Matching Items (25)

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Preparation and Delivery of Protein Microcrystals in Lipidic Cubic Phase for Serial Femtosecond Crystallography

Description

We describe procedures for the preparation and delivery of membrane protein microcrystals in lipidic cubic phase for serial crystallography at X-ray free-electron lasers and synchrotron sources. These protocols can also

We describe procedures for the preparation and delivery of membrane protein microcrystals in lipidic cubic phase for serial crystallography at X-ray free-electron lasers and synchrotron sources. These protocols can also be applied for incorporation and delivery of soluble protein microcrystals, leading to substantially reduced sample consumption compared to liquid injection.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-09-20

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Serial femtosecond crystallography datasets from G protein-coupled receptors

Description

We describe the deposition of four datasets consisting of X-ray diffraction images acquired using serial femtosecond crystallography experiments on microcrystals of human G protein-coupled receptors, grown and delivered in lipidic

We describe the deposition of four datasets consisting of X-ray diffraction images acquired using serial femtosecond crystallography experiments on microcrystals of human G protein-coupled receptors, grown and delivered in lipidic cubic phase, at the Linac Coherent Light Source. The receptors are: the human serotonin receptor 2B in complex with an agonist ergotamine, the human δ-opioid receptor in complex with a bi-functional peptide ligand DIPP-NH[subscript 2], the human smoothened receptor in complex with an antagonist cyclopamine, and finally the human angiotensin II type 1 receptor in complex with the selective antagonist ZD7155. All four datasets have been deposited, with minimal processing, in an HDF5-based file format, which can be used directly for crystallographic processing with CrystFEL or other software. We have provided processing scripts and supporting files for recent versions of CrystFEL, which can be used to validate the data.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-08-01

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FBXW8-dependent degradation of MRFAP1 in anaphase controls mitotic cell death

Description

Mof4 family associated protein 1 (MRFAP1) is a 14 kDa nuclear protein, which involves in maintaining normal histone modification levels by negatively regulating recruitment of the NuA4 (nucleosome acetyltransferase of

Mof4 family associated protein 1 (MRFAP1) is a 14 kDa nuclear protein, which involves in maintaining normal histone modification levels by negatively regulating recruitment of the NuA4 (nucleosome acetyltransferase of H4) histone acetyltransferase complex to chromatin. MRFAP1 has been identified as one of the most up-regulated proteins after NEDD8 (neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down- regulated 8) inhibition in multiple human cell lines. However, the biological function of MRFAP1 and the E3 ligase that targets MRFAP1 for destruction remain mysterious. Here we show, by using an immunoprecipitation-based proteomics screen, that MRFAP1 is an interactor of the F-box protein FBXW8. MRFAP1 is degraded by means of the ubiquitin ligase Cul7/FBXW8 during mitotic anaphase-telophase transition and accumulated in mitotic metaphase. Overexpression of FBXW8 increased the polyubiquitination and decreased the stability of MRFAP1, whereas knockdown of FBXW8 prolonged the half-life of MRFAP1. Moreover, forced expression of MRFAP1 in HeLa cells caused growth retardation and genomic instability, leading to severe mitotic cell death. Thus, Cul7/FBXW8-mediated destruction of MRFAP1 is a regulatory component monitoring the anaphase-telophase transition and preventing genomic instability.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-10-12

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Optimization of a Human Gastrin Receptor for LCP Crystallization

Description

The human gastrin receptor (CCKBR or CCK2R) is a class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) found throughout the central nervous system, stomach, and a variety of cancer cells. CCK2R is

The human gastrin receptor (CCKBR or CCK2R) is a class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) found throughout the central nervous system, stomach, and a variety of cancer cells. CCK2R is implicated in the regulation of biological processes, including anxiety, satiety, arousal, analgesia, psychosis, and cancer cell growth and proliferation. While CCK2R is an attractive drug target, few drugs have managed to effectively target the receptor, and none have been brought to market. Contributory to this is the lack of high-resolution crystal structure capable of elucidating the binding regions of CCK2R to streamlining drug screening. While GPCRs are not amenable to traditional structural analysis methodologies, the advent of lipidic cubic phase (LCP) crystallography and serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs), has extended the applicability of X-ray crystallography to these integral membrane proteins. LCP-SFX depends on optimizing the protein of interest for extraction, purification, and crystallization. Here we report our findings regarding the optimization of CCK2R suggesting the synergistic relationship between N-terminal truncations and the insertion of a fusion protein along ICL3, in addition to a 30-residue truncation of the C-terminus. Samples were expressed in Sf9 insect cells using a Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system, extracted using n-Dodecyl-β-D-Maltoside detergent, and purified via TALON immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography. The constructs were characterized via SDS-PAGE, Western blot, and size exclusion chromatography. These findings demonstrate the improvements to CCK2R’s crystallographic amenability upon these modifications, however significant improvements must be made prior to crystallization trials. Future work will involve screening C-terminal truncations, thermostabilizing point mutations, and co-crystallizing ligands. Ideally this investigation will serve as a model for future CCK2R structural analysis and contribute to a heightened interest in CCK2R as a therapeutic target.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Design, Purification, and Analysis of Histamine Family Receptors for Crystallization

Description

G protein-coupled receptors, or GPCRs, are receptors located within the membrane of cells that elicit a wide array of cellular responses through their interactions with G proteins. Recent advances in

G protein-coupled receptors, or GPCRs, are receptors located within the membrane of cells that elicit a wide array of cellular responses through their interactions with G proteins. Recent advances in the use of lipid cubic phase (LCP) for the crystallization of GPCRs, as well as increased knowledge of techniques to improve receptor stability, have led to a large increase in the number of available GPCR structures, despite historic difficulties. This project is focused on the histamine family of receptors, which are Class A GPCRs that are involved in the body’s allergic and inflammatory responses. In particular, the goal of this project was to design, express, and purify histamine receptors with the ultimate goal of crystallization. Successive rounds of optimization included the use of recombinant DNA techniques in E.coli to truncate sections of the proteins and the insertion of several fusion partner proteins to improve receptor expression and stability. All constructs were expressed in a Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system using Sf9 insect cells, solubilized using n-Dodecyl-β-D-Maltoside (DDM), and purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Constructs were then analyzed by SDS-Page, Western blot, and size-exclusion chromatography to determine their presence, purity, and homogeneity. Along with their expression data from insect cells, the most stable and homogeneous construct from each round was used to design successive optimizations. After 3 rounds of construct design for each receptor, much work remains to produce a stable sample that has the potential to crystallize. Future work includes further optimization of the insertion site of the fusion proteins, ligand screening for co-crystallization, optimization of purification conditions, and screening of potential thermostabilizing point mutations. Success in solving a structure will allow for a more detailed understanding of the receptor function in addition to its vital use in rational drug discovery.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Construct Design, Protein Expression, and Purification of a Human Dopamine Receptor

Description

The dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) is a Class A GPCR which is essential for signaling in the nervous system, and has been implicated in numerous illnesses. While there are over

The dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) is a Class A GPCR which is essential for signaling in the nervous system, and has been implicated in numerous illnesses. While there are over 50 currently approved drugs which act on D2R, the structure has never been determined in detail. Although crystallography has historically been difficult with GPCRs, in recent years many structures have been solved using lipidic cubic phase (LCP) crystallization techniques. Sample preparation for LCP crystallization typically requires optimization of genetic constructs, recombinant expression, and purification techniques in order to produce a sample with sufficient stability and homogeneity. This study compares several genetic constructs utilizing different promoters, fusion proteins, fusion positions, and truncations in order to determine a high quality construct for LCP crystallization of
D2R. All constructs were expressed using the Bac-to-bac baculovirus expression system, then extracted with n-Dodecyl-β-D-Maltoside (DDM) and purified using metal affinity chromatography. Samples were then tested for quantity, purity, and homogeneity using SDS-PAGE, western blot, and size-exclusion chromatography. High quality samples were chosen based on insect cell expression levels, purification yield, and stability estimated by the levels of homomeric protein relative to aggregated protein. A final construct was chosen with which to continue future studies in optimization of thermal stability and crystallization conditions. Future work on this project is required to produce a sample amenable to crystallization. Screening of ligands for co-crystallization,
thermostabilizing point mutations, and potentially optimization of extraction and purification techniques prior to crystallization trials. Solving the D2R structure will lead to an increased understanding of its signaling mechanism and the mechanisms of currently approved drugs, while also providing a basis for more effective structure-based drug design.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Knocking out the cytochrome bc complex in Heliobacterium modesticaldum

Description

The heliobacteria, a family of anoxygenic phototrophs, are significant to photosynthesis evolution research, as they possess the simplest known photosynthetic apparatus. Although they are photoheterotrophs in the light, the heliobacteria

The heliobacteria, a family of anoxygenic phototrophs, are significant to photosynthesis evolution research, as they possess the simplest known photosynthetic apparatus. Although they are photoheterotrophs in the light, the heliobacteria may also grow chemotrophically via pyruvate metabolism in the absence of light. In Heliobacterium modesticaldum, the cytochrome bc complex is responsible for oxidizing menaquinol and reducing cytochrome c553 in the electron flow cycle used for phototrophy. However, there is no known electron acceptor for cytochrome c553 other than the photosynthetic reaction center. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the cytochrome bc complex is necessary for phototrophy, but unnecessary for chemotrophic growth in the dark. Under this hypothesis, a mutant of H. modesticaldum lacking the cytochrome bc complex was predicted to be viable, but non-phototrophic. In this project, a two-step method for CRISPR-based genome editing was used in H. modesticaldum to delete the genes encoding the cytochrome bc complex. Genotypic analysis verified the deletion of the petC, B, D, and A genes encoding the catalytic components of complex. Spectroscopic studies revealed that re-reduction of cytochrome c553 after flash-induced photo-oxidation was ~130 to 190 times slower in the ∆petCBDA mutant compared to wildtype, phenotypically confirming the removal of the cytochrome bc complex. The resulting ∆petCBDA mutant was unable to grow phototrophically, instead relying on pyruvate metabolism to grow chemotrophically as does wildtype in the dark.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

Highly multiplexed single-cell in situ RNA and DNA analysis with biorthogonal cleavable fluorescent oligonucleotides

Description

The understanding of normal human physiology and disease pathogenesis shows great promise for progress with increasing ability to profile genomic loci and transcripts in single cells in situ. Using biorthogonal

The understanding of normal human physiology and disease pathogenesis shows great promise for progress with increasing ability to profile genomic loci and transcripts in single cells in situ. Using biorthogonal cleavable fluorescent oligonucleotides, a highly multiplexed single-cell in situ RNA and DNA analysis is reported. In this report, azide-based cleavable linker connects oligonucleotides to fluorophores to show nucleic acids through in situ hybridization. Post-imaging, the fluorophores are effectively cleaved off in half an hour without loss of RNA or DNA integrity. Through multiple cycles of hybridization, imaging, and cleavage this approach proves to quantify thousands of different RNA species or genomic loci because of single-molecule sensitivity in single cells in situ. Different nucleic acids can be imaged by shown by multi-color staining in each hybridization cycle, and that multiple hybridization cycles can be run on the same specimen. It is shown that in situ analysis of DNA, RNA and protein can be accomplished using both cleavable fluorescent antibodies and oligonucleotides. The highly multiplexed imaging platforms will have the potential for wide applications in both systems biology and biomedical research. Thus, proving to be cost effective and time effective.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Coronavirus Envelope Protein Transmembrane Domain: Impact of Positive Charges on Virus-like Particle Assembly

Description

Coronaviruses are a significant group of viruses that cause enteric and respiratory infections in a variety of animals, including humans. Outbreaks of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle Eastern

Coronaviruses are a significant group of viruses that cause enteric and respiratory infections in a variety of animals, including humans. Outbreaks of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in the past 15 years has increased research into coronaviruses to gain an understanding of their structure and function so one day therapies and vaccines may be produced. These viruses have four main structural proteins: the spike, nucleocapsid, envelope, and membrane proteins. The envelope (E) protein is an integral membrane protein in the viral envelope that acts as a viroporin for transport of cations and plays an important role in pathogenesis and viral assembly. E contains a hydrophobic transmembrane domain with polar residues that is conserved across coronavirus species and may be significant to its function. This experiment looks at the possible role of one polar residue in assembly, the 15th residue glutamine, in the Mouse Hepatitis Virus (MHV) E protein. The glutamine 15 residue was mutated into positively charged residues lysine or arginine. Plasmids with these mutations were co-expressed with the membrane protein (M) gene to produce virus-like particles (VLPs). VLPs are produced when E and M are co-expressed together and model assembly of the coronavirus envelope, but they are not infectious as they do not contain the viral genome. Observing their production with the mutated E protein gives insight into the role the glutamine residue plays in assembly. The experiment showed that a changing glutamine 15 to positive charges does not appear to significantly affect the assembly of the VLPs, indicating that this specific residue may not have a large impact on viral assembly.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Serial millisecond crystallography of membrane and soluble protein microcrystals using synchrotron radiation

Description

Crystal structure determination of biological macromolecules using the novel technique of serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) is severely limited by the scarcity of X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) sources. However, recent and

Crystal structure determination of biological macromolecules using the novel technique of serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) is severely limited by the scarcity of X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) sources. However, recent and future upgrades render microfocus beamlines at synchrotron-radiation sources suitable for room-temperature serial crystallography data collection also. Owing to the longer exposure times that are needed at synchrotrons, serial data collection is termed serial millisecond crystallography (SMX). As a result, the number of SMX experiments is growing rapidly, with a dozen experiments reported so far. Here, the first high-viscosity injector-based SMX experiments carried out at a US synchrotron source, the Advanced Photon Source (APS), are reported. Microcrystals (5–20 µm) of a wide variety of proteins, including lysozyme, thaumatin, phycocyanin, the human A[subscript 2A] adenosine receptor (A[subscript 2A]AR), the soluble fragment of the membrane lipoprotein Flpp3 and proteinase K, were screened. Crystals suspended in lipidic cubic phase (LCP) or a high-molecular-weight poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO; molecular weight 8 000 000) were delivered to the beam using a high-viscosity injector. In-house data-reduction (hit-finding) software developed at APS as well as the SFX data-reduction and analysis software suites Cheetah and CrystFEL enabled efficient on-site SMX data monitoring, reduction and processing. Complete data sets were collected for A[subscript 2A]AR, phycocyanin, Flpp3, proteinase K and lysozyme, and the structures of A[subscript 2A]AR, phycocyanin, proteinase K and lysozyme were determined at 3.2, 3.1, 2.65 and 2.05 Å resolution, respectively. The data demonstrate the feasibility of serial millisecond crystallography from 5–20 µm crystals using a high-viscosity injector at APS. The resolution of the crystal structures obtained in this study was dictated by the current flux density and crystal size, but upcoming developments in beamline optics and the planned APS-U upgrade will increase the intensity by two orders of magnitude. These developments will enable structure determination from smaller and/or weakly diffracting microcrystals.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05-24