Matching Items (13)

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Production of Short-Lived Radionuclides in Asymmetric Supernovae

Description

Supernovae are vital to supplying necessary elements to forming bodies in our solar systems. This project studies the creation of a subset of these necessary elements, called short-lived radionuclides (SLRs).

Supernovae are vital to supplying necessary elements to forming bodies in our solar systems. This project studies the creation of a subset of these necessary elements, called short-lived radionuclides (SLRs). SLRs are isotopes with relatively short half-lives and can serve as heat sources for forming planetary bodies, and their traces can be used to date stellar events. Computational models of asymmetric supernovae provide opportunities to study the effect of explosion geometry on the SLR yields. We are most interested in the production of \iso{Al}{26}, \iso{Fe}{60}, and \iso{Ca}{41}, whose decayed products are found in our own solar system. To study the effect of explosion asymmetries in supernovae, we use TYCHO stellar evolution code, SNSHP smooth particle hydrodynamics code for 3D explosion simulations, Burn code for nucleosythesis post-processing, and Python code written to analyze the output of the post-processing code.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Detecting non-relativistic cosmic neutrinos by capture on tritium: phenomenology and physics potential

Description

We study the physics potential of the detection of the Cosmic Neutrino Back- ground via neutrino capture on tritium, taking the proposed PTOLEMY experiment as a case study. With the

We study the physics potential of the detection of the Cosmic Neutrino Back- ground via neutrino capture on tritium, taking the proposed PTOLEMY experiment as a case study. With the projected energy resolution of ∆ ∼ 0.15eV, the experiment will be sensitive to neutrino masses with degenerate spectrum, m[subscript 1] ≃ m[subscript 2] ≃ m[subscript 3] = m[subscript ν] 0.1eV. These neutrinos are non-relativistic today; detecting them would be a unique opportunity to probe this unexplored kinematical regime. The signature of neutrino capture is a peak in the electron spectrum that is displaced by 2m[subscript ν] above the beta decay endpoint. The signal would exceed the background from beta decay if the energy resolution is ∆ 0.7 mν. Interestingly, the total capture rate depends on the origin of the neutrino mass, being Γ[superscript D] ≃ 4 and Γ[superscript M] ≃ 8 events per year (for a 100 g tritium target) for unclustered Dirac and Majorana neutrinos, respectively. An enhancement of the rate of up to O(1) is expected due to gravitational clustering, with the unique potential to probe the local overdensity of neutrinos. Turning to more exotic neutrino physics, PTOLEMY could be sensitive to a lepton asymmetry, and reveal the eV-scale sterile neutrino that is favored by short baseline oscillation searches. The experiment would also be sensitive to a neutrino lifetime on the order of the age of the uni- verse and break the degeneracy between neutrino mass and lifetime which affects existing bounds.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-08-01

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Neutrino events at IceCube and the Fermi bubbles

Description

We discuss the possibility that the IceCube neutrino telescope might be observing the Fermi bubbles. If the bubbles discovered in gamma rays originate from accelerated protons, they should be strong

We discuss the possibility that the IceCube neutrino telescope might be observing the Fermi bubbles. If the bubbles discovered in gamma rays originate from accelerated protons, they should be strong emitters of high energy (≳ GeV) neutrinos. These neutrinos are detectable as showerlike or tracklike events at a Km[superscript 3] neutrino observatory. For a primary cosmic ray flux with spectrum ∝ E[superscript −2.1] and cutoff energy at or above 10 PeV, the Fermi bubble flux substantially exceeds the atmospheric background, and could account for up to ∼4–5 of the 28 events detected above ∼30  TeV at IceCube. Running the detector for ∼5–7 more years should be sufficient to discover this flux at high significance. For a primary cosmic ray flux with steeper spectrum, and/or lower cutoff energy, longer running times will be required to overcome the background.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-07-21

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Possible counterparts of IceCube high energy neutrinos

Description

The IceCube Neutrino Observatory has provided the first map of the high energy (~0.01 – 1 PeV) sky in neutrinos. Since neutrinos propagate undeflected, their arrival direction is an important

The IceCube Neutrino Observatory has provided the first map of the high energy (~0.01 – 1 PeV) sky in neutrinos. Since neutrinos propagate undeflected, their arrival direction is an important identifier for sources of high energy particle acceleration. Reconstructed arrival directions are consistent with an extragalactic origin, with possibly a galactic component, of the neutrino flux. We present a statistical analysis of positional coincidences of the IceCube neutrinos with known astrophysical objects from several catalogs. For the brightest gamma-ray emitting blazars and for Seyfert galaxies, the numbers of coincidences is consistent with the random, or “null”, distribution. Instead, when considering starburst galaxies with the highest flux in gamma-rays and infrared radiation, up to n = 8 coincidences are found, representing an excess over the ~4 predicted for the null distribution. The probability that this excess is realized in the null case, the p-value, is p = 0.042. This value falls to p = 0.003 for a set of gamma-ray detected starburst galaxies and superbubbles in the galactic neighborhood. Therefore, it is possible that these might account for a subset of IceCube neutrinos. The physical plausibility of such correlation is discussed briefly.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Two-flavor color superconductivity in magnetic field

Description

Quark matter at sufficiently high density and low temperature is expected to be a color superconductor, and may exist in the interior of neutron stars. The properties of two simplest

Quark matter at sufficiently high density and low temperature is expected to be a color superconductor, and may exist in the interior of neutron stars. The properties of two simplest possible color-superconducting phases, i.e., the color-flavor-locked (CFL) and two-flavor superconducting (2SC) phases, are reviewed. The effect of a magnetic field on the pairing dynamics in two-flavor color-superconducting dense quark matter is investigated. A universal form of the gap equation for an arbitrary magnetic field is derived in the weakly coupled regime of QCD at asymptotically high density, using the framework of Schwinger-Dyson equation in the improved rainbow approximation. The results for the gap in two limiting cases, weak and strong magnetic fields, are obtained and discussed. It is shown that the superconducting gap function in the weak magnetic field limit develops a directional dependence in momentum space. This property of the gap parameter is argued to be a consequence of a long-range interaction in QCD.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Techniques for the analysis and understanding of cosmic evolution

Description

The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has provided precise information on the evolution of the Universe and the current cosmological paradigm. The CMB has not yet provided definitive information on the

The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has provided precise information on the evolution of the Universe and the current cosmological paradigm. The CMB has not yet provided definitive information on the origin and strength of any primordial magnetic fields or how they affect the presence of magnetic fields observed throughout the cosmos. This work outlines an alternative method to investigating and identifying the presence of cosmic magnetic fields. This method searches for Faraday Rotation (FR) and specifically uses polarized CMB photons as back-light. I find that current generation CMB experiments may be not sensitive enough to detect FR but next generation experiments should be able to make highly significant detections. Identifying FR with the CMB will provide information on the component of magnetic fields along the line of sight of observation.

The 21cm emission from the hyperfine splitting of neutral Hydrogen in the early universe is predicted to provide precise information about the formation and evolution of cosmic structure, complementing the wealth of knowledge gained from the CMB.

21cm cosmology is a relatively new field, and precise measurements of the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) have not yet been achieved. In this work I present 2σ upper limits on the power spectrum of 21cm fluctuations (Δ²(k)) probed at the cosmological wave number k from the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER) 64 element deployment. I find upper limits on Δ²(k) in the range 0.3 < k < 0.6 h/Mpc to be (650 mK)², (450 mK)², (390 mK)², (250 mK)², (280mK)², (250 mK)² at redshifts z = 10.87, 9.93, 8.91, 8.37, 8.13 and 7.48 respectively

Building on the power spectrum analysis, I identify a major limiting factor in detecting the 21cm power spectrum.

This work is concluded by outlining a metric to evaluate the predisposition of redshifted 21cm interferometers to foreground contamination in power spectrum estimation. This will help inform the construction of future arrays and enable high fidelity imaging and

cross-correlation analysis with other high redshift cosmic probes like the CMB and other upcoming all sky surveys. I find future

arrays with uniform (u,v) coverage and small spectral evolution of their response in the (u,v,f) cube can minimize foreground leakage while pursuing 21cm imaging.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Anomalous Chiral Plasmas in the Hydrodynamic Regime

Description

Chiral symmetry and its anomalous and spontaneous breaking play an important role

in particle physics, where it explains the origin of pion and hadron mass hierarchy

among other things.

Despite its

Chiral symmetry and its anomalous and spontaneous breaking play an important role

in particle physics, where it explains the origin of pion and hadron mass hierarchy

among other things.

Despite its microscopic origin chirality may also lead to observable effects

in macroscopic physical systems -- relativistic plasmas made of chiral

(spin-$\frac{1}{2}$) particles.

Such plasmas are called \textit{chiral}.

The effects include non-dissipative currents in external fields that could be present

even in quasi-equilibrium, such as the chiral magnetic (CME) and separation (CSE)

effects, as well as a number of inherently chiral collective modes

called the chiral magnetic (CMW) and vortical (CVW) waves.

Applications of chiral plasmas are truly interdisciplinary, ranging from

hot plasma filling the early Universe, to dense matter in neutron stars,

to electronic band structures in Dirac and Weyl semimetals, to quark-gluon plasma

produced in heavy-ion collisions.

The main focus of this dissertation is a search for traces of chiral physics

in the spectrum of collective modes in chiral plasmas.

I start from relativistic chiral kinetic theory and derive

first- and second-order chiral hydrodynamics.

Then I establish key features of an equilibrium state that describes many

physical chiral systems and use it to find the full spectrum of collective modes

in high-temperature and high-density cases.

Finally, I consider in detail the fate of the two inherently chiral waves, namely

the CMW and the CVW, and determine their detection prospects.

The main results of this dissertation are the formulation of a fully covariant

dissipative chiral hydrodynamics and the calculation of the spectrum of collective

modes in chiral plasmas.

It is found that the dissipative effects and dynamical electromagnetism play

an important role in most cases.

In particular, it is found that both the CMW and the CVW are heavily damped by the usual

Ohmic dissipation in charged plasmas and the diffusion effects in neutral plasmas.

These findings prompt a search for new physical observables in heavy-ion collisions,

as well as a revision of potential applications of chiral theories in

cosmology and solid-state physics.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Cosmological aspects of gamma ray bursts

Description

Gamma-ray burst observations provide a great opportunity for cosmography in high redshift. Some tight correlations between different physical properties of GRBs are discovered and used for cosmography. However, data selection,

Gamma-ray burst observations provide a great opportunity for cosmography in high redshift. Some tight correlations between different physical properties of GRBs are discovered and used for cosmography. However, data selection, assumptions, systematic uncertainty and some other issues affect most of them. Most importantly, until the physical origin of a relation is understood, one should be cautious to employ the relation to utilize Gamma ray bursts for cosmography. In the first part of this dissertation, I use Liang-Zhang correlation to constrain ¦« Cold Dark Matter standard cosmology and a particular class of brane cosmology (brane-induced gravity model). With the most probable model being ¦¸_m=0.23 and ¦¸_¦«=0.77 for flat ¦«CDM cosmology and ¦¸_m=0.18 and ¦¸_(r_c )=0.17 for flat brane-induced gravity cosmology, my result for the energy components of these two models is comparable with the result from SNIa observation. With average uncertainty of distance modulus being 0.2771, the two discussed cosmologies are indistinguishable using my current sample of GRB with redshift ranging between 0.1685 and 3.2. I argue that by expanding my sample and adding more low and high redshift GRBs and also with improvement in using GRB for cosmography, we might be able to distinguish between different cosmological models and tighten the most probable model. Looking into correlation and evolution of GRB prompt emission and afterglow has many advantages. It helps to open windows to comprehend the physics of GRBs and examine different GRB models. It is also possible to use GRB correlation as an accurate redshift estimator and more importantly to constrain the cosmological parameters. XRT flares of GRB afterglow are thought to be the result of central engine activity. Studying this component leads us to understand GRB flare and central engine nature. In the next part of this dissertation, I study the correlation and evolution of different prompt emission and afterglow GRB properties and some GRB flare-based quantities. Considering instrument bias and selection effect, I conclude some well-correlated correlations and establish some property evolution. The correlation between average luminosity and isotropic ¦Ã-ray energy, energy of plateau and isotropic ¦Ã-ray energy and luminosity at break time and break time and evolution of plateau energy are well established. It is also realized that the apparent evolution of isotropic ¦Ã-ray energy and average luminosity is due to the instrumental flux threshold. With expanding the sample of GRB and accommodating more GRBs with XRT flares to my sample, I can reevaluate my result more firmly and confirm or rule out some hard to assert results due to limited number of data. In search for physically motivated GRB relation, analyzing the thermal component of GRB prompt emission, I derive two well-correlated relations. They are between calculated and estimated flux of the GRB thermal component for the co-moving bolometric and co-moving detector band-pass range of spectrum. In this study, three samples of Swift, pre-Swift and combined samples are used. The quality of this correlation is comparable with the Ghirlanda relation in terms of Spearman rank correlation parameters (correlation coefficient and correlation significance) and reduced ¦Ö^2of best fit. These results for the Swift GRB sample for co-moving bolometric range of spectrum are 0.81, 4.07¡Á¡¼10¡½^(-7) and 0.66 respectively. The derived correlations also imply a E_(¦Ã,iso)-E_peak^4 relation that provides physical insight to E_¦Ã-E_peak Ghirlanda correlation. Three scaling coefficients are employed to study these correlations. Monte Carlo statistics indicates that the existing correlations are independent of these constants. For Swift and combined sample 73% - 84.8% successes are recorded. Therefore, it is expected by determining these constants, the tightness of these correlations will further improve.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2010

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Cosmological and astrophysical probes of physics beyond the standard model

Description

Cosmology, carrying imprints from the entire history of the universe, has emerged as a precise observational science over the past 30 years. It can probe physics beyond the Standard Model

Cosmology, carrying imprints from the entire history of the universe, has emerged as a precise observational science over the past 30 years. It can probe physics beyond the Standard Model at energy scales much higher than the weak scale. This thesis reports on some important probes of beyond standard model physics derived in a cosmological setting - (I) It is shown that primordial gravitational waves left over from inflation carry unique detectable CMB signatures for neutrino masses, axions and any other relativistic species that may have been present. (II) Higgs Inflation, the most popular and compelling inflation model with a higgs boson is studied next and it is shown that quantum effects have so far been incorrectly incorporated. A spurious gauge ambiguity arising from quantum effects enters the canonical prediction for observables in Higgs Inflation that must be addressed. (III) A new novel mechanism for generating the observed baryon asymmetry of the universe via decaying gravitinos is proposed. If the Supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking scale is high, then in the presence of R-parity violation, gravitinos can successfully reproduce the baryon asymmetry and evade all low energy constraints. (IV) The final chapter reports on a new completely general analysis of simplified models used in direct detection of dark matter. This is useful to explore what high energy physics constraints can be obtained from direct detection experiments.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Direct dark matter detection phenomenology

Description

The identity and origin of dark matter is one of the more elusive mysteries in the fields of particle physics and cosmology. In the near future, direct dark matter detectors

The identity and origin of dark matter is one of the more elusive mysteries in the fields of particle physics and cosmology. In the near future, direct dark matter detectors will offer a chance at observing dark matter non-gravitationally for the first time. In this thesis, formalisms are developed to analyze direct detection experiments and to quantify the extent to which properties of the dark matter can be determined. A range of non-standard assumptions about the dark matter are considered, including inelastic scattering, isospin violation and momentum dependent scattering. Bayesian inference is applied to realistic detector configurations to evaluate parameter estimation and model selection ability.

A complete set of simplified models for spin-0, spin-1/2 and spin-1 dark matter candidates are formulated. The corresponding non-relativistic operators are found, and are used to derive observational signals for the simplified models. The ability to discern these simplified models with direct detection experiments is demonstrated. In the near future direct dark matter detectors will be sensitive to coherent neutrino scattering, which will limit the discovery potential of these experiments. It was found that eleven of the fourteen non-relativistic operators considered produce signals distinct from coherent scattering, and thus the neutrino background does not greatly affect the discovery potential in these cases.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016