Matching Items (14)

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Production of Short-Lived Radionuclides in Asymmetric Supernovae

Description

Supernovae are vital to supplying necessary elements to forming bodies in our solar systems. This project studies the creation of a subset of these necessary elements, called short-lived radionuclides (SLRs). SLRs are isotopes with relatively short half-lives and can serve

Supernovae are vital to supplying necessary elements to forming bodies in our solar systems. This project studies the creation of a subset of these necessary elements, called short-lived radionuclides (SLRs). SLRs are isotopes with relatively short half-lives and can serve as heat sources for forming planetary bodies, and their traces can be used to date stellar events. Computational models of asymmetric supernovae provide opportunities to study the effect of explosion geometry on the SLR yields. We are most interested in the production of \iso{Al}{26}, \iso{Fe}{60}, and \iso{Ca}{41}, whose decayed products are found in our own solar system. To study the effect of explosion asymmetries in supernovae, we use TYCHO stellar evolution code, SNSHP smooth particle hydrodynamics code for 3D explosion simulations, Burn code for nucleosythesis post-processing, and Python code written to analyze the output of the post-processing code.

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Date Created
2018-05

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Detecting Non-Relativistic Cosmic Neutrinos by Capture on Tritium: Phenomenology and Physics Potential

Description

We study the physics potential of the detection of the Cosmic Neutrino Back- ground via neutrino capture on tritium, taking the proposed PTOLEMY experiment as a case study. With the projected energy resolution of ∆ ∼ 0.15eV, the experiment will

We study the physics potential of the detection of the Cosmic Neutrino Back- ground via neutrino capture on tritium, taking the proposed PTOLEMY experiment as a case study. With the projected energy resolution of ∆ ∼ 0.15eV, the experiment will be sensitive to neutrino masses with degenerate spectrum, m1 ≃ m2 ≃ m3 = mν 0.1eV. These neutrinos are non-relativistic today; detecting them would be a unique opportunity to probe this unexplored kinematical regime. The signature of neutrino capture is a peak in the electron spectrum that is displaced by 2mν above the beta decay endpoint. The signal would exceed the background from beta decay if the energy resolution is ∆ 0.7 mν. Interestingly, the total capture rate depends on the origin of the neutrino mass, being ΓD ≃ 4 and ΓM ≃ 8 events per year (for a 100 g tritium target) for unclustered Dirac and Majorana neutrinos, respectively. An enhancement of the rate of up to O(1) is expected due to gravitational clustering, with the unique potential to probe the local overdensity of neutrinos. Turning to more exotic neutrino physics, PTOLEMY could be sensitive to a lepton asymmetry, and reveal the eV-scale sterile neutrino that is favored by short baseline oscillation searches. The experiment would also be sensitive to a neutrino lifetime on the order of the age of the uni- verse and break the degeneracy between neutrino mass and lifetime which affects existing bounds.

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Created

Date Created
2014-08-01

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Neutrino Events at IceCube and the Fermi Bubbles

Description

We discuss the possibility that the IceCube neutrino telescope might be observing the Fermi bubbles. If the bubbles discovered in gamma rays originate from accelerated protons, they should be strong emitters of high energy (≳ GeV) neutrinos. These neutrinos are

We discuss the possibility that the IceCube neutrino telescope might be observing the Fermi bubbles. If the bubbles discovered in gamma rays originate from accelerated protons, they should be strong emitters of high energy (≳ GeV) neutrinos. These neutrinos are detectable as showerlike or tracklike events at a Km3 neutrino observatory. For a primary cosmic ray flux with spectrum ∝ E-2.1 and cutoff energy at or above 10 PeV, the Fermi bubble flux substantially exceeds the atmospheric background, and could account for up to ∼4–5 of the 28 events detected above ∼30  TeV at IceCube. Running the detector for ∼5–7 more years should be sufficient to discover this flux at high significance. For a primary cosmic ray flux with steeper spectrum, and/or lower cutoff energy, longer running times will be required to overcome the background.

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Created

Date Created
2014-07-21

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Astrophysical neutrinos at the low and high energy frontiers

Description

For this project, the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB) has been calculated based on the recent direct supernova rate measurements and neutrino spectrum from SN1987A. The estimated diffuse electron antineutrino flux is ∼ 0.10 – 0.59 /cm2/s at 99% confidence

For this project, the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB) has been calculated based on the recent direct supernova rate measurements and neutrino spectrum from SN1987A. The estimated diffuse electron antineutrino flux is ∼ 0.10 – 0.59 /cm2/s at 99% confidence level, which is 5 times lower than the Super-Kamiokande 2012 upper limit of 3.0 /cm2/s, above energy threshold of 17.3 MeV. With a Megaton scale water detector, 40 events could be detected above the threshold per year. In addition, the detectability of neutrino bursts from direct black hole forming collapses (failed supernovae) at Megaton detectors is calculated. These neutrino bursts are energetic and with short time duration, ∼ 1s. They could be identified by the time coincidence of N ≥2 or N ≥3 events within 1s time window from nearby (4 – 5 Mpc) failed supernovae. The detection rate of these neutrino bursts could get up to one per decade. This is a realistic way to detect a failed supernova and gives a promising method for studying the physics of direct black hole formation mechanism. Finally, the absorption of ultra high energy (UHE) neutrinos by the cosmic neutrino background, with full inclusion of the effect of the thermal distribution of the background on the resonant annihilation channel, is discussed. Results are applied to serval models of UHE neutrino sources. Suppression effects are strong for sources that extend beyond z ∼ 10. This provides a fascinating probe of the physics of the relic neutrino background in the unexplored redshift interval z ∼ 10 – 100. Ultimately this research will examine the detectability of DSNB, neutrino bursts from failed supernovae and absorption effects in the neutrino spectrum.

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Date Created
2013

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Possible counterparts of IceCube high energy neutrinos

Description

The IceCube Neutrino Observatory has provided the first map of the high energy (~0.01 – 1 PeV) sky in neutrinos. Since neutrinos propagate undeflected, their arrival direction is an important identifier for sources of high energy particle acceleration. Reconstructed arrival

The IceCube Neutrino Observatory has provided the first map of the high energy (~0.01 – 1 PeV) sky in neutrinos. Since neutrinos propagate undeflected, their arrival direction is an important identifier for sources of high energy particle acceleration. Reconstructed arrival directions are consistent with an extragalactic origin, with possibly a galactic component, of the neutrino flux. We present a statistical analysis of positional coincidences of the IceCube neutrinos with known astrophysical objects from several catalogs. For the brightest gamma-ray emitting blazars and for Seyfert galaxies, the numbers of coincidences is consistent with the random, or “null”, distribution. Instead, when considering starburst galaxies with the highest flux in gamma-rays and infrared radiation, up to n = 8 coincidences are found, representing an excess over the ~4 predicted for the null distribution. The probability that this excess is realized in the null case, the p-value, is p = 0.042. This value falls to p = 0.003 for a set of gamma-ray detected starburst galaxies and superbubbles in the galactic neighborhood. Therefore, it is possible that these might account for a subset of IceCube neutrinos. The physical plausibility of such correlation is discussed briefly.

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Date Created
2015

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Cosmological and astrophysical probes of physics beyond the standard model

Description

Cosmology, carrying imprints from the entire history of the universe, has emerged as a precise observational science over the past 30 years. It can probe physics beyond the Standard Model at energy scales much higher than the weak scale. This

Cosmology, carrying imprints from the entire history of the universe, has emerged as a precise observational science over the past 30 years. It can probe physics beyond the Standard Model at energy scales much higher than the weak scale. This thesis reports on some important probes of beyond standard model physics derived in a cosmological setting - (I) It is shown that primordial gravitational waves left over from inflation carry unique detectable CMB signatures for neutrino masses, axions and any other relativistic species that may have been present. (II) Higgs Inflation, the most popular and compelling inflation model with a higgs boson is studied next and it is shown that quantum effects have so far been incorrectly incorporated. A spurious gauge ambiguity arising from quantum effects enters the canonical prediction for observables in Higgs Inflation that must be addressed. (III) A new novel mechanism for generating the observed baryon asymmetry of the universe via decaying gravitinos is proposed. If the Supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking scale is high, then in the presence of R-parity violation, gravitinos can successfully reproduce the baryon asymmetry and evade all low energy constraints. (IV) The final chapter reports on a new completely general analysis of simplified models used in direct detection of dark matter. This is useful to explore what high energy physics constraints can be obtained from direct detection experiments.

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Date Created
2015

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Cosmological aspects of gamma ray bursts

Description

Gamma-ray burst observations provide a great opportunity for cosmography in high redshift. Some tight correlations between different physical properties of GRBs are discovered and used for cosmography. However, data selection, assumptions, systematic uncertainty and some other issues affect most of

Gamma-ray burst observations provide a great opportunity for cosmography in high redshift. Some tight correlations between different physical properties of GRBs are discovered and used for cosmography. However, data selection, assumptions, systematic uncertainty and some other issues affect most of them. Most importantly, until the physical origin of a relation is understood, one should be cautious to employ the relation to utilize Gamma ray bursts for cosmography. In the first part of this dissertation, I use Liang-Zhang correlation to constrain ¦« Cold Dark Matter standard cosmology and a particular class of brane cosmology (brane-induced gravity model). With the most probable model being ¦¸_m=0.23 and ¦¸_¦«=0.77 for flat ¦«CDM cosmology and ¦¸_m=0.18 and ¦¸_(r_c )=0.17 for flat brane-induced gravity cosmology, my result for the energy components of these two models is comparable with the result from SNIa observation. With average uncertainty of distance modulus being 0.2771, the two discussed cosmologies are indistinguishable using my current sample of GRB with redshift ranging between 0.1685 and 3.2. I argue that by expanding my sample and adding more low and high redshift GRBs and also with improvement in using GRB for cosmography, we might be able to distinguish between different cosmological models and tighten the most probable model. Looking into correlation and evolution of GRB prompt emission and afterglow has many advantages. It helps to open windows to comprehend the physics of GRBs and examine different GRB models. It is also possible to use GRB correlation as an accurate redshift estimator and more importantly to constrain the cosmological parameters. XRT flares of GRB afterglow are thought to be the result of central engine activity. Studying this component leads us to understand GRB flare and central engine nature. In the next part of this dissertation, I study the correlation and evolution of different prompt emission and afterglow GRB properties and some GRB flare-based quantities. Considering instrument bias and selection effect, I conclude some well-correlated correlations and establish some property evolution. The correlation between average luminosity and isotropic ¦Ã-ray energy, energy of plateau and isotropic ¦Ã-ray energy and luminosity at break time and break time and evolution of plateau energy are well established. It is also realized that the apparent evolution of isotropic ¦Ã-ray energy and average luminosity is due to the instrumental flux threshold. With expanding the sample of GRB and accommodating more GRBs with XRT flares to my sample, I can reevaluate my result more firmly and confirm or rule out some hard to assert results due to limited number of data. In search for physically motivated GRB relation, analyzing the thermal component of GRB prompt emission, I derive two well-correlated relations. They are between calculated and estimated flux of the GRB thermal component for the co-moving bolometric and co-moving detector band-pass range of spectrum. In this study, three samples of Swift, pre-Swift and combined samples are used. The quality of this correlation is comparable with the Ghirlanda relation in terms of Spearman rank correlation parameters (correlation coefficient and correlation significance) and reduced ¦Ö^2of best fit. These results for the Swift GRB sample for co-moving bolometric range of spectrum are 0.81, 4.07¡Á¡¼10¡½^(-7) and 0.66 respectively. The derived correlations also imply a E_(¦Ã,iso)-E_peak^4 relation that provides physical insight to E_¦Ã-E_peak Ghirlanda correlation. Three scaling coefficients are employed to study these correlations. Monte Carlo statistics indicates that the existing correlations are independent of these constants. For Swift and combined sample 73% - 84.8% successes are recorded. Therefore, it is expected by determining these constants, the tightness of these correlations will further improve.

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Agent

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Date Created
2010

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Two-flavor color superconductivity in magnetic field

Description

Quark matter at sufficiently high density and low temperature is expected to be a color superconductor, and may exist in the interior of neutron stars. The properties of two simplest possible color-superconducting phases, i.e., the color-flavor-locked (CFL) and two-flavor superconducting

Quark matter at sufficiently high density and low temperature is expected to be a color superconductor, and may exist in the interior of neutron stars. The properties of two simplest possible color-superconducting phases, i.e., the color-flavor-locked (CFL) and two-flavor superconducting (2SC) phases, are reviewed. The effect of a magnetic field on the pairing dynamics in two-flavor color-superconducting dense quark matter is investigated. A universal form of the gap equation for an arbitrary magnetic field is derived in the weakly coupled regime of QCD at asymptotically high density, using the framework of Schwinger-Dyson equation in the improved rainbow approximation. The results for the gap in two limiting cases, weak and strong magnetic fields, are obtained and discussed. It is shown that the superconducting gap function in the weak magnetic field limit develops a directional dependence in momentum space. This property of the gap parameter is argued to be a consequence of a long-range interaction in QCD.

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2012

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Structure and asymmetry in simulations of supernova explosions

Description

There are many lines of evidence for anisotropy at all scales in the explosions of core collapse supernovae, e.g. visual inspection of the images of resolved supernova remnants, polarization measurements, velocity profiles, "natal kicks" of neutron stars, or spectroscopic observations

There are many lines of evidence for anisotropy at all scales in the explosions of core collapse supernovae, e.g. visual inspection of the images of resolved supernova remnants, polarization measurements, velocity profiles, "natal kicks" of neutron stars, or spectroscopic observations of different regions of remnants. Theoretical stability considerations and detailed numerical simulations have shown that Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities arise in the star after the explosion, which leads to the early fragmentation of parts of the ejecta. The clumps thus created are of interest to a variety of topics, one of them being the formation environment of the solar system. There is a high probability that the solar system formed in the vicinity of a massive star that, shortly after its formation, exploded as a core collapse supernova. As argued in this thesis as well as other works, a core collapse supernova generally is a good candidate for chemically enriching the forming solar system with material. As forming proto--planetary systems in general have a high probability of being contaminated with supernova material, a method was developed for detecting tracer elements indicative supernova contamination in proto--planetary systems.The degree of the anisotropy of the supernova explosion can have dramatic effects on the mode of delivery of that material to the solar system, or proto--planetary systems in general. Thus it is of particular interest to be able to predict the structure of the supernova ejecta. Numerical simulations of the explosions of core collapse supernovae were done in 3 dimensions in order to study the formation of structure. It is found that RT instabilities result in clumps in the He- and C+O rich regions in the exploding star that are overdense by 1-2 orders of magnitude. These clumps are potential candidates for enriching the solar system with material. In the course of the further evolution of the supernova remnant, these RT clumps are likely to evolve into ejecta knots of the type observed in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant.

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Date Created
2011

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Measurement of the branching ratio of Klong to pi0 nu nubar

Description

A search for Klong to pi0 nu nubar was performed on the initial Physics data taken by the KOTO collaboration by the 30-GeV proton synchrotron at JPARC, located in Tokai, Japan. The detector used in the experiment is an upgraded

A search for Klong to pi0 nu nubar was performed on the initial Physics data taken by the KOTO collaboration by the 30-GeV proton synchrotron at JPARC, located in Tokai, Japan. The detector used in the experiment is an upgraded version of the E391 detector, KOTO's predecessor experiment performed at KEK. The analysis was performed on 2.49 E+11 ± (0.91%)stat ± (2.50%)syst kaon decays. The analysis uses Klong to 3pi0, Klong to 2pi0, and Klong to 2 gamma; for normalization and Monte Carlo validation. Based on my independent analysis, the single event sensitivity was determined to be 1.31 E-8 ± (1.22%)stat ± (7.12%)syst, comparable with the E391 result. An upper limit of 5.12 E-8 was measured for the Klong to pi0 nu nubar branching ratio at a 90% confidence level.

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Date Created
2015