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Unveiling the Neural Network Mechanism through Spike Detection

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This study was designed to create a more user-friendly experience in utilizing the M-Sorter package for spike sorting and detection. This was achieved through the creation of a Graphical User Interface or GUI. The GUI was created for the spike

This study was designed to create a more user-friendly experience in utilizing the M-Sorter package for spike sorting and detection. This was achieved through the creation of a Graphical User Interface or GUI. The GUI was created for the spike detection portion of sorting. Through the creation of the M-Sorter detection GUI, now novice programmers can run the detector process. Additionally, the parameters are easily altered which will greatly decrease the time it takes to enter data and eliminate mistakes users may make in data entry.

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2014-05

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Analysis of Learning Retention throughout Aging

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In this paper, it is determined that learning retention decreases with age and there is a linear rate of decrease. In this study, four male Long-Evans Rats were used. The rats were each trained in 4 different tasks throughout their

In this paper, it is determined that learning retention decreases with age and there is a linear rate of decrease. In this study, four male Long-Evans Rats were used. The rats were each trained in 4 different tasks throughout their lifetime, using a food reward as motivation to work. Rats were said to have learned a task at the age when they received the highest accuracy during a task. A regression of learning retention was created for the set of studied rats: Learning Retention = 112.9 \u2014 0.085919 x (Age at End of Task), indicating that learning retention decreases at a linear rate, although rats have different rates of decrease of learning retention. The presence of behavioral training was determined not to have a positive impact on this rate. In behavioral studies, there were statistically significant differences between timid/outgoing and large ball ability between W12 and Z12. Rat W12 had overall better learning retention and also was more compliant, did not resist being picked up and traveled more frequently at high speeds (in the large ball) than Z12. Further potential studies include implanting an electrode into the frontal cortex in order to compare neuro feedback with learning retention, and using human subjects to find the rate of decrease in learning retention. The implication of this study, if also true for human subjects, is that older persons may need enhanced training or additional refresher training in order to retain information that is learned at a later age.

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2014-05

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Portfolio modeling, analysis and management

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A systematic top down approach to minimize risk and maximize the profits of an investment over a given period of time is proposed. Macroeconomic factors such as Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Consumer Price Index (CPI), Outstanding Consumer Credit, Industrial Production

A systematic top down approach to minimize risk and maximize the profits of an investment over a given period of time is proposed. Macroeconomic factors such as Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Consumer Price Index (CPI), Outstanding Consumer Credit, Industrial Production Index, Money Supply (MS), Unemployment Rate, and Ten-Year Treasury are used to predict/estimate asset (sector ETF`s) returns. Fundamental ratios of individual stocks are used to predict the stock returns. An a priori known cash-flow sequence is assumed available for investment. Given the importance of sector performance on stock performance, sector based Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) for the S&P; and Dow Jones are considered and wealth is allocated. Mean variance optimization with risk and return constraints are used to distribute the wealth in individual sectors among the selected stocks. The results presented should be viewed as providing an outer control/decision loop generating sector target allocations that will ultimately drive an inner control/decision loop focusing on stock selection. Receding horizon control (RHC) ideas are exploited to pose and solve two relevant constrained optimization problems. First, the classic problem of wealth maximization subject to risk constraints (as measured by a metric on the covariance matrices) is considered. Special consideration is given to an optimization problem that attempts to minimize the peak risk over the prediction horizon, while trying to track a wealth objective. It is concluded that this approach may be particularly beneficial during downturns - appreciably limiting downside during downturns while providing most of the upside during upturns. Investment in stocks during upturns and in sector ETF`s during downturns is profitable.

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2010

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A control engineering approach for designing an optimized treatment plan for fibromyalgia

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There is increasing interest in the medical and behavioral health communities towards developing effective strategies for the treatment of chronic diseases. Among these lie adaptive interventions, which consider adjusting treatment dosages over time based on participant response. Control engineering offers

There is increasing interest in the medical and behavioral health communities towards developing effective strategies for the treatment of chronic diseases. Among these lie adaptive interventions, which consider adjusting treatment dosages over time based on participant response. Control engineering offers a broad-based solution framework for optimizing the effectiveness of such interventions. In this thesis, an approach is proposed to develop dynamical models and subsequently, hybrid model predictive control schemes for assigning optimal dosages of naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, as treatment for a chronic pain condition known as fibromyalgia. System identification techniques are employed to model the dynamics from the daily diary reports completed by participants of a blind naltrexone intervention trial. These self-reports include assessments of outcomes of interest (e.g., general pain symptoms, sleep quality) and additional external variables (disturbances) that affect these outcomes (e.g., stress, anxiety, and mood). Using prediction-error methods, a multi-input model describing the effect of drug, placebo and other disturbances on outcomes of interest is developed. This discrete time model is approximated by a continuous second order model with zero, which was found to be adequate to capture the dynamics of this intervention. Data from 40 participants in two clinical trials were analyzed and participants were classified as responders and non-responders based on the models obtained from system identification. The dynamical models can be used by a model predictive controller for automated dosage selection of naltrexone using feedback/feedforward control actions in the presence of external disturbances. The clinical requirement for categorical (i.e., discrete-valued) drug dosage levels creates a need for hybrid model predictive control (HMPC). The controller features a multiple degree-of-freedom formulation that enables the user to adjust the speed of setpoint tracking, measured disturbance rejection and unmeasured disturbance rejection independently in the closed loop system. The nominal and robust performance of the proposed control scheme is examined via simulation using system identification models from a representative participant in the naltrexone intervention trial. The controller evaluation described in this thesis gives credibility to the promise and applicability of control engineering principles for optimizing adaptive interventions.

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2011

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Molecular electronic transducer-based seismometer and accelerometer fabricated with micro-electro-mechanical systems techniques

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This thesis presents approaches to develop micro seismometers and accelerometers based on molecular electronic transducers (MET) technology using MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) techniques. MET is a technology applied in seismic instrumentation that proves highly beneficial to planetary seismology. It consists of

This thesis presents approaches to develop micro seismometers and accelerometers based on molecular electronic transducers (MET) technology using MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) techniques. MET is a technology applied in seismic instrumentation that proves highly beneficial to planetary seismology. It consists of an electrochemical cell that senses the movement of liquid electrolyte between electrodes by converting it to the output current. MET seismometers have advantages of high sensitivity, low noise floor, small size, absence of fragile mechanical moving parts and independence on the direction of sensitivity axis. By using MEMS techniques, a micro MET seismometer is developed with inter-electrode spacing close to 1μm, which improves the sensitivity of fabricated device to above 3000 V/(m/s^2) under operating bias of 600 mV and input acceleration of 400 μG (G=9.81m/s^2) at 0.32 Hz. The lowered hydrodynamic resistance by increasing the number of channels improves the self-noise to -127 dB equivalent to 44 nG/√Hz at 1 Hz. An alternative approach to build the sensing element of MEMS MET seismometer using SOI process is also presented in this thesis. The significantly increased number of channels is expected to improve the noise performance. Inspired by the advantages of combining MET and MEMS technologies on the development of seismometer, a low frequency accelerometer utilizing MET technology with post-CMOS-compatible fabrication processes is developed. In the fabricated accelerometer, the complicated fabrication of mass-spring system in solid-state MEMS accelerometer is replaced with a much simpler post-CMOS-compatible process containing only deposition of a four-electrode MET structure on a planar substrate, and a liquid inertia mass of an electrolyte droplet encapsulated by oil film. The fabrication process does not involve focused ion beam milling which is used in the micro MET seismometer fabrication, thus the cost is lowered. Furthermore, the planar structure and the novel idea of using an oil film as the sealing diaphragm eliminate the complicated three-dimensional packaging of the seismometer. The fabricated device achieves 10.8 V/G sensitivity at 20 Hz with nearly flat response over the frequency range from 1 Hz to 50 Hz, and a low noise floor of 75 μG/√Hz at 20 Hz.

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2014

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Feedback control and obstacle avoidance for non-holonomic differential drive robots

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This thesis discusses control and obstacle avoidance for non-holonomic differential drive mobile vehicles. The two important behaviors for the vehicle can be defined as go to goal and obstacle avoidance behavior. This thesis discusses both behaviors in detail. Go to

This thesis discusses control and obstacle avoidance for non-holonomic differential drive mobile vehicles. The two important behaviors for the vehicle can be defined as go to goal and obstacle avoidance behavior. This thesis discusses both behaviors in detail. Go to goal behavior is the ability of the mobile vehicle to go from one particular co-ordinate to another. Cruise control, cartesian and posture stabilization problems are discussed as the part of this behavior. Control strategies used for the above three problems are explained in the thesis. Matlab simulations are presented to verify these controllers. Obstacle avoidance behavior ensures that the vehicle doesn't hit object in its path while going towards the goal. Three different techniques for obstacle avoidance which are useful for different kind of obstacles are described in the thesis. Matlab simulations are presented to show and discuss the three techniques. The controls discussed for the cartesian and posture stabilization were implemented on a low cost miniature vehicle to verify the results practically. The vehicle is described in the thesis in detail. The practical results are compared with the simulations. Hardware and matlab codes have been provided as a reference for the reader.

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2013

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Analysis of synchronization and accuracy of synchrophasor measurements

Description

In electric power systems, phasor measurement units (PMUs) are capable of providing synchronized voltage and current phasor measurements which are superior to conventional measurements collected by the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system in terms of resolution and accuracy.

In electric power systems, phasor measurement units (PMUs) are capable of providing synchronized voltage and current phasor measurements which are superior to conventional measurements collected by the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system in terms of resolution and accuracy. These measurements are known as synchrophasor measurements. Considerable research work has been done on the applications of PMU measurements based on the as-sumption that a high level of accuracy is obtained in the field. The study in this dissertation is conducted to address the basic issue concerning the accuracy of actual PMU measurements in the field. Synchronization is one of the important features of PMU measurements. However, the study presented in this dissertation reveals that the problem of faulty synchronization between measurements with the same time stamps from different PMUs exists. A Kalman filter model is proposed to analyze and calcu-late the time skew error caused by faulty synchronization. In order to achieve a high level of accuracy of PMU measurements, inno-vative methods are proposed to detect and identify system state changes or bad data which are reflected by changes in the measurements. This procedure is ap-plied as a key step in adaptive Kalman filtering of PMU measurements to over-come the insensitivity of a conventional Kalman filter. Calibration of PMU measurements is implemented in specific PMU instal-lation scenarios using transmission line (TL) parameters from operation planning data. The voltage and current correction factors calculated from the calibration procedure indicate the possible errors in PMU measurements. Correction factors can be applied in on-line calibration of PMU measurements. A study is conducted to address an important issue when integrating PMU measurements into state estimation. The reporting rate of PMU measurements is much higher than that of the measurements collected by the SCADA. The ques-tion of how to buffer PMU measurements is raised. The impact of PMU meas-urement buffer length on state estimation is discussed. A method based on hy-pothesis testing is proposed to determine the optimal buffer length of PMU meas-urements considering the two conflicting features of PMU measurements, i. e. un-certainty and variability. Results are presented for actual PMU synchrophasor measurements.

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2012

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H-infinity control design via convex optimization: toward a comprehensive design environment

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The problem of systematically designing a control system continues to remain a subject of intense research. In this thesis, a very powerful control system design environment for Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) plants is presented. The environment has been

The problem of systematically designing a control system continues to remain a subject of intense research. In this thesis, a very powerful control system design environment for Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) plants is presented. The environment has been designed to address a broad set of closed loop metrics and constraints; e.g. weighted H-infinity closed loop performance subject to closed loop frequency and/or time domain constraints (e.g. peak frequency response, peak overshoot, peak controls, etc.). The general problem considered - a generalized weighted mixed-sensitivity problem subject to constraints - permits designers to directly address and tradeoff multivariable properties at distinct loop breaking points; e.g. at plant outputs and at plant inputs. As such, the environment is particularly powerful for (poorly conditioned) multivariable plants. The Youla parameterization is used to parameterize the set of all stabilizing LTI proper controllers. This is used to convexify the general problem being addressed. Several bases are used to turn the resulting infinite-dimensional problem into a finite-dimensional problem for which there exist many efficient convex optimization algorithms. A simple cutting plane algorithm is used within the environment. Academic and physical examples are presented to illustrate the utility of the environment.

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Date Created
2013

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A study on constrained state estimators

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This study focuses on state estimation of nonlinear discrete time systems with constraints. Physical processes have inherent in them, constraints on inputs, outputs, states and disturbances. These constraints can provide additional information to the estimator in estimating states from the

This study focuses on state estimation of nonlinear discrete time systems with constraints. Physical processes have inherent in them, constraints on inputs, outputs, states and disturbances. These constraints can provide additional information to the estimator in estimating states from the measured output. Recursive filters such as Kalman Filters or Extended Kalman Filters are commonly used in state estimation; however, they do not allow inclusion of constraints in their formulation. On the other hand, computational complexity of full information estimation (using all measurements) grows with iteration and becomes intractable. One way of formulating the recursive state estimation problem with constraints is the Moving Horizon Estimation (MHE) approximation. Estimates of states are calculated from the solution of a constrained optimization problem of fixed size. Detailed formulation of this strategy is studied and properties of this estimation algorithm are discussed in this work. The problem with the MHE formulation is solving an optimization problem in each iteration which is computationally intensive. State estimation with constraints can be formulated as Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) with a projection applied to estimates. The states are estimated from the measurements using standard Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithm and the estimated states are projected on to a constrained set. Detailed formulation of this estimation strategy is studied and the properties associated with this algorithm are discussed. Both these state estimation strategies (MHE and EKF with projection) are tested with examples from the literature. The average estimation time and the sum of square estimation error are used to compare performance of these estimators. Results of the case studies are analyzed and trade-offs are discussed.

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Date Created
2013

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Modeling, design and control of multiple low-cost robotic ground vehicles

Description

Toward the ambitious long-term goal of a fleet of cooperating Flexible Autonomous Machines operating in an uncertain Environment (FAME), this thesis addresses several

critical modeling, design and control objectives for ground vehicles. One central objective was to show how off-the-shelf (low-cost)

Toward the ambitious long-term goal of a fleet of cooperating Flexible Autonomous Machines operating in an uncertain Environment (FAME), this thesis addresses several

critical modeling, design and control objectives for ground vehicles. One central objective was to show how off-the-shelf (low-cost) remote-control (RC) “toy” vehicles can be converted into intelligent multi-capability robotic-platforms for conducting FAME research. This is shown for two vehicle classes: (1) six differential-drive (DD) RC vehicles called Thunder Tumbler (DDTT) and (2) one rear-wheel drive (RWD) RC car called Ford F-150 (1:14 scale). Each DDTT-vehicle was augmented to provide a substantive suite of capabilities as summarized below (It should be noted, however, that only one DDTT-vehicle was augmented with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and 2.4 GHz RC capability): (1) magnetic wheel-encoders/IMU for(dead-reckoning-based) inner-loop speed-control and outer-loop position-directional-control, (2) Arduino Uno microcontroller-board for encoder-based inner-loop speed-control and encoder-IMU-ultrasound-based outer-loop cruise-position-directional-separation-control, (3) Arduino motor-shield for inner-loop motor-speed-control, (4)Raspberry Pi II computer-board for demanding outer-loop vision-based cruise- position-directional-control, (5) Raspberry Pi 5MP camera for outer-loop cruise-position-directional-control (exploiting WiFi to send video back to laptop), (6) forward-pointing ultrasonic distance/rangefinder sensor for outer-loop separation-control, and (7) 2.4 GHz spread-spectrum RC capability to replace original 27/49 MHz RC. Each “enhanced”/ augmented DDTT-vehicle costs less than 􀀀175 but offers the capability of commercially available vehicles costing over 􀀀500. Both the Arduino and Raspberry are low-cost, well-supported (software wise) and easy-to-use. For the vehicle classes considered (i.e. DD, RWD), both kinematic and dynamical (planar xy) models are examined. Suitable nonlinear/linear-models are used to develop inner/outer-loopcontrol laws.

All demonstrations presented involve enhanced DDTT-vehicles; one the F-150; one a quadrotor. The following summarizes key hardware demonstrations: (1) cruise-control along line, (2) position-control along line (3) position-control along curve (4) planar (xy) Cartesian stabilization, (5) cruise-control along jagged line/curve, (6) vehicle-target spacing-control, (7) multi-robot spacing-control along line/curve, (8) tracking slowly-moving remote-controlled quadrotor, (9) avoiding obstacle while moving toward target, (10) RC F-150 followed by DDTT-vehicle. Hardware data/video is compared with, and corroborated by, model-based simulations. In short, many capabilities that are critical for reaching the longer-term FAME goal are demonstrated.

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Date Created
2015