Matching Items (4)

On the Effects of Landscape Configuration on Summer Diurnal Temperatures in Urban Residential Areas: Application in Phoenix, AZ

Description

The impacts of land-cover composition on urban temperatures, including temperature extremes, are well documented. Much less attention has been devoted to the consequences of land-cover configuration, most of which addresses

The impacts of land-cover composition on urban temperatures, including temperature extremes, are well documented. Much less attention has been devoted to the consequences of land-cover configuration, most of which addresses land surface temperatures. This study explores the role of both composition and configuration—or land system architecture—of residential neighborhoods in the Phoenix metropolitan area, on near-surface air temperature. It addresses two-dimensional, spatial attributes of buildings, impervious surfaces, bare soil/rock, vegetation and the “urbanscape” at large, from 50 m to 550 m at 100 m increments, for a representative 30-day high sun period. Linear mixed-effects models evaluate the significance of land system architecture metrics at different spatial aggregation levels. The results indicate that, controlling for land-cover composition and geographical variables, land-cover configuration, specifically the fractal dimension of buildings, is significantly associated with near-surface temperatures. In addition, statistically significant predictors related to composition and configuration appear to depend on the adopted level of spatial aggregation.

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  • 2017-12-05

On the Association Between Land System Architecture and Land Surface Temperatures: Evidence From a Desert Metropolis - Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.A.

Description

The relationship between the characteristics of the urban land system and land surface temperature (LST) has received increasing attention in urban heat island and sustainability research, especially for desert cities.

The relationship between the characteristics of the urban land system and land surface temperature (LST) has received increasing attention in urban heat island and sustainability research, especially for desert cities. This research generally employs medium or coarser spatial resolution data and primarily focuses on the effects of a few classes of land-cover composition and pattern at the neighborhood or larger level using regression models. This study explores the effects of land system architecture—composition and configuration, both pattern and shape, of fine-grain land-cover classes—on LST of single family residential parcels in the Phoenix, Arizona (southwestern USA) metropolitan area. A 1 m resolution land-cover map is used to calculate land architecture metrics at the parcel level, and 6.8 m resolution MODIS/ASTER data are employed to retrieve LST. Linear mixed-effects models quantify the impacts of land configuration on LST at the parcel scale, controlling for the effects of land composition and neighborhood characteristics. Results indicate that parcel-level land-cover composition has the strongest association with daytime and nighttime LST, but the configuration of this cover, foremost compactness and concentration, also affects LST, with different associations between land architecture and LST at nighttime and daytime. Given information on land system architecture at the parcel level, additional information based on geographic and socioeconomic variables does not improve the generalization capability of the statistical models. The results point the way towards parcel-level land-cover design that helps to mitigate the urban heat island effect for warm desert cities, although tradeoffs with other sustainability indicators must be considered.

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  • 2017-02-14

Remote Sensing of the Surface Urban Heat Island and Land Architecture in Phoenix, Arizona: Combined Effects of Land Composition and Configuration and Cadastral/Demographic/Economic Factors

Description

This study seeks to determine the role of land architecture—the composition and configuration of land cover—as well as cadastral/demographic/economic factors on land surface temperature (LST) and the surface urban heat

This study seeks to determine the role of land architecture—the composition and configuration of land cover—as well as cadastral/demographic/economic factors on land surface temperature (LST) and the surface urban heat island effect of Phoenix, Arizona. It employs 1 m National Agricultural Imagery Program data of land-cover with 120mLandsat-derived land surface temperature, decomposed to 30 m, a new measure of configuration, the normalized moment of inertia, and U.S. Census data to address the question for two randomly selected samples comprising 523 and 545 residential neighborhoods (census blocks) in the city. The results indicate that, contrary to most other studies, land configuration has a stronger influence on LST than land composition. In addition, both land configuration and architecture combined with cadastral, demographic, and economic variables, capture a significant amount of explained variance in LST. The results indicate that attention to land architecture in the development of or reshaping of neighborhoods may ameliorate the summer extremes in LST.

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Date Created
  • 2015-12-29

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Object-Based Land-Cover Mapping with High Resolution Aerial Photography at a County Scale in Midwestern USA

Description

There are growing demands for detailed and accurate land cover maps in land system research and planning. Macro-scale land cover maps normally cannot satisfy the studies that require detailed land

There are growing demands for detailed and accurate land cover maps in land system research and planning. Macro-scale land cover maps normally cannot satisfy the studies that require detailed land cover maps at micro scales. In the meantime, applying conventional pixel-based classification methods in classifying high-resolution aerial imagery is ineffective to develop high accuracy land-cover maps, especially in spectrally heterogeneous and complicated urban areas. Here we present an object-based approach that identifies land-cover types from 1-meter resolution aerial orthophotography and a 5-foot DEM. Our study area is Tippecanoe County in the State of Indiana, USA, which covers about a 1300 km[superscript 2] land area. We used a countywide aerial photo mosaic and normalized digital elevation model as input datasets in this study. We utilized simple algorithms to minimize computation time while maintaining relatively high accuracy in land cover mapping at a county scale. The aerial photograph was pre-processed using principal component transformation to reduce its spectral dimensionality. Vegetation and non-vegetation were separated via masks determined by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. A combination of segmentation algorithms with lower calculation intensity was used to generate image objects that fulfill the characteristics selection requirements. A hierarchical image object network was formed based on the segmentation results and used to assist the image object delineation at different spatial scales. Finally, expert knowledge regarding spectral, contextual, and geometrical aspects was employed in image object identification. The resultant land cover map developed with this object-based image analysis has more information classes and higher accuracy than that derived with pixel-based classification methods.

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Date Created
  • 2014-11-01