Matching Items (65)

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Stakeholder Analysis for the Food-Energy-Water Nexus in Phoenix, Arizona: Implications for Nexus Governance

Description

Understanding the food-energy-water nexus is necessary to identify risks and inform strategies for nexus governance to support resilient, secure, and sustainable societies. To manage risks and realize efficiencies, we must

Understanding the food-energy-water nexus is necessary to identify risks and inform strategies for nexus governance to support resilient, secure, and sustainable societies. To manage risks and realize efficiencies, we must understand not only how these systems are physically connected but also how they are institutionally linked. It is important to understand how actors who make planning, management, and policy decisions understand the relationships among components of the systems. Our question is: How do stakeholders involved in food, energy, and water governance in Phoenix, Arizona understand the nexus and what are the implications for integrated nexus governance? We employ a case study design, generate qualitative data through focus groups and interviews, and conduct a content analysis. While stakeholders in the Phoenix area who are actively engaged in food, energy, and water systems governance appreciate the rationale for nexus thinking, they recognize practical limitations to implementing these concepts. Concept maps of nexus interactions provide one view of system interconnections that be used to complement other ways of knowing the nexus, such as physical infrastructure system diagrams or actor-networks. Stakeholders believe nexus governance could be improved through awareness and education, consensus and collaboration, transparency, economic incentives, working across scales, and incremental reforms.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-11-29

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Sky View Factors from Synthetic Fisheye Photos for Thermal Comfort Routing—A Case Study in Phoenix, Arizona

Description

The Sky View Factor (SVF) is a dimension-reduced representation of urban form and one of the major variables in radiation models that estimate outdoor thermal comfort. Common ways of retrieving

The Sky View Factor (SVF) is a dimension-reduced representation of urban form and one of the major variables in radiation models that estimate outdoor thermal comfort. Common ways of retrieving SVFs in urban environments include capturing fisheye photographs or creating a digital 3D city or elevation model of the environment. Such techniques have previously been limited due to a lack of imagery or lack of full scale detailed models of urban areas. We developed a web based tool that automatically generates synthetic hemispherical fisheye views from Google Earth at arbitrary spatial resolution and calculates the corresponding SVFs through equiangular projection. SVF results were validated using Google Maps Street View and compared to results from other SVF calculation tools. We generated 5-meter resolution SVF maps for two neighborhoods in Phoenix, Arizona to illustrate fine-scale variations of intra-urban horizon limitations due to urban form and vegetation. To demonstrate the utility of our synthetic fisheye approach for heat stress applications, we automated a radiation model to generate outdoor thermal comfort maps for Arizona State University’s Tempe campus for a hot summer day using synthetic fisheye photos and on-site meteorological data. Model output was tested against mobile transect measurements of the six-directional radiant flux density. Based on the thermal comfort maps, we implemented a pedestrian routing algorithm that is optimized for distance and thermal comfort preferences. Our synthetic fisheye approach can help planners assess urban design and tree planting strategies to maximize thermal comfort outcomes and can support heat hazard mitigation in urban areas.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-03-27

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The Demographics of Polling Places

Description

Elections in the United States are highly decentralized with vast powers given to the states to control laws surrounding voter registration, primary procedures, and polling places even in elections of

Elections in the United States are highly decentralized with vast powers given to the states to control laws surrounding voter registration, primary procedures, and polling places even in elections of federal officials. There are many individual factors that predict a person's likelihood of voting including race, education, and age. Historically disenfranchised groups are still disproportionately affected by restrictive voter registration and ID laws which can suppress their turnout. Less understood is how election-day polling place accessibility affects turnout. Absentee and early voting increase accessibility for all voters, but 47 states still rely on election-day polling places. I study how the geographic allocation of polling places and the number of voters assigned to each (polling place load) in Maricopa County, Arizona has affected turnout in primary and general elections between 2006 and 2016 while controlling for the demographics of voting precincts. This represents a significant data problem; voting precincts changed three times during the time studied and polling places themselves can change every election. To aid in analysis, I created a visualization that allows for the exploration of polling place load, precinct demographics, and polling place accessibility metrics in a map view of the county. I find through a spatial regression model that increasing the load on a polling place can decrease the election-day turnout and prohibitively large distances to the polling place have a similar effect. The effect is more pronounced during general elections and is present at varying levels during each of the 12 elections studied. Finally, I discuss how early voting options appear to have little positive effect on overall turnout and may in fact decrease it.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

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Visual Analytics and the Impact of Inter-Country Trade on Violence

Description

Global violent conflict has become an increasing problem in recent decades, especially in the African continent. Civil wars, terrorism, riots, and political violence has wrought havoc not only on civilian

Global violent conflict has become an increasing problem in recent decades, especially in the African continent. Civil wars, terrorism, riots, and political violence has wrought havoc not only on civilian lives, but also on economic foundations. Trade networks are a way to measure these economic foundations. To summarize trade networks clustering coefficient as well as trade quantity/value summation measures are used. To understand effects of global trade on violent conflict, Pearson product-moment correlations are utilized. This work details a comparison of African national economies and violent conflict events using clustering coefficient, trade summation measures and Pearson correlation coefficient.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Input-Elicitation Methods for Crowdsourced Human Computation

Description

Collecting accurate collective decisions via crowdsourcing
is challenging due to cognitive biases, varying
worker expertise, and varying subjective scales. This
work investigates new ways to determine collective decisions
by prompting

Collecting accurate collective decisions via crowdsourcing
is challenging due to cognitive biases, varying
worker expertise, and varying subjective scales. This
work investigates new ways to determine collective decisions
by prompting users to provide input in multiple
formats. A crowdsourced task is created that aims
to determine ground-truth by collecting information in
two different ways: rankings and numerical estimates.
Results indicate that accurate collective decisions can
be achieved with less people when ordinal and cardinal
information is collected and aggregated together
using consensus-based, multimodal models. We also
show that presenting users with larger problems produces
more valuable ordinal information, and is a more
efficient way to collect an aggregate ranking. As a result,
we suggest input-elicitation to be more widely considered
for future work in crowdsourcing and incorporated
into future platforms to improve accuracy and efficiency.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Constructing a Visualization Dashboard to Improve Educational Standards in Arizona Legislative Districts

Description

Education has been at the forefront of many issues in Arizona over the past several years with concerns over lack of funding sparking the Red for Ed movement. However, despite

Education has been at the forefront of many issues in Arizona over the past several years with concerns over lack of funding sparking the Red for Ed movement. However, despite the push for educational change, there remain many barriers to education including a lack of visibility for how Arizona schools are performing at a legislative district level. While there are sources of information released at a school district level, many of these are limited and can become obscure to legislators when such school districts lie on the boundary between 2 different legislative districts. Moreover, much of this information is in the form of raw spreadsheets and is often fragmented between government websites and educational organizations. As such, a visualization dashboard that clearly identifies schools and their relative performance within each legislative district would be an extremely valuable tool to legislative bodies and the Arizona public. Although this dashboard and research are rough drafts of a larger concept, they would ideally increase transparency regarding public information about these districts and allow legislators to utilize the dashboard as a tool for greater understanding and more effective policymaking.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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First Impressions: A Multimodal Analysis of Movie Trailers and Film Success

Description

Due to the popularity of the movie industry, a film's opening weekend box-office performance is of great interest not only to movie studios, but to the general public, as well.

Due to the popularity of the movie industry, a film's opening weekend box-office performance is of great interest not only to movie studios, but to the general public, as well. In hopes of maximizing a film's opening weekend revenue, movie studios invest heavily in pre-release advertisement. The most visible advertisement is the movie trailer, which, in no more than two minutes and thirty seconds, serves as many people's first introduction to a film. The question, however, is how can we be confident that a trailer will succeed in its promotional task, and bring about the audience a studio expects? In this thesis, we use machine learning classification techniques to determine the effectiveness of a movie trailer in the promotion of its namesake. We accomplish this by creating a predictive model that automatically analyzes the audio and visual characteristics of a movie trailer to determine whether or not a film's opening will be successful by earning at least 35% of a film's production budget during its first U.S. box office weekend. Our predictive model performed reasonably well, achieving an accuracy of 68.09% in a binary classification. Accuracy increased to 78.62% when including genre in our predictive model.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Visual Analytic Tools for Geo-Genealogy and Geo-Demographics

Description

This work explores the development of a visual analytics tool for geodemographic exploration in an online environment. We mine 78 million records from the United States white pages, link the

This work explores the development of a visual analytics tool for geodemographic exploration in an online environment. We mine 78 million records from the United States white pages, link the location data to demographic data (specifically income) from the United States Census Bureau, and allow users to interactively compare distributions of names with regards to spatial location similarity and income. In order to enable interactive similarity exploration, we explore methods of pre-processing the data as well as on-the-fly lookups. As data becomes larger and more complex, the development of appropriate data storage and analytics solutions has become even more critical when enabling online visualization. We discuss problems faced in implementation, design decisions and directions for future work.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

An Empirical Study of View Construction for Multi-View Learning

Description

Multi-view learning, a subfield of machine learning that aims to improve model performance by training on multiple views of the data, has been studied extensively in the past decades. It

Multi-view learning, a subfield of machine learning that aims to improve model performance by training on multiple views of the data, has been studied extensively in the past decades. It is typically applied in contexts where the input features naturally form multiple groups or views. An example of a naturally multi-view context is a data set of websites, where each website is described not only by the text on the page, but also by the text of hyperlinks pointing to the page. More recently, various studies have demonstrated the initial success of applying multi-view learning on single-view data with multiple artificially constructed views. However, there lacks a systematic study regarding the effectiveness of such artificially constructed views. To bridge this gap, this thesis begins by providing a high-level overview of multi-view learning with the co-training algorithm. Co-training is a classic semi-supervised learning algorithm that takes advantage of both labelled and unlabelled examples in the data set for training. Then, the thesis presents a web-based tool developed in Python allowing users to experiment with and compare the performance of multiple view construction approaches on various data sets. The supported view construction approaches in the web-based tool include subsampling, Optimal Feature Set Partitioning, and the genetic algorithm. Finally, the thesis presents an empirical comparison of the performance of these approaches, not only against one another, but also against traditional single-view models. The findings show that a simple subsampling approach combined with co-training often outperforms both the other view construction approaches, as well as traditional single-view methods.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-12