Matching Items (12)

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Traumatic brain injury and vestibulo-ocular function: current challenges and future prospects

Description

Normal function of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) coordinates eye movement with head movement, in order to provide clear vision during motion and maintain balance. VOR is generated within the semicircular

Normal function of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) coordinates eye movement with head movement, in order to provide clear vision during motion and maintain balance. VOR is generated within the semicircular canals of the inner ear to elicit compensatory eye movements, which maintain stability of images on the fovea during brief, rapid head motion, otherwise known as gaze stability. Normal VOR function is necessary in carrying out activities of daily living (eg, walking and riding in a car) and is of particular importance in higher demand activities (eg, sports-related activities). Disruption or damage in the VOR can result in symptoms such as movement-related dizziness, blurry vision, difficulty maintaining balance with head movements, and even nausea. Dizziness is one of the most common symptoms following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is considered a risk factor for a prolonged recovery. Assessment of the vestibular system is of particular importance following TBI, in conjunction with oculomotor control, due to the intrinsic neural circuitry that exists between the ocular and vestibular systems. The purpose of this article is to review the physiology of the VOR and the visual-vestibular symptoms associated with TBI and to discuss assessment and treatment guidelines for TBI. Current challenges and future prospects will also be addressed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-02-17

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Diffuse traumatic brain injury affects chronic corticosterone function in the rat

Description

As many as 20–55% of patients with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) experience chronic endocrine dysfunction, leading to impaired quality of life, impaired rehabilitation efforts and lowered life

As many as 20–55% of patients with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) experience chronic endocrine dysfunction, leading to impaired quality of life, impaired rehabilitation efforts and lowered life expectancy. Endocrine dysfunction after TBI is thought to result from acceleration–deceleration forces to the brain within the skull, creating enduring hypothalamic and pituitary neuropathology, and subsequent hypothalamic–pituitary endocrine (HPE) dysfunction. These experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that a single diffuse TBI results in chronic dysfunction of corticosterone (CORT), a glucocorticoid released in response to stress and testosterone. We used a rodent model of diffuse TBI induced by midline fluid percussion injury (mFPI). At 2months postinjury compared with uninjured control animals, circulating levels of CORT were evaluated at rest, under restraint stress and in response to dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid commonly used to test HPE axis regulation. Testosterone was evaluated at rest. Further, we assessed changes in injury-induced neuron morphology (Golgi stain), neuropathology (silver stain) and activated astrocytes (GFAP) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Resting plasma CORT levels were decreased at 2months postinjury and there was a blunted CORT increase in response to restraint induced stress. No changes in testosterone were measured. These changes in CORT were observed concomitantly with altered complexity of neuron processes in the PVN over time, devoid of neuropathology or astrocytosis. Results provide evidence that a single moderate diffuse TBI leads to changes in CORT function, which can contribute to the persistence of symptoms related to endocrine dysfunction. Future experiments aim to evaluate additional HP-related hormones and endocrine circuit pathology following diffuse TBI.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Diffuse traumatic brain injury induces prolonged immune dysregulation and potentiates hyperalgesia following a peripheral immune challenge

Description

Background
Nociceptive and neuropathic pain occurs as part of the disease process after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans. Central and peripheral inflammation, a major secondary injury process initiated by

Background
Nociceptive and neuropathic pain occurs as part of the disease process after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans. Central and peripheral inflammation, a major secondary injury process initiated by the traumatic brain injury event, has been implicated in the potentiation of peripheral nociceptive pain. We hypothesized that the inflammatory response to diffuse traumatic brain injury potentiates persistent pain through prolonged immune dysregulation.
Results
To test this, adult, male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to midline fluid percussion brain injury or to sham procedure. One cohort of mice was analyzed for inflammation-related cytokine levels in cortical biopsies and serum along an acute time course. In a second cohort, peripheral inflammation was induced seven days after surgery/injury with an intraplantar injection of carrageenan. This was followed by measurement of mechanical hyperalgesia, glial fibrillary acidic protein and Iba1 immunohistochemical analysis of neuroinflammation in the brain, and flow cytometric analysis of T-cell differentiation in mucosal lymph. Traumatic brain injury increased interleukin-6 and chemokine ligand 1 levels in the cortex and serum that peaked within 1–9 h and then resolved. Intraplantar carrageenan produced mechanical hyperalgesia that was potentiated by traumatic brain injury. Further, mucosal T cells from brain-injured mice showed a distinct deficiency in the ability to differentiate into inflammation-suppressing regulatory T cells (Tregs).
Conclusions
We conclude that traumatic brain injury increased the inflammatory pain associated with cutaneous inflammation by contributing to systemic immune dysregulation. Regulatory T cells are immune suppressors and failure of T cells to differentiate into regulatory T cells leads to unregulated cytokine production which may contribute to the potentiation of peripheral pain through the excitation of peripheral sensory neurons. In addition, regulatory T cells are identified as a potential target for therapeutic rebalancing of peripheral immune homeostasis to improve functional outcome and decrease the incidence of peripheral inflammatory pain following traumatic brain injury.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05-13

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Temporal assessment of nanoparticle accumulation after experimental brain injury: Effect of particle size

Description

Nanoparticle (NP) based therapeutic and theranostic agents have been developed for various diseases, yet application to neural disease/injury is restricted by the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in

Nanoparticle (NP) based therapeutic and theranostic agents have been developed for various diseases, yet application to neural disease/injury is restricted by the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in a host of pathological alterations, including transient breakdown of the BBB, thus opening a window for NP delivery to the injured brain tissue. This study focused on investigating the spatiotemporal accumulation of different sized NPs after TBI. Specifically, animal cohorts sustaining a controlled cortical impact injury received an intravenous injection of PEGylated NP cocktail (20, 40, 100, and 500 nm, each with a unique fluorophore) immediately (0 h), 2 h, 5 h, 12 h, or 23 h after injury. NPs were allowed to circulate for 1 h before perfusion and brain harvest. Confocal microscopy demonstrated peak NP accumulation within the injury penumbra 1 h post-injury. An inverse relationship was found between NP size and their continued accumulation within the penumbra. NP accumulation preferentially occurred in the primary motor and somatosensory areas of the injury penumbra as compared to the parietal association and visual area. Thus, we characterized the accumulation of particles up to 500 nm at different times acutely after injury, indicating the potential of NP-based TBI theranostics in the acute period after injury.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-07-22

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Remote ischemic conditioning reduces traumatic brain injury induced acute lung injury in an experimental mouse model

Description

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) consists of the primary mechanical forces to the head followed by secondary inflammatory cascades. This inflammatory cascade consists of neuroinflammation characterized by microglial activation as the

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) consists of the primary mechanical forces to the head followed by secondary inflammatory cascades. This inflammatory cascade consists of neuroinflammation characterized by microglial activation as the first line of defense. Another component of secondary inflammation comprises of activation of peripheral immune cells that can infiltrate the compromised blood brain barrier and susceptible organs such as the lungs. Acute inflammatory processes in the lungs include a disruption of the epithelial barriers allowing infiltration of neutrophils, and edema build up in the alveoli. This is known as acute lung injury (ALI) and it dampens respiratory function in approximately 20-25% of TBI patients necessitating an intervention. Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) is an intervention consisting of repeated intervals of cessation and reperfusion of blood flow to a distal limb and has treated ALI, myocardial infarction, and neurological injury. TBI was hypothesized to induce ALI through degradation of alveolar-capillary membrane and infiltration of peripheral leukocytes. Furthermore, RIC was hypothesized to protect the integrity of the alveolar-capillary membrane, reduce infiltration of peripheral immune cells, and reduce microglial activation in the brain through myokine recruitment. Male CD1 mice were subject to either midline fluid percussion or sham injury and further randomized into 4 groups: sham, sham RIC, TBI, TBI RIC. RIC was administered on proximal thigh for 4x5 minutes, with 5-minute reperfusion one hour prior to TBI. One-hour post-injury, brain, lung, BAL fluid, and blood were collected. Lung histopathology showed RIC reduced hydrostatic edema in the alveoli by protecting the alveolar capillary membrane. BAL findings revealed TBI mice had increased neutrophil counts, RIC lowered neutrophil counts. In the brain, RIC increased cortex microglial endpoints were observed with no other significant differences in microglial morphology as well as plasma myokine levels across all sham, sham RIC, TBI, and TBI RIC animals. While underlying mechanisms still have to be further studied, this current study provides evidence that RIC can be used as a therapeutic intervention to ameliorate TBI-induce ALI.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Evaluation of tSNE and FlowSOM unsupervised analysis in mouse blood flow cytometry data after an inflammatory challenge

Description

Traumatic brain injury involves a primary mechanical injury that is followed by a secondary<br/>inflammatory cascade. The inflammatory cascade in the CNS releases cytokines which are<br/>associated with leukocytosis and a systemic

Traumatic brain injury involves a primary mechanical injury that is followed by a secondary<br/>inflammatory cascade. The inflammatory cascade in the CNS releases cytokines which are<br/>associated with leukocytosis and a systemic immune response. Acute changes to peripheral<br/>immune cell populations post-TBI include a 4.5-fold increase of neutrophils 3 hours post-injury,<br/>and 2.7-fold or higher increase of monocytes 24 hours post-injury. Flow Cytometry is a<br/>technique that integrates fluidics, optics, and electronics to characterize cells based on their light<br/>scatter and antigen expression via monoclonal antibodies conjugated to fluorochromes. Flow<br/>cytometry is a valuable tool in cell characterization however the standard technique for data<br/>analysis, manual gating, is associated with inefficiency, subjectivity, and irreproducibility.<br/>Unsupervised analysis that uses algorithms packaged as plug-ins for flow cytometry analysis<br/>software has been discussed as a solution to the limits of manual gating and as an alternative<br/>method of data visualization and exploration. This investigation evaluated the use of tSNE<br/>(dimensionality reduction algorithm) and FlowSOM (population clustering algorithm)<br/>unsupervised flow cytometry analysis of immune cell population changes in female mice that<br/>have been exposed to a LPS-induced systemic inflammatory challenge, results were compared to<br/>those of manual gating. Flow cytometry data was obtained from blood samples taken prior to and<br/>24 hours after LPS injection. Unsupervised analysis was able to identify populations of<br/>neutrophils and pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory monocytes, it also identified several more<br/>populations however further inquiry with a more specific fluorescent panel would be required to<br/>establish the specificity and validity of these populations. Unsupervised analysis with tSNE and<br/>FlowSOM demonstrated the efficient and intuitive nature of the technique, however it also<br/>illustrated the importance of the investigator in preparing data and modulating plug-in settings.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Time-Lapse Visualization of Microglia Cell Processes using Fluorescent Miniature (Miniscope) Imaging

Description

In the United States, an estimated 2 million cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI) resulting in more than 50,000 deaths occur every year. TBI induces an immediate primary injury resulting

In the United States, an estimated 2 million cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI) resulting in more than 50,000 deaths occur every year. TBI induces an immediate primary injury resulting in local or diffuse cell death in the brain. Then a secondary injury occurs through neuroinflammation from immune cells in response to primary injury. Microglia, the resident immune cell of the central nervous system, play a critical role in neuroinflammation following TBI. Microglia make up 10% of all cells in the nervous system and are the fastest moving cells in the brain, scanning the entire parenchyma every several hours. Microglia have roles in both the healthy and injured brain. In the healthy brain, microglia can produce neuroprotective factors, clear cellular debris, and organize neurorestorative processes to recover from TBI. However, microglia mediated neuroinflammation during secondary injury produces pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic mediators contributing to neuronal dysfunction, inhibition of CNS repair, and cell death. Furthermore, neuroinflammation is a prominent feature in many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s disease, of which include overactive microglia function. Microglia cell morphology, activation, and response to TBI is poorly understood. Currently, imaging microglia can only be performed while the animal is stationary and under anesthesia. The Miniscope technology allows for real-time visualization of microglia in awake behaving animals. The Miniscope is a miniature fluorescent microscope that can be implanted over a craniectomy to image microglia. Currently, the goals of Miniscope imaging are to improve image quality and develop time-lapse imaging capabilities. There were five main sub-projects that focused on these goals including surgical nose cone design, surgical holder design, improved GRIN lens setup, improved magnification through achromatic lenses, and time-lapse imaging hardware development. Completing these goals would allow for the visualization of microglia function in the healthy and injured brain, elucidating important immune functions that could provide new strategies for treating brain diseases.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Practical therapies for diffuse traumatic brain injury in the mouse: translational considerations

Description

Approximately 2.8 million Americans seek medical care for traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year. Of this population, the majority are sufferers of diffuse TBI, or concussion. It is unknown how

Approximately 2.8 million Americans seek medical care for traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year. Of this population, the majority are sufferers of diffuse TBI, or concussion. It is unknown how many more individuals decline to seek medical care following mild TBI. This likely sizeable population of un- or self-treated individuals combined with a lack of definitive biomarkers or objective post-injury diagnostics creates a unique need for practical therapies among diffuse TBI sufferers. Practical therapies stand to decrease the burden of TBI among those who would otherwise not seek treatment or do not meet clinical diagnostic criteria upon examination. For this unique treatment niche, practical therapies for TBI are defined as having one or more of the following qualities: common availability, easy administration, excellent safety profile, and cost-effectiveness. This dissertation identifies and critically examines the efficacy of four classes of practical treatments in improving rodent outcome from experimental diffuse traumatic brain injury.

Over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics, omega-3 fatty acids, specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs), and remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) were administered before or following midline fluid percussion injury. Behavioral, histological, and molecular analyses were used to assess treatment effects on functional outcome and secondary injury progression. Acute administration of common OTC analgesics had little effect on post-injury outcome in mice. Dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) prior to or following diffuse TBI significantly reduced injury-induced sensory sensitivity and markers of neuroinflammation with no effect on spatial learning. Intraperitoneal administration of omega-3 fatty acid-derived SPM resolvin E1 significantly increased post-injury sleep and suppressed microglial activation. Aspirin-triggered (AT) resolvin D1 administration improved both motor and cognitive outcome following diffuse TBI. RIC treatment in mice demonstrated little effect on functional outcome from diffuse TBI. Untargeted proteomic analysis of plasma samples from RIC-treated mice was used to identify candidate molecular correlates of RIC. Identification of these candidates represents a vital first step in elucidating the neuroprotective mechanisms underlying RIC. The overall findings suggest that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, SPM administration, and RIC may serve as effective practical therapies to reduce the somatic, cognitive, and neurological burden of diffuse TBI felt by millions of Americans.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Modulating chemokine receptor expression in neural stem cell transplants to promote migration after traumatic brain injury

Description

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health concern in the U.S., where approximately 1.7 million Americans sustain a TBI annually, an estimated 52,000 of which lead to death.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health concern in the U.S., where approximately 1.7 million Americans sustain a TBI annually, an estimated 52,000 of which lead to death. Almost half (43%) of all TBI patients report experiencing long-term cognitive and/or motor dysfunction. These long-term deficits are largely due to the expansive biochemical injury that underlies the mechanical injury traditionally associated with TBI. Despite this, there are currently no clinically available therapies that directly address these underlying pathologies. Preclinical studies have looked at stem cell transplantation as a means to mitigate the effects of the biochemical injury with moderate success; however, transplants suffer very low retention and engraftment rates (2-4%). Therefore, transplants need better tools to dynamically respond to the injury microenvironment.

One approach to develop new tools for stem cell transplants may be to look towards the endogenous repair response for inspiration. Specifically, activated cell types surrounding the injury secrete the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), which has been shown to play a critical role in recruiting endogenous neural progenitor/stem cells (NPSCs) to the site of injury. Therefore, it was hypothesized that improving NPSC response to SDF-1α may be a viable mechanism for improving NPSC transplant retention and migration into the surrounding host tissue. To this end, work presented here has 1. identified critical extracellular signals that mediate the NPSC response to SDF-1α, 2. incorporated these findings into the development of a transplantation platform that increases NPSC responsiveness to SDF-1α and 3. observed increased NPSC responsiveness to local exogenous SDF-1α signaling following transplantation within our novel system. Future work will include studies investigating NSPC response to endogenous, injury-induced SDF-1α and the application of this work to understanding differences between stem cell sources and their implications in cell therapies.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Domain Antibody Fragment Phage Display as a Biomarker Discovery Tool for Traumatic Brain Injury

Description

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects an estimated 1.7 million people in the United States each year and is a leading cause of death and disability for children and young adults

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects an estimated 1.7 million people in the United States each year and is a leading cause of death and disability for children and young adults in industrialized countries. Unfortunately, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of injury progression have yet to be fully elucidated. Consequently, this complexity impacts the development of accurate diagnosis and treatment options. Biomarkers, objective signatures of injury, can inform and facilitate development of sensitive and specific theranostic devices. Discovery techniques that take advantage of mining the temporal complexity of TBI are critical for the identification of high specificity biomarkers.

Domain antibody fragment (dAb) phage display, a powerful screening technique to uncover protein-protein interactions, has been applied to biomarker discovery in various cancers and more recently, neurological conditions such as Alzheimer’s Disease and stroke. The small size of dAbs (12-15 kDa) and ability to screen against brain vasculature make them ideal for interacting with the neural milieu in vivo. Despite these characteristics, implementation of dAb phage display to elucidate temporal mechanisms of TBI has yet to reach its full potential.

My dissertation employs a unique target identification pipeline that entails in vivo dAb phage display and next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis to screen for temporal biomarkers of TBI. Using a mouse model of controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury, targeting motifs were designed based on the heavy complementarity determining region (HCDR3) structure of dAbs with preferential binding to acute (1 day) and subacute (7 days) post-injury timepoints. Bioreactivity for these two constructs was validated via immunohistochemistry. Further, immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry analysis identified temporally distinct candidate biological targets in brain tissue lysate.

The pipeline of phage display followed by NGS analysis demonstrated a unique approach to discover motifs that are sensitive to the heterogeneous and diverse pathology caused by neural injury. This strategy successfully achieves 1) target motif identification for TBI at distinct timepoints and 2) characterization of their spatiotemporal specificity.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020