Matching Items (6)

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Interactions between Pitch and Timbre Perception in Normal-hearing Listeners and Cochlear Implant Users

Description

Pitch and timbre perception are two important dimensions of auditory perception. These aspects of sound aid the understanding of our environment, and contribute to normal everyday functioning. It is therefore

Pitch and timbre perception are two important dimensions of auditory perception. These aspects of sound aid the understanding of our environment, and contribute to normal everyday functioning. It is therefore important to determine the nature of perceptual interaction between these two dimensions of sound. This study tested the interactions between pitch perception associated with the fundamental frequency (F0) and sharpness perception associated with the spectral slope of harmonic complex tones in normal hearing (NH) listeners and cochlear implant (CI) users. Pitch and sharpness ranking was measured without changes in the non-target dimension (Experiment 1), with different amounts of unrelated changes in the non-target dimension (Experiment 2), and with congruent/incongruent changes of similar perceptual salience in the non-target dimension (Experiment 3). The results showed that CI users had significantly worse pitch and sharpness ranking thresholds than NH listeners. Pitch and sharpness perception had symmetric interactions in NH listeners. However, for CI users, spectral slope changes significantly affected pitch ranking, while F0 changes had no significant effect on sharpness ranking. CI users' pitch ranking sensitivity was significantly better with congruent than with incongruent spectral slope changes. These results have important implications for CI processing strategies to better transmit pitch and timbre cues to CI users.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Cognitive and Auditory Factors for Speech and Music Perception in Elderly Adult Cochlear Implant Users

Description

Working memory and cognitive functions contribute to speech recognition in normal hearing and hearing impaired listeners. In this study, auditory and cognitive functions are measured in young adult normal hearing,

Working memory and cognitive functions contribute to speech recognition in normal hearing and hearing impaired listeners. In this study, auditory and cognitive functions are measured in young adult normal hearing, elderly normal hearing, and elderly cochlear implant subjects. The effects of age and hearing on the different measures are investigated. The correlations between auditory/cognitive functions and speech/music recognition are examined. The results may demonstrate which factors can better explain the variable performance across elderly cochlear implant users.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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The Effect of Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on Speech Motor Learning

Description

Speech motor learning is important for learning to speak during childhood and maintaining the speech system throughout adulthood. Motor and auditory cortical regions play crucial roles in speech motor learning.

Speech motor learning is important for learning to speak during childhood and maintaining the speech system throughout adulthood. Motor and auditory cortical regions play crucial roles in speech motor learning. This experiment aimed to use transcranial alternating current stimulation, a neurostimulation technique, to influence auditory and motor cortical activity. In this study, we used an auditory-motor adaptation task as an experimental model of speech motor learning. Subjects repeated words while receiving formant shifts, which made the subjects’ speech sound different from their production. During the adaptation task, subjects received Beta (20 Hz), Alpha (10 Hz), or Sham stimulation. We applied the stimulation to the ventral motor cortex that is involved in planning speech movements. We found that the stimulation did not influence the magnitude of adaptation. We suggest that some limitations of the study may have contributed to the negative results.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Probing the Role of Auditory Feedback in Voice Pitch Control Using Vibrato Perturbation

Description

The objective of this study was to analyze the auditory feedback system and the pitch-shift reflex in relation to vibrato. 11 subjects (female n = 8, male n = 3)

The objective of this study was to analyze the auditory feedback system and the pitch-shift reflex in relation to vibrato. 11 subjects (female n = 8, male n = 3) without speech, hearing, or neurological disorders were used. Compensation magnitude, adaptation magnitude, relative response phase, and passive and active perception were recorded when the subjects were subjected to auditory feedback perturbed by phasic amplitude and F0 modulation, or “vibrato”. “Tremolo,” or phasic amplitude modulation, was used as a control. Significant correlation was found between the ability to perceive vibrato and tremolo in active trials and the ability to perceive in passive trials (p=0.01). Passive perceptions were lower (more sensitive) than active perceptions (p< 0.01). Adaptation vibrato trials showed significant modulation magnitude (p=0.031), while tremolo did not. The two conditions were significantly different (p<0.01). There was significant phase change for both tremolo and vibrato, but vibrato phase change was greater, nearly 180° (p<0.01). In the compensation trials, the modulation change from control to vibrato trials was significantly greater than the change from control to tremolo (p=0.01). Vibrato and tremolo also had significantly different average phase change (p<0.01). It can be concluded that the auditory feedback system tries to cancel out dynamic pitch perturbations by cancelling them out out-of-phase. Similar systems must be used to adapt and to compensate to vibrato. Despite the auditory feedback system’s online monitoring, the passive perception was still better than active perception, possibly because it required only one task (perceiving) rather than two (perceiving and producing). The pitch-shift reflex compensates to the sensitivity of the auditory feedback system, as shown by the increased perception of vibrato over tremolo.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

Vocal Emotion Production of Pre-lingually Deafened Cochlear Implant Children with Residual Acoustic Hearing

Description

Vocal emotion production is important for social interactions in daily life. Previous studies found that pre-lingually deafened cochlear implant (CI) children without residual acoustic hearing had significant deficits in producing

Vocal emotion production is important for social interactions in daily life. Previous studies found that pre-lingually deafened cochlear implant (CI) children without residual acoustic hearing had significant deficits in producing pitch cues for vocal emotions as compared to post-lingually deafened CI adults, normal-hearing (NH) children, and NH adults. In light of the importance of residual acoustic hearing for the development of vocal emotion production, this study tested whether pre-lingually deafened CI children with residual acoustic hearing may produce similar pitch cues for vocal emotions as the other participant groups. Sixteen pre-lingually deafened CI children with residual acoustic hearing, nine post-lingually deafened CI adults with residual acoustic hearing, twelve NH children, and eleven NH adults were asked to produce ten semantically neutral sentences in happy or sad emotion. The results showed that there was no significant group effect for the ratio of mean fundamental frequency (F0) and the ratio of F0 standard deviation between emotions. Instead, CI children showed significantly greater intensity difference between emotions than CI adults, NH children, and NH adults. In CI children, aided pure-tone average hearing threshold of acoustic ear was correlated with the ratio of mean F0 and the ratio of duration between emotions. These results suggest that residual acoustic hearing with low-frequency pitch cues may facilitate the development of vocal emotion production in pre-lingually deafened CI children.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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The Effect of Spectral Resolution of Auditory Feedback on Speech Production of Normal-­hearing Listeners

Description

Cochlear implant (CI) successfully restores hearing sensation to profoundly deaf patients, but its
performance is limited by poor spectral resolution. Acoustic CI simulation has been widely used
in normal-­hearing (NH)

Cochlear implant (CI) successfully restores hearing sensation to profoundly deaf patients, but its
performance is limited by poor spectral resolution. Acoustic CI simulation has been widely used
in normal-­hearing (NH) listeners to study the effect of spectral resolution on speech perception,
while avoiding patient-­related confounds. It is unclear how speech production may change with
the degree of spectral degradation of auditory feedback as experience by CI users. In this study,
a real-­time sinewave CI simulation was developed to provide NH subjects with auditory
feedback of different spectral resolution (1, 2, 4, and 8 channels). NH subjects were asked to
produce and identify vowels, as well as recognize sentences while listening to the real-­time CI
simulation. The results showed that sentence recognition scores with the real-­time CI simulation
improved with more channels, similar to those with the traditional off-­line CI simulation.
Perception of a vowel continuum “HEAD”-­ “HAD” was near chance with 1, 2, and 4 channels,
and greatly improved with 8 channels and full spectrum. The spectral resolution of auditory
feedback did not significantly affect any acoustic feature of vowel production (e.g., vowel space
area, mean amplitude, mean and variability of fundamental and formant frequencies). There
was no correlation between vowel production and perception. The lack of effect of auditory
feedback spectral resolution on vowel production was likely due to the limited exposure of NH
subjects to CI simulation and the limited frequency ranges covered by the sinewave carriers of
CI simulation. Future studies should investigate the effects of various CI processing parameters
on speech production using a noise-­band CI simulation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05