Matching Items (6)

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State-Level School Resource Officer Programs and Their Relationship to Student Demographics

Description

As a result of recent public attention on school resource officers (SROs), concerns regarding the effects of police presence in America’s schools have emerged. Despite this, little is known about

As a result of recent public attention on school resource officers (SROs), concerns regarding the effects of police presence in America’s schools have emerged. Despite this, little is known about how SROs and SRO programs function within the U.S. This project uses qualitative and quantitative methods to describe the six state-level programs that exist to regulate and fund SROs, as well as analyze the relationship between the schools that receive funding and their student demographics. Program elements were inconsistent among states, though some commonalities were found, such as the usage of the triad model, training sources, usage of a memorandum of understanding (MOU), and lack of regular evaluations or assessments. No relationship was found between student demographics and SRO-funded schools when compared to the overall state. The findings highlight a need for regulation and consistency among SRO programs, as well as more reliable publicly available information regarding these programs.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Relations between Race/Ethnicity and Peer Relationships during Early Adolescence

Description

I investigated if race/ethnicity was associated with self- and peer-reported victimization and aggression in a sample of 5th through 8th graders (N = 383, 51% males) from two schools in

I investigated if race/ethnicity was associated with self- and peer-reported victimization and aggression in a sample of 5th through 8th graders (N = 383, 51% males) from two schools in which Hispanic/Latino students were the ethnic-racial majority. Self-reported victimization did not differ between races. In contrast, White students often had higher peer-reported victimization relative to Hispanic and Multi-racial students. Few significant associations were found for aggression. There was some, albeit inconsistent, support for the idea that power imbalance based on race/ethnicity is shifted by numbers. In the future, researchers should conduct studies aimed verifying this notion and that are tailored toward answering questions of mechanism.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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The Respect Movement: An Evaluation of a Student-Driven Sexual Assault Intervention at Arizona State University

Description

Abstract: This purpose of this paper is to analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of a student-driven sexual assault intervention at Arizona State University. The first aim is to develop a

Abstract: This purpose of this paper is to analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of a student-driven sexual assault intervention at Arizona State University. The first aim is to develop a theoretical framework of the organization and its relation to the Integrated Behavioral Health model. The second aim analyze change in attitudes and beliefs about sexual violence and bystander behaviors as well as barriers and facilitators of change including perceived control and self-efficacy for students involved in the Respect Movement. The final aim is to analyze how this change transmits through the broader social network of students involved in the Respect Movement.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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An Investigation of Gender Norm Resistance

Description

The aim of this dissertation was to explore the construct and experiences of gender norm resistance (GNR) using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The purpose of Study 1 was to

The aim of this dissertation was to explore the construct and experiences of gender norm resistance (GNR) using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The purpose of Study 1 was to standardize and universalize what is already known about GNR by creating a quantitative GNR measure. In so doing, I operationalized the implicit and explicit GNR framework described by Way and colleagues (2014). On a sample of adolescents (484 6th grade students; girls = 234; 10-13 years old, Mage = 11.44 years, SD = .56) the GNR measure was tested for gender differences and to explore how GNR aligns with and differs from other constructs related to gender identity and peer relations. The results supported the two-factor model (implicit and explicit forms of GNR), supported convergent and discriminant validity, and identified mean level differences depending on GNR form, gender, ethnic identity, and gender typicality. The purpose of Study 2 was to explore why young men resist gender norms, what motivates their acts of resistance, and how they understand those motives. I expected that implicit GNR would be motivated by the pursuit of authentic nonconformity and would involve an awareness of norms, feeling gender atypical, and authenticity. I expected that explicit GNR would be motivated by a dislike of gender norms, and that it would involve an awareness of, dislike of, and pressure to conform to gender norms. The results supported these expectations and indicated a subtype of GNR, activist GNR, defined by the desire to change gender norms to benefit the social group. Both studies rely on the resistance/accommodation framework to describe the balance of conformity and resistance as individuals navigate systems of power and oppression.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Risk and protective factors on Mexican-origin youths' academic achievement, educational expectations and postsecondary enrollment

Description

Both theoretical and empirical research has recognized the importance of contextual factors for Mexican-origin youths' educational outcomes. The roles of parents, teachers, and peers have been predictive of Mexican-origin youths'

Both theoretical and empirical research has recognized the importance of contextual factors for Mexican-origin youths' educational outcomes. The roles of parents, teachers, and peers have been predictive of Mexican-origin youths' academic achievement, educational expectations, and decision to enroll in postsecondary education. However, few studies have examined the interdependence among sociocultural context characteristics in predicting Mexican-origin youths' educational outcomes. In this dissertation, two studies address this limitation by using a person-centered analytical approach. The first study identified profiles of Mexican-origin youth using culturally relevant family characteristics. The second study identified profiles of Mexican-origin youth using culturally relevant school characteristics. The links between profiles and youths' academic achievement, educational expectations, and postsecondary enrollment were examined in both studies. Overall, this dissertation contributes to the growing body of literature that aims to understand risk and protective processes related to Mexican-origin youths' academic achievement, educational expectations, and postsecondary enrollment.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Risk and Protective Factors in the Mental Health and Substance Use of Opportunity Youth

Description

The transition from adolescence to young adulthood is an important developmental period, as youth experience rapid changes in many domains of their lives (Settersten & Ray, 2010). These transitions have

The transition from adolescence to young adulthood is an important developmental period, as youth experience rapid changes in many domains of their lives (Settersten & Ray, 2010). These transitions have been linked to both positive and negative turning points in youths’ behavior and psychosocial wellbeing (Elder & Shanahan, 2007). Being disengaged from work and school, two important social institutions involved in the transition to adulthood (Havighurst, 1972), has been associated with poorer mental health and increases substance use; in this literature, there is still a dearth of research among youth in the United States of America and on the developmental implications of disengagement (Hilley et al., 2019). Therefore, this dissertation includes two studies to address these gaps with respect to mental health and substance use. Study 1 explores the heterogeneity in youths’ engagement and disengagement from work and school at two developmentally relevant time points across the transition to adulthood rather than impose a priori definitions of disengagement. Next, this study explores whether risk and protective factors predict membership in these subgroups. Finally, this study examines subgroup differences in problematic substance use concurrently and longitudinally. Study 2 investigates the cross-lagged associations between opportunity youth (or youth who are neither in school nor working) status and mental health over the transition to adulthood and explores whether familial social support and socioeconomic status mitigate or exacerbate the influence of opportunity youth status on mental health. Findings from these studies support the developmental nature of disengagement (despite its heterogeneity) and its connection with mental health and substance use, as well as suggest the need for additional research into risk and protective factors.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020