Hospital wastewater usually contains high concentrations of pharmaceuticals and other hazardous materials, depending on how waste is disposed of in a hospital. This poses potential health concerns for both the surrounding ecosystem and the contamination of drinking water. Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) are at the forefront of treating hospital wastewater due to their efficiency in dealing with high concentrations of pharmaceuticals and the relatively small size of the MBR system. Although MBRs are typically the best method of dealing with pharmaceutical-containing wastewater, an MBR is just one of many methods for treating wastewater. Engineers should be consulted to determine which water treatment systems are best for a hospital, depending on the total water usage, required size of the system, and the duration of operation for the system. Sustainable water practices can be implemented in hospitals to reduce the cost and consumption of water. Treating and reusing hospital wastewater with membrane bioreactors significantly reduces the concentration of pharmaceuticals, making hospital wastewater reusable in various parts of a hospital, which lowers the consumption of water. Furthermore, other practices can be used to minimize costs for both MBRs and total water usage within a hospital.