Matching Items (43)

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Account for Uncertainty with Robust Control Design: Part 1

Description

Robust control design has been increasingly used in industrial settings by leading automation companies. The design procedure has evolved in the last decades and fairly automated procedures exist now for

Robust control design has been increasingly used in industrial settings by leading automation companies. The design procedure has evolved in the last decades and fairly automated procedures exist now for use by practicing engineers or even operators. One does not need to be familiar with the details of the underlying theory to use it. Robust control is different than conventional control in that it accounts for uncertainty bounds and designs a controller with known/desired performance and stability characteristics. Robust control can be applied to multivariable or Single Input Single Output (SISO) processes. This paper is aimed at providing a tutorial on the Robust PID control design approach to practicing chemical engineers. We use the classical pH control problem as an example, which is a challenging problem due to its non-linearity. First, we analyze the pH process by using the benchmark model of Henson and Seborg. We identify the fundamental limitations of the linear control design in terms of model uncertainty and sensor sampling constraints. Subsequently, we design a controller following the guidelines from robust control theory. Finally, we demonstrate the results though implementation in a lab-scale wastewater system. The experimental results show the validity of the process model and the control design approach. It also points out the limitations of the linear controller performance, leading to an interesting follow-up work regarding gain scheduling and adaptation.

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  • 2014-11-01

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A control engineering approach for designing an optimized treatment plan for fibromyalgia

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There is increasing interest in the medical and behavioral health communities towards developing effective strategies for the treatment of chronic diseases. Among these lie adaptive interventions, which consider adjusting treatment

There is increasing interest in the medical and behavioral health communities towards developing effective strategies for the treatment of chronic diseases. Among these lie adaptive interventions, which consider adjusting treatment dosages over time based on participant response. Control engineering offers a broad-based solution framework for optimizing the effectiveness of such interventions. In this thesis, an approach is proposed to develop dynamical models and subsequently, hybrid model predictive control schemes for assigning optimal dosages of naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, as treatment for a chronic pain condition known as fibromyalgia. System identification techniques are employed to model the dynamics from the daily diary reports completed by participants of a blind naltrexone intervention trial. These self-reports include assessments of outcomes of interest (e.g., general pain symptoms, sleep quality) and additional external variables (disturbances) that affect these outcomes (e.g., stress, anxiety, and mood). Using prediction-error methods, a multi-input model describing the effect of drug, placebo and other disturbances on outcomes of interest is developed. This discrete time model is approximated by a continuous second order model with zero, which was found to be adequate to capture the dynamics of this intervention. Data from 40 participants in two clinical trials were analyzed and participants were classified as responders and non-responders based on the models obtained from system identification. The dynamical models can be used by a model predictive controller for automated dosage selection of naltrexone using feedback/feedforward control actions in the presence of external disturbances. The clinical requirement for categorical (i.e., discrete-valued) drug dosage levels creates a need for hybrid model predictive control (HMPC). The controller features a multiple degree-of-freedom formulation that enables the user to adjust the speed of setpoint tracking, measured disturbance rejection and unmeasured disturbance rejection independently in the closed loop system. The nominal and robust performance of the proposed control scheme is examined via simulation using system identification models from a representative participant in the naltrexone intervention trial. The controller evaluation described in this thesis gives credibility to the promise and applicability of control engineering principles for optimizing adaptive interventions.

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  • 2011

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Incorporating auditory models in speech/audio applications

Description

Following the success in incorporating perceptual models in audio coding algorithms, their application in other speech/audio processing systems is expanding. In general, all perceptual speech/audio processing algorithms involve minimization of

Following the success in incorporating perceptual models in audio coding algorithms, their application in other speech/audio processing systems is expanding. In general, all perceptual speech/audio processing algorithms involve minimization of an objective function that directly/indirectly incorporates properties of human perception. This dissertation primarily investigates the problems associated with directly embedding an auditory model in the objective function formulation and proposes possible solutions to overcome high complexity issues for use in real-time speech/audio algorithms. Specific problems addressed in this dissertation include: 1) the development of approximate but computationally efficient auditory model implementations that are consistent with the principles of psychoacoustics, 2) the development of a mapping scheme that allows synthesizing a time/frequency domain representation from its equivalent auditory model output. The first problem is aimed at addressing the high computational complexity involved in solving perceptual objective functions that require repeated application of auditory model for evaluation of different candidate solutions. In this dissertation, a frequency pruning and a detector pruning algorithm is developed that efficiently implements the various auditory model stages. The performance of the pruned model is compared to that of the original auditory model for different types of test signals in the SQAM database. Experimental results indicate only a 4-7% relative error in loudness while attaining up to 80-90 % reduction in computational complexity. Similarly, a hybrid algorithm is developed specifically for use with sinusoidal signals and employs the proposed auditory pattern combining technique together with a look-up table to store representative auditory patterns. The second problem obtains an estimate of the auditory representation that minimizes a perceptual objective function and transforms the auditory pattern back to its equivalent time/frequency representation. This avoids the repeated application of auditory model stages to test different candidate time/frequency vectors in minimizing perceptual objective functions. In this dissertation, a constrained mapping scheme is developed by linearizing certain auditory model stages that ensures obtaining a time/frequency mapping corresponding to the estimated auditory representation. This paradigm was successfully incorporated in a perceptual speech enhancement algorithm and a sinusoidal component selection task.

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  • 2011

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Directional information flow and applications

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In the late 1960s, Granger published a seminal study on causality in time series, using linear interdependencies and information transfer. Recent developments in the field of information theory have introduced

In the late 1960s, Granger published a seminal study on causality in time series, using linear interdependencies and information transfer. Recent developments in the field of information theory have introduced new methods to investigate the transfer of information in dynamical systems. Using concepts from Chaos and Markov theory, much of these methods have evolved to capture non-linear relations and information flow between coupled dynamical systems with applications to fields like biomedical signal processing. This thesis deals with the application of information theory to non-linear multivariate time series and develops measures of information flow to identify significant drivers and response (driven) components in networks of coupled sub-systems with variable coupling in strength and direction (uni- or bi-directional) for each connection. Transfer Entropy (TE) is used to quantify pairwise directional information. Four TE-based measures of information flow are proposed, namely TE Outflow (TEO), TE Inflow (TEI), TE Net flow (TEN), and Average TE flow (ATE). First, the reliability of the information flow measures on models, with and without noise, is evaluated. The driver and response sub-systems in these models are identified. Second, these measures are applied to electroencephalographic (EEG) data from two patients with focal epilepsy. The analysis showed dominant directions of information flow between brain sites and identified the epileptogenic focus as the system component typically with the highest value for the proposed measures (for example, ATE). Statistical tests between pre-seizure (preictal) and post-seizure (postictal) information flow also showed a breakage of the driving of the brain by the focus after seizure onset. The above findings shed light on the function of the epileptogenic focus and understanding of ictogenesis. It is expected that they will contribute to the diagnosis of epilepsy, for example by accurate identification of the epileptogenic focus from interictal periods, as well as the development of better seizure detection, prediction and control methods, for example by isolating pathologic areas of excessive information flow through electrical stimulation.

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  • 2011

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New directions in sparse models for image analysis and restoration

Description

Effective modeling of high dimensional data is crucial in information processing and machine learning. Classical subspace methods have been very effective in such applications. However, over the past few decades,

Effective modeling of high dimensional data is crucial in information processing and machine learning. Classical subspace methods have been very effective in such applications. However, over the past few decades, there has been considerable research towards the development of new modeling paradigms that go beyond subspace methods. This dissertation focuses on the study of sparse models and their interplay with modern machine learning techniques such as manifold, ensemble and graph-based methods, along with their applications in image analysis and recovery. By considering graph relations between data samples while learning sparse models, graph-embedded codes can be obtained for use in unsupervised, supervised and semi-supervised problems. Using experiments on standard datasets, it is demonstrated that the codes obtained from the proposed methods outperform several baseline algorithms. In order to facilitate sparse learning with large scale data, the paradigm of ensemble sparse coding is proposed, and different strategies for constructing weak base models are developed. Experiments with image recovery and clustering demonstrate that these ensemble models perform better when compared to conventional sparse coding frameworks. When examples from the data manifold are available, manifold constraints can be incorporated with sparse models and two approaches are proposed to combine sparse coding with manifold projection. The improved performance of the proposed techniques in comparison to sparse coding approaches is demonstrated using several image recovery experiments. In addition to these approaches, it might be required in some applications to combine multiple sparse models with different regularizations. In particular, combining an unconstrained sparse model with non-negative sparse coding is important in image analysis, and it poses several algorithmic and theoretical challenges. A convex and an efficient greedy algorithm for recovering combined representations are proposed. Theoretical guarantees on sparsity thresholds for exact recovery using these algorithms are derived and recovery performance is also demonstrated using simulations on synthetic data. Finally, the problem of non-linear compressive sensing, where the measurement process is carried out in feature space obtained using non-linear transformations, is considered. An optimized non-linear measurement system is proposed, and improvements in recovery performance are demonstrated in comparison to using random measurements as well as optimized linear measurements.

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  • 2013

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Undergraduate signal processing laboratories on the Android platform

Description

The field of education has been immensely benefited by major breakthroughs in technology. The arrival of computers and the internet made student-teacher interaction from different parts of the world viable,

The field of education has been immensely benefited by major breakthroughs in technology. The arrival of computers and the internet made student-teacher interaction from different parts of the world viable, increasing the reach of the educator to hitherto remote corners of the world. The arrival of mobile phones in the recent past has the potential to provide the next paradigm shift in the way education is conducted. It combines the universal reach and powerful visualization capabilities of the computer with intimacy and portability. Engineering education is a field which can exploit the benefits of mobile devices to enhance learning and spread essential technical know-how to different parts of the world. In this thesis, I present AJDSP, an Android application evolved from JDSP, providing an intuitive and a easy to use environment for signal processing education. AJDSP is a graphical programming laboratory for digital signal processing developed for the Android platform. It is designed to provide utility; both as a supplement to traditional classroom learning and as a tool for self-learning. The architecture of AJDSP is based on the Model-View-Controller paradigm optimized for the Android platform. The extensive set of function modules cover a wide range of basic signal processing areas such as convolution, fast Fourier transform, z transform and filter design. The simple and intuitive user interface inspired from iJDSP is designed to facilitate ease of navigation and to provide the user with an intimate learning environment. Rich visualizations necessary to understand mathematically intensive signal processing algorithms have been incorporated into the software. Interactive demonstrations boosting student understanding of concepts like convolution and the relation between different signal domains have also been developed. A set of detailed assessments to evaluate the application has been conducted for graduate and senior-level undergraduate students.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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A DC-DC multiport converter based solid state transformer integrating distributed generation and storage

Description

The development of a Solid State Transformer (SST) that incorporates a DC-DC multiport converter to integrate both photovoltaic (PV) power generation and battery energy storage is presented in this dissertation.

The development of a Solid State Transformer (SST) that incorporates a DC-DC multiport converter to integrate both photovoltaic (PV) power generation and battery energy storage is presented in this dissertation. The DC-DC stage is based on a quad-active-bridge (QAB) converter which not only provides isolation for the load, but also for the PV and storage. The AC-DC stage is implemented with a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) single phase rectifier. A unified gyrator-based average model is developed for a general multi-active-bridge (MAB) converter controlled through phase-shift modulation (PSM). Expressions to determine the power rating of the MAB ports are also derived. The developed gyrator-based average model is applied to the QAB converter for faster simulations of the proposed SST during the control design process as well for deriving the state-space representation of the plant. Both linear quadratic regulator (LQR) and single-input-single-output (SISO) types of controllers are designed for the DC-DC stage. A novel technique that complements the SISO controller by taking into account the cross-coupling characteristics of the QAB converter is also presented herein. Cascaded SISO controllers are designed for the AC-DC stage. The QAB demanded power is calculated at the QAB controls and then fed into the rectifier controls in order to minimize the effect of the interaction between the two SST stages. The dynamic performance of the designed control loops based on the proposed control strategies are verified through extensive simulation of the SST average and switching models. The experimental results presented herein show that the transient responses for each control strategy match those from the simulations results thus validating them.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Non-holonomic differential drive mobile robot control & design: critical dynamics and coupling constraints

Description

Mobile robots are used in a broad range of application areas; e.g. search and rescue, reconnaissance, exploration, etc. Given the increasing need for high performance mobile robots, the area has

Mobile robots are used in a broad range of application areas; e.g. search and rescue, reconnaissance, exploration, etc. Given the increasing need for high performance mobile robots, the area has received attention by researchers. In this thesis, critical control and control-relevant design issues for differential drive mobile robots is addressed. Two major themes that have been explored are the use of kinematic models for control design and the use of decentralized proportional plus integral (PI) control. While these topics have received much attention, there still remain critical questions which have not been rigorously addressed. In this thesis, answers to the following critical questions are provided: When is 1. a kinematic model sufficient for control design? 2. coupled dynamics essential? 3. a decentralized PI inner loop velocity controller sufficient? 4. centralized multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) control essential? and how can one design the robot to relax the requirements implied in 1 and 2? In this thesis, the following is shown: 1. The nonlinear kinematic model will suffice for control design when the inner velocity (dynamic) loop is much faster (10X) than the slower outer positioning loop. 2. A dynamic model is essential when the inner velocity (dynamic) loop is less than two times faster than the slower outer positioning loop. 3. A decentralized inner loop PI velocity controller will be sufficient for accomplish- ing high performance control when the required velocity bandwidth is small, rel- ative to the peak dynamic coupling frequency. A rule-of-thumb which depends on the robot aspect ratio is given. 4. A centralized MIMO velocity controller is needed when the required bandwidth is large, relative to the peak dynamic coupling frequency. Here, the analysis in the thesis is sparse making the topic an area for future analytical work. Despite this, it is clearly shown that a centralized MIMO inner loop controller can offer increased performance vis- ́a-vis a decentralized PI controller. 5. Finally, it is shown how the dynamic coupling depends on the robot aspect ratio and how the coupling can be significantly reduced. As such, this can be used to ease the requirements imposed by 2 and 4 above.

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  • 2013

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Feedback control and obstacle avoidance for non-holonomic differential drive robots

Description

This thesis discusses control and obstacle avoidance for non-holonomic differential drive mobile vehicles. The two important behaviors for the vehicle can be defined as go to goal and obstacle avoidance

This thesis discusses control and obstacle avoidance for non-holonomic differential drive mobile vehicles. The two important behaviors for the vehicle can be defined as go to goal and obstacle avoidance behavior. This thesis discusses both behaviors in detail. Go to goal behavior is the ability of the mobile vehicle to go from one particular co-ordinate to another. Cruise control, cartesian and posture stabilization problems are discussed as the part of this behavior. Control strategies used for the above three problems are explained in the thesis. Matlab simulations are presented to verify these controllers. Obstacle avoidance behavior ensures that the vehicle doesn't hit object in its path while going towards the goal. Three different techniques for obstacle avoidance which are useful for different kind of obstacles are described in the thesis. Matlab simulations are presented to show and discuss the three techniques. The controls discussed for the cartesian and posture stabilization were implemented on a low cost miniature vehicle to verify the results practically. The vehicle is described in the thesis in detail. The practical results are compared with the simulations. Hardware and matlab codes have been provided as a reference for the reader.

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  • 2013

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Multipath mitigating correlation kernels

Description

Autonomous vehicle control systems utilize real-time kinematic Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers to provide a position within two-centimeter of truth. GNSS receivers utilize the satellite signal time of arrival

Autonomous vehicle control systems utilize real-time kinematic Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers to provide a position within two-centimeter of truth. GNSS receivers utilize the satellite signal time of arrival estimates to solve for position; and multipath corrupts the time of arrival estimates with a time-varying bias. Time of arrival estimates are based upon accurate direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) code and carrier phase tracking. Current multipath mitigating GNSS solutions include fixed radiation pattern antennas and windowed delay-lock loop code phase discriminators. A new multipath mitigating code tracking algorithm is introduced that utilizes a non-symmetric correlation kernel to reject multipath. Independent parameters provide a means to trade-off code tracking discriminant gain against multipath mitigation performance. The algorithm performance is characterized in terms of multipath phase error bias, phase error estimation variance, tracking range, tracking ambiguity and implementation complexity. The algorithm is suitable for modernized GNSS signals including Binary Phase Shift Keyed (BPSK) and a variety of Binary Offset Keyed (BOC) signals. The algorithm compensates for unbalanced code sequences to ensure a code tracking bias does not result from the use of asymmetric correlation kernels. The algorithm does not require explicit knowledge of the propagation channel model. Design recommendations for selecting the algorithm parameters to mitigate precorrelation filter distortion are also provided.

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Date Created
  • 2013