Matching Items (21)

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Care Not Cash: A New Kind of Reform

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This thesis examines Care Not Cash, a welfare reform measure that replaced traditional cash General Assistance program payments for homeless persons in San Francisco with in-kind social services. Unlike most

This thesis examines Care Not Cash, a welfare reform measure that replaced traditional cash General Assistance program payments for homeless persons in San Francisco with in-kind social services. Unlike most welfare reform measures, proponents framed Care Not Cash as a progressive policy, aimed at expanding social services and government care for this vulnerable population. Drawing on primary and secondary documents, as well as interviews with homelessness policy experts, this thesis examines the historical and political success of Care Not Cash, and explores the potential need for implementation of a similar program in Phoenix, Arizona.

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  • 2017-05

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Social Exclusion from Public Green Spaces: Dimensions of Sociolegal Barriers to Urban Park Access

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The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of various sociolegal practices of urban public park management on the populace that can access a public park. The theories

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of various sociolegal practices of urban public park management on the populace that can access a public park. The theories of environmental justice, critiques of distribution theory, Henri Lefebvre's right to the city, and sustainability are used as justification for this analysis: environmental justice considers the social implications of environmental benefits and burdens; critiques of distribution theory reveal the need to look beyond siting and proximity in environmental justice studies of urban parks; Henri Lefebvre's right to the city espouses the right of citizens to inhabit urban areas; and sustainability requires the balance of environmental, economic, and social factors in urban development. Applying these theories to urban parks reveals sociolegal factors that may inhibit public park use by a diverse public, namely environmental gentrification, park ownership, city ordinances, and physical layout. Each of these create barriers to park use by low-income, minority residents; even those that may live in close proximity to the park. These barriers violate environmental justice, right to the city, and sustainability principles in different ways but create two main problems: displacement and policing of vulnerable populations. This paper concludes with policy recommendations to alleviate the problems posed by these barriers.

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  • 2017-12

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The Associations Between Food Insecurity, Weight Status and Emotional Eating

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The objective of this study was to access whether there were any associations between food insecurity, weight status and emotional eating for adults and youth, and to discover whether emotional

The objective of this study was to access whether there were any associations between food insecurity, weight status and emotional eating for adults and youth, and to discover whether emotional eating was prevalent for both age groups. By gathering participants from six various low-income housing communities throughout the Phoenix, Arizona, the researchers were able to gather data from 114 participants, 57 adults and 57 youth. The participants were a convenience sample, and were recruited by flyers sent via the mail and door-to-door announcements in the spring and summer of 2014. The adult and youth were asked to complete a survey that was part of a larger study, which included the Weight-Related Eating Questionnaire to access the participants' emotional eating. The participants' height and weight were measured manually and were integrated into the BMI system, and the participants' food insecurity statuses were validated using the US Household Food Security Survey. The results of the study illustrated associations between food insecurity and emotional eating for adults, but not for youth. In addition, there were no associations between adults' emotional eating and their child's emotional eating. The results from this study were consisted with the current research examining the associations of food insecurity and emotional eating, where there is only a correlation between food insecurity and emotional eating for adults. However, this study was not consistent with past research accessing the associations between adults' emotional eating and their child's emotional eating since this study found no relationship between the two. Being that a cross-sectional survey-based research was incorporated into this study, further research needs to explore on food insecurity, weight status and emotional eating to determine their causality.

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Date Created
  • 2015-12

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Public Policy Interventions to Prevent Obesity Associated with Sugar Sweetened Beverage Consumption

Description

With more than one third of Americans considered to be obese, obesity is a public health issue in the United States. While obesity is linked to and caused by a

With more than one third of Americans considered to be obese, obesity is a public health issue in the United States. While obesity is linked to and caused by a number of factors, sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is a major contributor to increased obesity rates. For the purposes of this paper, SSBs will include any beverage in which sugar is added. This includes juices that are not 100% fruit juice, coffee or tea drinks that are sugar sweetened, energy or sport drinks, and most commonly, soda. Excess sugar in the diet is substantially linked to obesity and negative health effects. SSBs represent the primary source of added sugar in the average American diet. Part I of this paper will discuss obesity as a public health problem and establish the link between consumption of SSBs and poor health effects. Part II will discuss the public policy instrument families and the strengths and weaknesses of each policy approach. Part III will identify current policies specifically focused on curbing SSB consumption. Each policy will be analyzed for efficacy based on available scientific research. Lastly, Part IV will propose new policy alternatives and ways to improve current policies. A final policy recommendation will be presented as an ideal roadmap for policy makers looking to address the link between SSB consumption and obesity.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

Campaign for Safer Streets

Description

Maryvale has several notable characteristics that distinguish it from other municipalities in the city of Phoenix. For one, Maryvale makes up 5% of Arizona's total population; meanwhile, 44% of its

Maryvale has several notable characteristics that distinguish it from other municipalities in the city of Phoenix. For one, Maryvale makes up 5% of Arizona's total population; meanwhile, 44% of its residents are under the age of 24. Increasingly, they have the “second-highest percentage of residents living below the poverty line” with 54% of adults reporting an income below $50,000 a year. One reason why pedestrian fatalities are so common in Maryvale is because of the insecurities in their infrastructure. Many adults work outside of the village, so they rely on public transportation and city installments like sidewalks and light posts to get them home safely every day. Due to the reduction in the quality of their infrastructure, it is more likely that an adult traveling or using public transportation may be fatally injured by a motor vehicle in the village. By contrast, the city of Tempe has comparable demographics with Maryvale, but they have a more sophisticated transportation system surrounding the metropolis. I used this as inspiration to transfer the focus of my project from Maryvale to Tempe because the infrastructure is more elaborate in the latter; there are more people and therefore more opportunities to broadcast this information.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Social Impact Bonds to Address Phoenix Homelessness

Description

Social impact bonds (SIBs) are a multi-year contract between social service providers, the government, and private investors. The three parties agree on a specific outcome for a societal issue. Investors

Social impact bonds (SIBs) are a multi-year contract between social service providers, the government, and private investors. The three parties agree on a specific outcome for a societal issue. Investors provide capital required for the service provider to operate the project. The service provider then delivers the service to the target population. The success of the project is evaluated by outside party. If the target outcome is met, the government repays the investors at a premium. Nonprofit service providers can only serve a small community as they lack the funding to scale their programs and their reliance on government funding and philanthropy leads to a lot of time focused on raising money in the short-term and inhibits them from evolving their programs and projects for long-term strategic success. Government budgets decline but social problems persist. These contracts share risk between the government and the investors and allow governments to test out programs and alleviate taxpayer burdens from unsuccessful social service programs. Arizona has a severe homelessness problem. Nightly, 6000 people are homeless in Maricopa County. In a given year, over 32,000 individuals were homeless, composed of single adults, families, children, and veterans. Homelessness is not only a debilitating and difficult experience for those who experience it, but also has considerable economic costs on society. Homeless individuals use a number of government programs beyond emergency shelters, and these can cost taxpayers billions of dollars per year. Rapid rehousing was a successful intervention model that the state has been heavily investing in the last few years. This thesis aimed to survey the Arizona climate and determine what barriers were present for enacting an SIB for homelessness. The findings showed that although there are many competent stakeholder groups, lack of interest and overall knowledge of SIBs prevented groups from taking responsibility as the anchor for such a project. Additionally, the government and nonprofits had good partnerships, but lacked relationships with the business community and investors that could propel an SIB. Finally, although rapid rehousing can be used as a successful intervention model, there are not enough years of proven success to justify the spending on an SIB. Additionally, data collection for homelessness programming needs to be standardized between all relevant partners. The framework for an SIB exists in Arizona, but needs a few more years of development before it can be considered.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Recommended Reorganization of the ASU Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps: Insights from Leadership and Gender Analysis

Description

Based upon personal involvement from August 2010 to July 2014 as a Marine Option Midshipman within the ASU Naval Reserves Officer Training Corps (NROTC), being a student of leadership training

Based upon personal involvement from August 2010 to July 2014 as a Marine Option Midshipman within the ASU Naval Reserves Officer Training Corps (NROTC), being a student of leadership training within my degree plan, and gender difference research I conducted, this creative project addresses potential issues that reside within the ASU NROTC and the ways in which the program overall can be changed for the Marine Options in order to bring about proper success and organization. In order to officially become a Marine within the Unites States Marine Corps, it is necessary for Marine Option students to fulfill Officer Candidate School (OCS) at Quantico, Virginia. As the first female to go through OCS as a midshipman from the ASU NROTC, I found that there is an inadequate amount of preparation and training given in regards to the gender differences and what is to be expected for successful completion. I will offer a brief history regarding the NROTC across the Unites States and the ASU NROTC itself. These subjects will cover the program layouts as well as the leadership training that is required and provided within it and the ways in which this is conducted. I will then compare and contrast this to the leadership training given to me within my study of Leadership and Ethics regarding the transformational leadership, gender-based leadership, and coercive leadership. Finally, I end my thesis with a reflection of personal experiences taken away from these avenues and offer recommendations to better equip the ASU NROTC program in having successful retention and success of the female Marine Option midshipman.

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Date Created
  • 2014-12

Concentrating on Law School: Creating Pre-Law School Curriculum at ASU

Description

"Concentrating on Law School: Creating Pre-Law Curriculum at ASU" partners with the Watts College of Public Service and Community Solutions to create a fifteen-credit certificate program at Arizona State University

"Concentrating on Law School: Creating Pre-Law Curriculum at ASU" partners with the Watts College of Public Service and Community Solutions to create a fifteen-credit certificate program at Arizona State University to help students prepare for law school. The certificate, Legal and Policy Studies, incorporates sixty-two courses from twenty-two different disciplines at the university. The program aims to supplement a student's primary major and field of interest while simultaneously providing a foundation of public policy to better understand the subject of law and students' surrounding community. The law school preparation program is designed based on a philosophy of accessibility to rigorous preparation by students of all socioeconomic backgrounds and high student discretion. The Legal and Policy Studies certificate, if implemented at the university, will be the most interdisciplinary pre-law preparation program in the nation. The project is comprised of multiple parts: research conducted to identify law school preparation resources already offered at ASU, comparative research of academic programs at other universities, input from both law school-hopeful undergraduates and current ASU Law 1Ls into the program's formation, and creation of the certificate program. The certificate also includes a mock law class specifically for undergraduates (PAF 499), which would be introduced to the university in AY 2019-2020. The thesis recommends that the class be similarly structured to a 1L law class regarding rigor, cold-calling culture, and introduction to basic skills imperative to law school success (i.e. how to brief cases, Bluebook/Westlaw basics). The thesis also encourages the Watts College to hire an faculty member to teach the mock law class with a background teaching 1L courses and a general familiarity with the structure and culture of a first year law course.

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Date Created
  • 2018-12

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Negotiating healthy self-government: a grounded theory study of interactions in Arizona's WIC program

Description

Individual behavior change is a goal of many public policies directed at people of low socioeconomic status. Without evidence of behavioral change, these policies cannot be considered a success: a

Individual behavior change is a goal of many public policies directed at people of low socioeconomic status. Without evidence of behavioral change, these policies cannot be considered a success: a process of co-production where some level of cooperation between the client and program administrators is required to successfully meet program objectives. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC), is one example of a co-production design. WIC encourages women to engage in healthy behaviors by providing healthy food along with nutrition education to improve the health status of low-income families. However, while WIC is one of the most studied nutrition programs, little attention has been paid to the nutrition education portion or to interactions between staff members and participants. This research draws on the public policy and administration literature about street-level bureaucrats and co-production, which provides a framework for understanding the purposeful, inter-dependent relationships between front-line service providers and clients. However, neither literature explicates the process of interactions that is expected to lead to client behavior change and co-production. The primary contribution of this research is the creation of a grounded theory that identifies and explains the WIC interaction process as one of "negotiating healthy self-government". Based on analysis of three months of observations of WIC encounters in two clinics, this research finds that participants and staff members enter into tacit and explicit negotiations concerning the degree to which participants should govern their family's nutrition-related behavior. Clients actively shape the interactions by demonstrating their discipline and efforts to feed their families, while staff members refine and reinforce self-governing behaviors through assessing action, and providing advice to ensure behaviors meet recommendations. Finally, participants and staff members distinctly link self-governing behavior to identity: "good mothers" feed their children healthy food and govern their behaviors to meet nutritional recommendations. This research has implications for the study of behavior change promotion in public programs by introducing the concept of identity as a mechanism for governance and explicating the interaction process between front-line service providers and clients

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Welcoming City Initiative for Urban Economic Development: An Interpretive Policy Analysis of Four U.S. Welcoming Cities

Description

Cities today face new economic, political, and social challenges spurred, in part, by the growth of immigrant and newcomer populations and increasing competitive pressure in the context of contemporary globalization.

Cities today face new economic, political, and social challenges spurred, in part, by the growth of immigrant and newcomer populations and increasing competitive pressure in the context of contemporary globalization. In the face of these challenges, some U.S. city and county governments have adopted the “welcoming city initiative,” which promotes both immigrant integration and economic growth. To date, little research has explored why different U.S. cities decide to pursue the welcoming city initiatives, what cities really hope to achieve through them, or what governing arrangements emerge to develop and implement these initiatives. In addition to illuminating the emerging discursive, political, and organizational dynamics of welcoming, this dissertation contributes to the literatures in urban asset development, urban regime theory, and political and bureaucratic incorporation.

Drawing on 30 interviews with key actors and document analysis, this dissertation employs a multiple case study design to conduct an interpretive policy analysis of the initiatives of four U.S. welcoming cities: Austin, Texas; Boise, Idaho; Chicago, Illinois; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The analysis explores three independent but interconnected themes. The first theme concerns multiple, context-specific framings of “welcoming” and the types of assets cities seek to leverage and develop through the welcoming city initiatives. This investigation finds that while each city puts a priority on developing a certain set of assets based on its unique political, economic, and demographic contexts, welcoming efforts tend to encourage immigrant entrepreneurialism, the leveraging newcomers’ human capital and financial assets, and the development place-based assets to attract and retain newcomers. The efforts to strengthen community capacity seek to institutionalize a new norm of welcoming, structure immigrant-friendly governance practices, and engage newcomers and longer-term residents in their community affairs. The second theme probes the ways in which these four cities create and maintain governing regimes for the initiative. The analysis finds that, while the four cities develop different governing structures, all pursue the creation of mixed types of governing coalitions that combine pro-growth and opportunity expansion regimes by incorporating the goals of economic growth and immigrant integration. The third theme investigates different modes of immigrant incorporation and their contribution to immigrant integration, the final stage in immigrant settlement. The analysis suggests that political leaders and bureaucratic agencies of the welcoming cities tend to build reciprocal relationships, rather than principal-agent relationships, in which political leaders rely on the positional, professional, and technical expertise of bureaucrats. In these early stages on the initiative, political and bureaucratic incorporation aim to create institutional changes that help immigrants and newcomers to be viewed as political constituents and clients of bureaucratic agencies.

This dissertation broadly concludes that the welcoming city initiative is a promising new urban economic development framework that could reshape urban space by integrating pro-growth demands with social integration and inclusion. Going forward, however, deeper consideration of the perspectives and rights of immigrants and newcomers themselves is needed in these initiatives.

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Date Created
  • 2017