Matching Items (18)

152979-Thumbnail Image.png

Father involvement in Mexican American families

Description

Research demonstrating the importance of the paternal role has been largely conducted using samples of Caucasian men, leaving a gap in what is known about fathering in minority cultures. Family

Research demonstrating the importance of the paternal role has been largely conducted using samples of Caucasian men, leaving a gap in what is known about fathering in minority cultures. Family systems theories highlight the dynamic interrelations between familial roles and relationships, and suggest that comprehensive studies of fathering require attention to the broad family and cultural context. During the early infancy period, mothers' and fathers' postpartum adjustment may represent a critical source of influence on father involvement. For the current study, Mexican American (MA) women (N = 125) and a subset of their romantic partners/biological fathers (N = 57) reported on their depressive symptoms and levels of father involvement (paternal engagement, accessibility, and responsibility) during the postpartum period. Descriptive analyses suggested that fathers are involved in meaningful levels of care during infancy. Greater paternal postpartum depression (PPD) was associated with lower levels of father involvement. Maternal PPD interacted with paternal gender role attitudes to predict father involvement. At higher levels of maternal PPD, involvement increased among fathers adhering to less segregated gender role attitudes and decreased among fathers who endorsed more segregated gender role attitudes. Within select models, differences in the relations were observed between mothers' and fathers' reports of paternal involvement. Results bring attention to the importance of examining contextual influences on early fathering in MA families and highlight the unique information that may be gathered from separate maternal and paternal reports of father involvement.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

156417-Thumbnail Image.png

Investing in Me or You: A Novel Role of the Attachment System in Self and Other Tradeoffs

Description

Research on attachment in adults began by assuming parallels from attachment as a behavioral system for using relationships to balance the tradeoff between safety and exploration in infants, to the

Research on attachment in adults began by assuming parallels from attachment as a behavioral system for using relationships to balance the tradeoff between safety and exploration in infants, to the same tradeoff function in adults. Perhaps more pressing, for adults, are the novel social tradeoffs adults face when deciding how to invest resources between themselves and their close relationship partners. The current study investigated the role of the attachment system in navigating two such tradeoffs, in a sample of ASU undergraduates. In one tradeoff condition, participants had the option of working on puzzles to earn either themselves or their closest friend a monetary reward. In the second tradeoff condition, participants worked to earn monetary rewards for a close or new friend. Analyses showed no evidence of attachment avoidance predicting prioritizing redistributing money to a close friend in either condition. While there was no effect of anxiety on prioritizing one’s close friend over one’s self, there was a marginal effect in both prioritizing one’s close friend over a new friend when redistributing money and starting on the close friend’s word search first. Although attachment style largely did not predict earning or redistributing monetary rewards in these two relationship tradeoffs, implications for how these results fit within the broader theoretical perspective are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

157323-Thumbnail Image.png

Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) American youth reports of their parenting experiences: associations with mental and physical health

Description

Scant research examines the associations between parenting behaviors and the psychological health of Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) American youth. Developmental research consistently demonstrates that an authoritarian parenting style

Scant research examines the associations between parenting behaviors and the psychological health of Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) American youth. Developmental research consistently demonstrates that an authoritarian parenting style (often characterized by rejecting and controlling behaviors, and a common style among MENA parents) is maladaptive for offspring health; however, no study has empirically tested the associations of these behaviors from mothers and fathers with the health of MENA American youth. Using survey data from 314 MENA American young adults (Mage = 20 years, range 18 – 25 years, 56% female), the current study tested the associations between commonly studied parenting behaviors - acceptance, rejection, harsh parenting, and control - with the mental (stress, depression, and anxiety) and physical health (general health perceptions, pain, and somatization) of MENA American youth. Confirmatory factor analysis tested new items informed by preliminary focus groups with original items from the Child Report Parenting Behavior Inventory (CRPBI) to create culturally-informed parenting factors. Results indicated that youth-reported higher maternal acceptance was associated with fewer mental health symptoms, higher maternal harsh parenting with higher mental health symptoms, and higher maternal rejection with worse physical health; father rejection was associated with higher mental health symptoms and worse physical health. Further, the associations between parenting and physical health were moderated by youth Arabic orientation, such that those with higher Arabic orientation showed the best physical health at higher levels of acceptance, and the worst physical health at higher levels of rejection, harsh parenting, and control. Associations between parenting and health did not differ by youth gender. The current findings suggest cross-cultural similarities in the beneficial functions of parental acceptance, and detrimental functions of parental rejection and harsh parenting, with MENA American youth. The associations between parenting and health were exacerbated, for better or for worse, for more Arabic-oriented youth, suggesting these youth may be more greatly impacted by perceptions of their parents’ behaviors. Findings have implications for family interventions working with MENA populations.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

158502-Thumbnail Image.png

Low Regulatory Flexibility as a Mechanism of the Link Between Rumination and Internalizing Symptoms and Substance Misuse in College Freshmen

Description

This study investigated low regulatory flexibility as a mechanism of the associations of rumination with affect, internalizing symptoms, and substance use and problems. 403 first-year college students completed an online

This study investigated low regulatory flexibility as a mechanism of the associations of rumination with affect, internalizing symptoms, and substance use and problems. 403 first-year college students completed an online baseline survey assessing rumination, regulatory flexibility, internalizing symptoms, alcohol use, cannabis use, alcohol problems, and cannabis problems. Roughly 2.67 months later, 261 of these participants completed a follow-up survey assessing internalizing symptoms and substance use and problems. Additionally, 71 of the 403 participants completed an experimental study. Thirty-three participants were randomly assigned to undergo a rumination induction, and 38 were assigned to a control condition. All lab participants underwent an interpersonal stress task during which regulatory flexibility was observed and completed pre-test and post-role-play measures of positive and negative affect. Experimental study results showed regulatory flexibility did not mediate effects of rumination induction on positive (indirect effect: standardized beta (β)=-0.01, unstandardized beta (b)=-0.12, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [-0.64, 0.41], p=.66) or negative affect (indirect effect: β=0.01, b=0.17, 95% CI [-0.29, 0.63], p=.48). Longitudinal study results showed regulatory flexibility did not mediate associations between baseline rumination and follow-up internalizing symptoms (indirect effect: b=0.01, 95% CI [-0.03, 0.05], p=.57), alcohol use (indirect effect: b=-0.03, 95% CI [-0.09, 0.04], p=.39), cannabis use (indirect effect: b=0.10, 95% CI [-0.06, 0.26], p=.21), alcohol problems (indirect effect: b=-0.05, 95% CI [-0.18, 0.07], p=.40), or cannabis problems (indirect effect: b=-0.10, 95% CI [-0.36, 0.16], p=.43). However, rumination predicted greater internalizing symptoms (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR)=1.26, b=0.23, 95% CI [0.08, 0.37], p=.003) and cannabis problems (IRR=1.73, b=0.55, 95% CI [0.23, 0.87], p=.001). Regulatory flexibility predicted fewer alcohol use days (IRR=0.76, b=-0.27, 95% CI [-0.49, -0.05], p=.015) and problems (IRR=0.58, b=-0.55, 95% CI [-0.95, -0.15], p=.007), and less cannabis use for women (IRR=0.59, b=-0.53, 95% CI [-0.92, -0.14], p=.007) and fewer cannabis problems for men (IRR=0.21, b=-1.55, 95% CI [-2.50, -0.60], p=.001). Lack of agreement about how best to measure regulatory flexibility makes it unclear whether null associations were due to measurement problems or actual null effects. Research on how best to measure this construct is a priority. Findings indicate rumination and regulatory flexibility may be promising intervention targets.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

153052-Thumbnail Image.png

Stress, depression, and the mother-infant relationship across the first year

Description

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a significant public health concern affecting up to half a million U.S. women annually. Mexican-American women experience substantially higher rates of PPD, and represent an underserved

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a significant public health concern affecting up to half a million U.S. women annually. Mexican-American women experience substantially higher rates of PPD, and represent an underserved population with significant health disparities that put these women and their infants at greater risk for substantial psychological and developmental difficulties. The current study utilized data on perceived stress, depression, maternal parenting behavior, and infant social-emotional and cognitive development from 214 Mexican-American mother-infant dyads. The first analysis approach utilized a latent intercept (LI) model to examine how overall mean levels and within-person deviations of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and maternal parenting behavior are related across the postpartum period. Results indicated large, positive between- and within-person correlations between perceived stress and depression. Neither perceived stress nor depressive symptoms were found to have significant between- or within-person associations with the parenting variables. The second analysis approach utilized an autoregressive cross-lagged model with tests of mediation to identify underlying mechanisms among perceived stress, postpartum depressive symptoms, and maternal parenting behavior in the prediction of infant social-emotional and cognitive development. Results indicated that increased depressive symptoms at 12- and 18-weeks were associated with subsequent reports of increased perceived stress at 18- and 24-weeks, respectively. Perceived stress at 12-weeks was found to be negatively associated with subsequent non-hostility at 18-weeks, and both sensitivity and non-hostility were found to be associated with infant cognitive development and social-emotional competencies at 12 months of age (52-weeks), but not with social-emotional problems. The results of the mediation analyses showed that non-hostility at 18- and 24-weeks significantly mediated the association between perceived stress at 12-weeks and infant cognitive development and social-emotional competencies at 52-weeks. The findings extend research that sensitive parenting in early childhood is as important to the development of cognitive ability, social behavior, and emotion regulation in ethnic minority cultures as it is in majority culture families; that maternal perceptions of stress may spillover into parenting behavior, resulting in increased hostility and negatively influencing infant cognitive and social-emotional development; and that symptoms of depressed mood may influence the experience of stress.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

153748-Thumbnail Image.png

A multi-method examination of mother-infant synchrony as a predictor of social and emotional problems

Description

The parent-child relationship is one of the earliest and most formative experiences for social and emotional development. Synchrony, defined as the rhythmic patterning and quality of mutual affect, engagement, and

The parent-child relationship is one of the earliest and most formative experiences for social and emotional development. Synchrony, defined as the rhythmic patterning and quality of mutual affect, engagement, and physiological attunement, has been identified as a critical quality of a healthy mother-infant relationship. Although the salience of the quality of family interaction has been well-established, clinical and developmental research has varied widely in methods for observing and identifying influential aspects of synchrony. In addition, modern dynamic perspectives presume multiple factors converge in a complex system influenced by both nature and nurture, in which individual traits, behavior, and environment are inextricably intertwined within the system of dyadic relational units.

The present study aimed to directly examine and compare synchrony from three distinct approaches: observed microanalytic behavioral sequences, observed global dyadic qualities, and physiological attunement between mothers and infants. The sample consisted of 323 Mexican American mothers and their infants followed from the third trimester of pregnancy through the first year of life. Mothers were interviewed prenatally, observed at a home visit at 12 weeks postpartum, and were finally interviewed for child social-emotional problems at child age 12 months. Specific aspects of synchrony (microanalytical, global, and physiological) were examined separately as well as together to identify comparable and divergent qualities within the construct.

Findings indicated that multiple perspectives on synchrony are best examined together, but as independent qualities to account for varying characteristics captured by divergent systems. Dyadic relationships characterized by higher reciprocity, more time and flexibility in mutual non-negative engagement, and less tendency to enter negative or unengaged states were associated with fewer child social-emotional problems at child age 12 months. Lower infant cortisol was associated with higher levels of externalizing problems, and smaller differences between mother and child cortisol were associated with higher levels of child dysregulation. Results underscore the complex but important nature of synchrony as a salient mechanism underlying the social-emotional growth of children. A mutually engaged, non-negative, and reciprocal environment lays the foundation for the successful social and self-regulatory competence of infants in the first year of life.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

155743-Thumbnail Image.png

Daily financial worry and physical health symptoms among individuals with chronic pain: the moderating effect of income

Description

Socioeconomic status (SES) is linked with poorer health outcomes across the range of SES. The Reserve Capacity Model (RCM) proposes that low SES fuels repeated and/or chronic exposure to elevated

Socioeconomic status (SES) is linked with poorer health outcomes across the range of SES. The Reserve Capacity Model (RCM) proposes that low SES fuels repeated and/or chronic exposure to elevated levels of stress, producing deleterious emotional, psychological, social, and physiological changes that result in development of disease over time. The RCM further asserts that a relative lack of social and psychological resources, including efficacy and social support, among low SES individuals accounts for their greater vulnerability to the effects of stress. Although the links between stress, reserve capacity, and health outcomes are framed in the RCM as an ongoing process that produces disease, the majority of investigations testing the model have not examined its utility in explaining 1) coping with daily stressors or 2) symptom flares among individuals managing a chronic illness. This study investigated the effects of SES, reflected in income level, on the: 1) levels of daily financial events and financial worry; 2) relations between daily financial worry and symptoms of pain and fatigue; and 3) extent to which daily coping efficacy and social support mediated the daily financial worry-symptom relation across 21 daily diary reports collected from 220 individuals with fibromyalgia (FM). Simple correlations showed that income was inversely related to frequency of financial events and level of financial worry across 21 days. Results from multilevel models indicated that daily increases in financial worry were unrelated to pain regardless of income level, but were related to increased fatigue among individuals with lower relative to higher income. Daily efficacy and support mediated the relations between financial worry and pain and fatigue, but the extent of mediation did not differ based on high versus low income level. Taken together, the findings suggest that individuals of low versus high income encounter more frequent financial stress and experience greater daily fatigue exacerbation related to that stress, in line with the RCM. Over time, the greater exposure and reactivity to financial strain may account for the inverse relation between income and disability among those with chronic pain.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

154218-Thumbnail Image.png

Asian American parental involvement, adolescent depression and young adult general health: the moderating role of intergenerational gap in acculturation

Description

Asian American (AA) adolescents and young adults are at risk for poor psychological adjustment and diminished health. Parental involvement and intergenerational gap in acculturation (IGA) have been independently associated with

Asian American (AA) adolescents and young adults are at risk for poor psychological adjustment and diminished health. Parental involvement and intergenerational gap in acculturation (IGA) have been independently associated with intergenerational acculturative conflict, a common stressor in the AA population. However, few studies have tested how the influence of parental involvement on intergenerational acculturative conflict/family cohesion and subsequent psychological adjustment may vary depending on IGA; and even fewer studies have investigated how such models apply to AA general health. The goals of the present study were, therefore, to identify pathways linking these acculturative family processes to AA young adult general health in a large sample of Filipino and Southeast Asian (SEA) families. Analyses utilized data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS; Portes & Rumbaut, 2001), a national longitudinal study of children from immigrant families. Results suggested that although Filipino and SEA families may differ in the acculturative processes that contribute to intergenerational acculturative conflict and family cohesion, depressive symptoms are an important mechanism through which these family outcomes in adolescence influence young adult general health outcomes in both Filipino and SEA families. This investigation serves to inform future programs aimed at providing targeted interventions for AAs at risk for long-term psychological disorders and physical health problems.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

156678-Thumbnail Image.png

Cultural Factors and the HPA Axis Stress Response Among Latino Students Transitioning to College

Description

A record number of Latino students are enrolling in higher education in the U.S., but as a group Latinos are the least likely to complete a bachelor’s degree. Cultural factors

A record number of Latino students are enrolling in higher education in the U.S., but as a group Latinos are the least likely to complete a bachelor’s degree. Cultural factors theoretically contribute to Latino students’ success, including orientation toward ethnic heritage and mainstream cultures (i.e., dual cultural adaptation), feeling comfortable navigating two cultural contexts (i.e., biculturalism), and the degree of fit between students’ cultural backgrounds and the cultural landscapes of educational institutions (i.e., cultural congruity). In a two-part study, these cultural factors were examined in relation to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress response (indexed by salivary cortisol), a physiological mechanism that may underlie how psychosocial stress influences academic achievement and health. First, Latino students’ cortisol responses to stress were estimated in their daily lives prior to college using ecological momentary assessment (N = 206; 64.6% female; Mage = 18.10). Results from three-level growth models indicated that cortisol levels were lower following greater perceived stress than usual for students endorsing greater Latino cultural values (e.g., familism), compared to students endorsing average or below-average levels of these values. Second, cortisol and subjective responses to a standard public speaking stress task were examined in a subsample of these same students in their first semester of college (N = 84; 63.1% female). In an experimental design, viewing a brief video prior to the stress task conveying the university’s commitment to cultural diversity and inclusion (compared to a generic campus tour) reduced cortisol reactivity and negative affect for students with greater Latino cultural values, and also reduced post-task cortisol levels for students with greater mainstream U.S. cultural values (e.g., competition). These findings join the growing science of culture and biology interplay, while also informing initiatives to support first-year Latino students and the universities that serve them.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

152883-Thumbnail Image.png

Resilience profiles and postpartum depression in low-Income Mexican American women

Description

The primary aim of this study was to investigate resilient profiles in low-income Mexican American (MA) mothers. MA mothers are part of an under researched population, the fastest growing

The primary aim of this study was to investigate resilient profiles in low-income Mexican American (MA) mothers. MA mothers are part of an under researched population, the fastest growing ethnic minority group, and have the highest birth rate in the United States, presenting a significant public health concern. The transition to motherhood can be an emotionally and physically complex time for women, particularly in the context of a stressful low-income environment. Although most low-income women navigate this transition well, a significant number of mothers develop moderate to severe depressive symptoms. The proposed research investigated profiles of resilience during the prenatal period using a person-centered approach via latent profile analysis. In alignment with current resilience theories, several domains of resilience were investigated including psychological, social, and cultural adherence (e.g., maintaining specific cultural traditions). Concurrent prenatal depressive symptoms and stress were correlated with the profiles in order to establish validity. Six week postpartum depressive symptoms and physiological processes (e.g., overall cortisol output, heart rate variability, and sleep) were also predicted by the prenatal resilient profiles. The resulting data revealed three separate profiles: low-resource, high-resource Anglo, and high-resource Mexican. These resilience profiles had differential associations with concurrent depressive symptoms and stress, such that women in the high-resource profiles reported less depressive symptoms and stress prenatally. Further, profile differences regarding cortisol output, resting heart rate variability, were also found, but there were no differences in insomnia symptoms. Profile classification also moderated the effects of prenatal economic stress on postpartum depressive symptoms, such that women in the high-resource Mexican profile were at risk for higher postpartum depressive symptoms under high economic stress compared to the high-resource Anglo group, which demonstrated a more resilient response. Overall, the results suggest the presence of multiple clusters of prenatal resilience within a sample of MA mothers facing health disparities, with various effects on perinatal mental health and postpartum physiological processes. The results also highlight the need for multi-dimensional models of resilience and the possible implications for interventions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014