Matching Items (7)

Going Against the Odds: Young Adult Latina Daughters of Incarcerated Parents

Description

Children whose parents are incarcerated face significate challenges that imped their education such as stigma and shame, family problems, and poverty associated with having an incarcerated parent. These problems

Children whose parents are incarcerated face significate challenges that imped their education such as stigma and shame, family problems, and poverty associated with having an incarcerated parent. These problems may be exaggerated for Latina girls who must also contend with barriers related to their ethnic, classed, and gendered positions. This qualitative study focuses on four Latina daughters of incarcerated parents who have continued their education despite these barriers. The participants are currently attending college and/or university with the hopes of obtaining a better life for themselves and in three out of the four cases, for their children. This study adopts a socioecological theoretical framework to understand why some children of incarcerated parents are at risk for dropping out of school and how they overcome these risks. All four women interviewed had consistent average to high achieving grades throughout their parents’ incarceration. Most indicated that they had support by either their non-incarcerated parent or mentors. In addition, the four participants continued to have communication with the previously incarcerated parent. The research findings will be discussed throughout this paper to highlight key aspects that may have played a pivotal role in the participants’ positive educational outcomes.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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The Role of Teachers' Perceptions in Driving and Breaking the School-to-Prison Pipeline

Description

Many studies have suggested the existence of what is called the school-to-prison pipeline, a model explaining the process by which we hinder the academic development of students of color and

Many studies have suggested the existence of what is called the school-to-prison pipeline, a model explaining the process by which we hinder the academic development of students of color and push them instead toward the criminal justice system. This process takes place through a series of practices called exclusionary discipline practices, and these include such things as suspensions, zero tolerance policies, and the prevalence of school resource officers that often reflect larger biases or implicit racism. These practices alienate students from the academic process, increasing dropout rates and negatively affecting student achievement. There has been a great deal of research investigating these discipline policies, but significantly less research investigating how teachers perceive these practices. This study examines the perceptions and attitudes of student teachers throughout their first experiences in the classroom. It explores their attitudes toward these policies, as well as their perceptions of discipline practices and student behavior problems. In conducting interviews with four student teachers, qualitative analysis of the resulting data shows that teachers are aware of the disadvantage that students of color face, however, they perceive some of these exclusionary discipline practices to be beneficial or neutral. Teachers understood suspensions to be detrimental to students, but saw no issues with zero tolerance policies or school resource officers. For this reason, it will be important to better educate teachers to be advocates for their students, and push for better policies at the administrative and legislative levels.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Hispanics’ and Undocumented Immigrants’ Perceptions of Procedural Justice, Legitimacy, and Willingness to Cooperate with the Police: An Assessment of the Process-Based Model of Policing

Description

The role of the American police is to work for and with the communities they serve. The relationship between police and community, however, has not always been a positive one.

The role of the American police is to work for and with the communities they serve. The relationship between police and community, however, has not always been a positive one. In recent decades, police organizations throughout the United States have attempted various approaches to addressing the problem. Most recently, they have been focused on improving that relationship by enhancing their legitimacy. This practice is commonly known as the process-based model of policing: theoretically, a procedurally just interaction will enhance legitimacy, which in turn will enhance willingness to cooperate with the police. The benefit for police agencies in enhancing legitimacy lies in the idea that when the police are perceived as a legitimate entity, the public will be more likely to cooperate with them. Enhancing police legitimacy also offers benefits for the public, as this is preceded by a procedurally just interaction.

The goal of this dissertation is to assess the applicability of the process-based model of policing to an under-studied population: Hispanics and undocumented immigrants residing within Maricopa County, Arizona. The analysis for this dissertation uses data from two different sources: a sample of Maricopa County residents (n=854) and a sample of Maricopa County arrestees (n=2268). These data are used to assess three research questions. The first research question focuses on assessing the applicability of the process-based model of regulation as a theoretical framework to study this population. The second research question compares Hispanic and White respondents’ views of procedural justice, police legitimacy, and how these perceptions relate to their willingness to cooperate with the police. The last research question examines the differences between undocumented immigrants’ and U.S. citizens’ perceptions of procedural justice, police legitimacy, and how these perceptions relate to their willingness to cooperate with the police. In doing so, this study examined the convergent and discriminant validity of key theoretical constructs. Among several notable findings, the results show that the process-based model of regulation is a promising framework within which to assess perceptions of the police. However, the framework was only supported by the sample of arrestees. Implications for theory, practice, and suggestions for future research are discussed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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The migration process for unaccompanied immigrant minors: children and adolescents migrating from Central America and Mexico to the United States

Description

The purpose of this research was to understand the migration process as experienced by unaccompanied immigrant minors (UIMs). That is, to form a better understanding of why they seek

The purpose of this research was to understand the migration process as experienced by unaccompanied immigrant minors (UIMs). That is, to form a better understanding of why they seek migration, what motivates their migration, what happens to them on their migration journey, and how they adapt to their new communities in the United States. Using qualitative research methods, 60 semi-structured in-depth interviews were collected, along with 12 ethnographic interviews, and participant observations. The immigrants’ narratives were rich with data, and capture the plight that UIMs undertake as they leave their home countries. This study analyzes the dynamic of age in all facets of the migration process, by taking into account that children are participants of the migration process just as much as adults.

The dissertation generated several findings; the first was to provide a profile of an Unaccompanied Minor, and for the sake of the study, only participants from Mexico, El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala were interviewed. From those interviewed, we learned that UIMs are a heterogeneous group. They come from diverse backgrounds in terms of household structures; (nuclear family structures, single-parent structures, extended-family structures, and migrant-family structures). Also, education levels varied; (some finished elementary or even secondary school, but for those living in rural areas it was harder to attend school due to the distance and availability of educational facilities). Many also worked in the labor force from an early age. One salient theme that UIMs talked about in relation to their home life was how the increase in violence in many Latin American countries was threatening their safety, especially for UIMs from El Salvador and Honduras. The next major finding was the ability to see the multiple stages UIMs experience, including: initiation/decisions to migrate, journey, arrival/adaptation and what takes place in each of these stages.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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In pursuit of opportunity: alternative education pathways for dropped-out students in Worcester, MA

Description

The intention of this research is to bring us to Worcester, Massachusetts, New England's second largest city, to critically investigate the punitive patterns that exist in the "second chance" opportunity

The intention of this research is to bring us to Worcester, Massachusetts, New England's second largest city, to critically investigate the punitive patterns that exist in the "second chance" opportunity structure experienced by young people who have been dropped-out of schools. The conceptual framework I've constructed pulls from developed theories on the relationship between structural processes, institutional practices and lived experiences of marginalization. There is a need to understand how the process of school leaving, the label of "dropout," and the pursuit of second-chance opportunity are connected and exercise forms of punishment that have clear messages about the worth of these young men's aspirations and the value in fostering support for their opportunities. This critical ethnography introduces the narratives of four young men, marginalized by race and class, whose pursuits of alternative education pathways in Worcester, MA lead them towards constructing an inclusive opportunity on one's own terms. My assertion here is that the social issue is not exclusively about "dropouts," but about the relationships our schools, neighborhoods and society at large have on creating the enabling conditions of opportunity for our most marginalized students.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Family risk and adolescent sexual risk taking: testing academic and peer mediation

Description

Sexual risk taking is prevalent in adolescence, particularly among Latino teens, and can have serious consequences in the form of contraction of STIs, HIV, and increased risk of unintended pregnancy.

Sexual risk taking is prevalent in adolescence, particularly among Latino teens, and can have serious consequences in the form of contraction of STIs, HIV, and increased risk of unintended pregnancy. Family contexts characterized by conflict and lack of support are antecedents of adolescent sexual risk taking, but evidence elucidating the mechanisms underlying this association is lacking. The current study sought to test two potential pathways to sexual risk taking within the framework of social developmental theory, among a sample of 189 Mexican origin adolescents and their caregivers interviewed in the 7th, 8th, and 12th grades. Structural equation modeling was utilized to examine pathways from 7th grade family risk to age of sexual initiation, number of lifetime sexual partners, and condom nonuse reported in the 12th grade. Deviant peer affiliations and academic engagement at 8th grade were tested as mediators of this relationship for boys and girls. Results confirm the importance of the family context, with family risk exerting direct effects on the number of lifetime sexual partners for both genders, and on age of sexual initiation for females only. Deviant peer affiliations serve as a mediator of family risk for males, but not females. When included in a model alongside deviant peers, academic engagement does not play the hypothesized mediating role between family risk and any of the sexual risk outcomes. Future research ought to consider additional mediators that better account for the relation between family risk and sexual risk taking among females.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Starving the Beast: school-based restorative justice and the school-to-prison-pipeline

Description

National mandates to decrease suspension numbers have prompted school districts across the country to turn to a practice known as restorative justice as an alternative to removing students through suspension

National mandates to decrease suspension numbers have prompted school districts across the country to turn to a practice known as restorative justice as an alternative to removing students through suspension or referral to law enforcement for problematic behavior. This ethnographic case study examines school-based restorative justice programs as potentially disruptive social movements in dismantling the school-to-prison-pipeline through participatory analysis of one school’s implementation of Discipline that Restores.

Findings go beyond suspension numbers to discuss the promise inherent in the program’s validation of student lived experience using a disruptive framework within the greater context of the politics of care and the school-to-prison-pipeline. Findings analyze the intersection of race, power, and identity with the experience of care in defining community to illustrate some of the prominent structural impediments that continue to work to cap the program’s disruptive potential. This study argues that restorative justice, through the experience of care, has the potential to act as a disruptive force, but wrestles with the enormity of the larger structural investments required for authentic transformative and disruptive change to occur.

As the restorative justice movement gains steam, on-going critical analysis against a disruptive framework becomes necessary to ensure the future success of restorative discipline in disrupting the school-to-prison-pipeline.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018