions. The entire research was conducted at the Alternative Energy Technology Laboratory located at Arizona State University, Mesa. It involved the use of various instruments namely the Programmable Voltage Regulator for charging, Computerized Battery Analyzer and Programmable Electric Load for discharging and also the PARSTAT potentiostat for measuring the impedance of various battery technologies under study. At first, the Batteries were discharged and based on the time taken, it was charged for the next cycle. Impedance measurement was done at regular cycle intervals in order to study the degradation of health. For every cycle, the battery capacity was also calculated and noted down. . The results obtained show that low and stable impedance over the given cycle life is an important consideration in the selection of batteries according to the applications.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Model based automotive system integration: fuel cell vehicle hardware-in-the-loop

Description

Over the past decade, proton exchange membrane fuel cells have gained much momentum due to their environmental advantages and commutability over internal combustion engines. To carefully study the dynamic behavior

Over the past decade, proton exchange membrane fuel cells have gained much momentum due to their environmental advantages and commutability over internal combustion engines. To carefully study the dynamic behavior of the fuel cells, a dynamic test stand to validate their performance is necessary. Much attention has been given to HiL (Hardware-in-loop) testing of the fuel cells, where the simulated FC model is replaced by a real hardware. This thesis presents an economical approach for closed loop HiL testing of PEM fuel cell. After evaluating the performance of the standalone fuel cell system, a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle model was developed by incorporating a battery system. The FCHEV was tested with two different control strategies, viz. load following and thermostatic.

The study was done to determine the dynamic behavior of the FC when exposed to real-world drive cycles. Different parameters associated with the efficiency of the fuel cell were monitored. An electronic DC load was used to draw current from the FC. The DC load was controlled in real time with a NI PXIe-1071 controller chassis incorporated with NI PXI-6722 and NI PXIe-6341 controllers. The closed loop feedback was obtained with the temperatures from two surface mount thermocouples on the FC. The temperature of these thermocouples follows the curve of the FC core temperature, which is measured with a thermocouple located inside the fuel cell system. This indicates successful implementation of the closed loop feedback. The results show that the FC was able to satisfy the required power when continuous shifting load was present, but there was a discrepancy between the power requirements at times of peak acceleration and also at constant loads when ran for a longer time. It has also been found that further research is required to fully understand the transient behavior of the fuel cell temperature distribution in relation to their use in automotive industry. In the experimental runs involving the FCHEV model with different control strategies, it was noticed that the fuel cell response to transient loads improved and the hydrogen consumption of the fuel cell drastically decreased.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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A comparative study of quasi-solid nanoclay gel electrolyte and liquid electrolyte dye sensitized solar cells

Description

Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are currently being explored as a cheaper alternative to the more common silicon (Si) solar cell technology. In addition to the cost advantages, DSSCs show

Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are currently being explored as a cheaper alternative to the more common silicon (Si) solar cell technology. In addition to the cost advantages, DSSCs show good performance in low light conditions and are not sensitive to varying angles of incident light like traditional Si cells. One of the major challenges facing DSSCs is loss of the liquid electrolyte, through evaporation or leakage, which lowers stability and leads to increased degradation. Current research with solid-state and quasi-solid DSSCs has shown success regarding a reduction of electrolyte loss, but at a cost of lower conversion efficiency output. The research work presented in this paper focuses on the effects of using nanoclay material as a gelator in the electrolyte of the DSSC. The data showed that the quasi-solid cells are more stable than their liquid electrolyte counterparts, and achieved equal or better I-V characteristics. The quasi-solid cells were fabricated with a gel electrolyte that was prepared by adding 7 wt% of Nanoclay, Nanomer® (1.31PS, montmorillonite clay surface modified with 15-35% octadecylamine and 0.5-5 wt% aminopropyltriethoxysilane, Aldrich) to the iodide/triiodide liquid electrolyte, (Iodolyte AN-50, Solaronix). Various gel concentrations were tested in order to find the optimal ratio of nanoclay to liquid. The gel electrolyte made with 7 wt% nanoclay was more viscous, but still thin enough to allow injection with a standard syringe. Batches of cells were fabricated with both liquid and gel electrolyte and were evaluated at STC conditions (25°C, 100 mW/cm2) over time. The gel cells achieved efficiencies as high as 9.18% compared to 9.65% achieved by the liquid cells. After 10 days, the liquid cell decreased to 1.75%, less than 20% of its maximum efficiency. By contrast, the gel cell's efficiency increased for two weeks, and did not decrease to 20% of maximum efficiency until 45 days. After several measurements, the liquid cells showed visible signs of leakage through the sealant, whereas the gel cells did not. This resistance to leakage likely contributed to the improved performance of the quasi-solid cells over time, and is a significant advantage over liquid electrolyte DSSCs.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Optimizing the DSSC fabrication process using lean six sigma

Description

Alternative energy technologies must become more cost effective to achieve grid parity with fossil fuels. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are an innovative third generation photovoltaic technology, which is demonstrating

Alternative energy technologies must become more cost effective to achieve grid parity with fossil fuels. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are an innovative third generation photovoltaic technology, which is demonstrating tremendous potential to become a revolutionary technology due to recent breakthroughs in cost of fabrication. The study here focused on quality improvement measures undertaken to improve fabrication of DSSCs and enhance process efficiency and effectiveness. Several quality improvement methods were implemented to optimize the seven step individual DSSC fabrication processes. Lean Manufacturing's 5S method successfully increased efficiency in all of the processes. Six Sigma's DMAIC methodology was used to identify and eliminate each of the root causes of defects in the critical titanium dioxide deposition process. These optimizations resulted with the following significant improvements in the production process: 1. fabrication time of the DSSCs was reduced by 54 %; 2. fabrication procedures were improved to the extent that all critical defects in the process were eliminated; 3. the quantity of functioning DSSCs fabricated was increased from 17 % to 90 %.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Development of a concentrating solar water heater with phase change energy storage

Description

The complicated, unpredictable, and often chaotic hot water usage pattern of typical households severely limits the effectiveness and efficiency of traditional solar hot water heater systems. Similar to large scale

The complicated, unpredictable, and often chaotic hot water usage pattern of typical households severely limits the effectiveness and efficiency of traditional solar hot water heater systems. Similar to large scale concentrating solar power plants, the use of thermal energy storage techniques to store collected solar energy as latent heat has the potential to improve the efficiency of solar hot water systems. Rather than being used to produce steam to generate electricity, the stored thermal energy would be used to heat water on-demand well after the sun sets. The scope of this thesis was to design, analyze, build, and test a proof of concept prototype for an on-demand solar water heater for residential use with latent heat thermal energy storage. The proof of concept system will be used for future research and can be quickly reconfigured making it ideal for use as a test bed. This thesis outlines the analysis, design, and testing processes used to model, build, and evaluate the performance of the prototype system.

The prototype system developed to complete this thesis was designed using systems engineering principles and consists of several main subsystems. These subsystems include a parabolic trough concentrating solar collector, a phase change material reservoir including heat exchangers, a heat transfer fluid reservoir, and a plumbing system. The system functions by absorbing solar thermal energy in a heat transfer fluid using the solar collector and transferring the absorbed thermal energy to the phase change material for storage. The system was analyzed using a mathematical model created in MATLAB and experimental testing was used to verify that the system functioned as designed. The mathematical model was designed to be adaptable for evaluating different system configurations for future research. The results of the analysis as well as the experimental tests conducted, verify that the proof of concept system is functional and capable of producing hot water using stored thermal energy. This will allow the system to function as a test bed for future research and long-term performance testing to evaluate changes in the performance of the phase change material over time. With additional refinement the prototype system has the potential to be developed into a commercially viable product for use in residential homes.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Potential materials for fuel cells

Description

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells have attracted immense research activities from the inception of the technology due to its high stability and performance capabilities. The major obstacle from commercialization is

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells have attracted immense research activities from the inception of the technology due to its high stability and performance capabilities. The major obstacle from commercialization is the cost of the catalyst material in manufacturing the fuel cell. In the present study, the major focus in PEMFCs has been in reduction of the cost of the catalyst material using graphene, thin film coated and Organometallic Molecular catalysts. The present research is focused on improving the durability and active surface area of the catalyst materials with low platinum loading using nanomaterials to reduce the effective cost of the fuel cells. Performance, Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, oxygen reduction and surface morphology studies were performed on each manufactured material.

Alkaline fuel cells with anion exchange membrane get immense attention due to very attractive opportunity of using non-noble metal catalyst materials. In the present study, cathodes with various organometallic cathode materials were prepared and investigated for alkaline membrane fuel cells for oxygen reduction and performance studies. Co and Fe Phthalocyanine catalyst materials were deposited on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) support materials. Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs) were fabricated using Tokuyama Membrane (#A901) with cathodes containing Co and Fe Phthalocyanine/MWCNTs and Pt/C anodes. Fuel cell performance of the MEAs was examined.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Feasibility of energy harvesting using a piezoelectric tire

Description

While the piezoelectric effect has been around for some time, it has only recently caught interest as a potential sustainable energy harvesting device. Piezoelectric energy harvesting has been developed for

While the piezoelectric effect has been around for some time, it has only recently caught interest as a potential sustainable energy harvesting device. Piezoelectric energy harvesting has been developed for shoes and panels, but has yet to be integrated into a marketable bicycle tire. For this thesis, the development and feasibility of a piezoelectric tire was done. This includes the development of a circuit that incorporates piezoceramic elements, energy harvesting circuitry, and an energy storage device. A single phase circuit was designed using an ac-dc diode rectifier. An electrolytic capacitor was used as the energy storage device. A financial feasibility was also done to determine targets for manufacturing cost and sales price. These models take into account market trends for high performance tires, economies of scale, and the possibility of government subsidies. This research will help understand the potential for the marketability of a piezoelectric energy harvesting tire that can create electricity for remote use. This study found that there are many obstacles that must be addressed before a piezoelectric tire can be marketed to the general public. The power output of this device is miniscule compared to an alkaline battery. In order for this device to approach the power output of an alkaline battery the weight of the device would also become an issue. Additionally this device is very costly compared to the average bicycle tire. Lastly, this device is extreme fragile and easily broken. In order for this device to become marketable the issues of power output, cost, weight, and durability must all be successfully overcome.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Photovoltaic modules: effect of tilt angle on soiling

Description

Photovoltaic (PV) systems are one of the next generation's renewable energy sources for our world energy demand. PV modules are highly reliable. However, in polluted environments, over time, they will

Photovoltaic (PV) systems are one of the next generation's renewable energy sources for our world energy demand. PV modules are highly reliable. However, in polluted environments, over time, they will collect grime and dust. There are also limited field data studies about soiling losses on PV modules. The study showed how important it is to investigate the effect of tilt angle on soiling. The study includes two sets of mini-modules. Each set has 9 PV modules tilted at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 23, 30, 33 and 40°. The first set called "Cleaned" was cleaned every other day. The second set called "Soiled" was never cleaned after the first day. The short circuit current, a measure of irradiance, and module temperature was monitored and recorded every two minutes over three months (January-March 2011). The data were analyzed to investigate the effect of tilt angle on daily and monthly soiling, and hence transmitted solar insolation and energy production by PV modules. The study shows that during the period of January through March 2011 there was an average loss due to soiling of approximately 2.02% for 0° tilt angle. Modules at tilt anlges 23° and 33° also have some insolation losses but do not come close to the module at 0° tilt angle. Tilt anlge 23° has approximately 1.05% monthly insolation loss, and 33° tilt angle has an insolation loss of approximately 0.96%. The soiling effect is present at any tilt angle, but the magnitude is evident: the flatter the solar module is placed the more energy it will lose.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Proton exchange membrane fuel cell modeling and simulation using Ansys Fluent

Description

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) run on pure hydrogen and oxygen (or air), producing electricity, water, and some heat. This makes PEMFC an attractive option for clean power generation.

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) run on pure hydrogen and oxygen (or air), producing electricity, water, and some heat. This makes PEMFC an attractive option for clean power generation. PEMFCs also operate at low temperature which makes them quick to start up and easy to handle. PEMFCs have several important limitations which must be overcome before commercial viability can be achieved. Active areas of research into making them commercially viable include reducing the cost, size and weight of fuel cells while also increasing their durability and performance. A growing and important part of this research involves the computer modeling of fuel cells. High quality computer modeling and simulation of fuel cells can help speed up the discovery of optimized fuel cell components. Computer modeling can also help improve fundamental understanding of the mechanisms and reactions that take place within the fuel cell. The work presented in this thesis describes a procedure for utilizing computer modeling to create high quality fuel cell simulations using Ansys Fluent 12.1. Methods for creating computer aided design (CAD) models of fuel cells are discussed. Detailed simulation parameters are described and emphasis is placed on establishing convergence criteria which are essential for producing consistent results. A mesh sensitivity study of the catalyst and membrane layers is presented showing the importance of adhering to strictly defined convergence criteria. A study of iteration sensitivity of the simulation at low and high current densities is performed which demonstrates the variance in the rate of convergence and the absolute difference between solution values derived at low numbers of iterations and high numbers of iterations.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Hybrid microgrid model based on solar photovoltaics with batteries and fuel cells system for intermittent applications

Description

Microgrids are a subset of the modern power structure; using distributed generation (DG) to supply power to communities rather than vast regions. The reduced scale mitigates loss allowing the power

Microgrids are a subset of the modern power structure; using distributed generation (DG) to supply power to communities rather than vast regions. The reduced scale mitigates loss allowing the power produced to do more with better control, giving greater security, reliability, and design flexibility. This paper explores the performance and cost viability of a hybrid grid-tied microgrid that utilizes Photovoltaic (PV), batteries, and fuel cell (FC) technology. The concept proposes that each community home is equipped with more PV than is required for normal operation. As the homes are part of a microgrid, excess or unused energy from one home is collected for use elsewhere within the microgrid footprint. The surplus power that would have been discarded becomes a community asset, and is used to run intermittent services. In this paper, the modeled community does not have parking adjacent to each home allowing for the installment of a privately owned slower Level 2 charger, making EV ownership option untenable. A solution is to provide a Level 3 DC Quick Charger (DCQC) as the intermittent service. The addition of batteries and Fuel Cells are meant to increase load leveling, reliability, and instill limited island capability.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013