Matching Items (110)

Using Bag of Words Approach for Classifying Native Arizona Snakes in Images as Venomous or Non-Venomous

Description

Uninformed people frequently kill snakes without knowing whether they are venomous or harmless, fearing for their safety. To prevent unnecessary killings and to encourage people to be safe around venomous

Uninformed people frequently kill snakes without knowing whether they are venomous or harmless, fearing for their safety. To prevent unnecessary killings and to encourage people to be safe around venomous snakes, a proper identification is important. This work seeks to preserve wild native Arizona snakes and promote a general interest in them by using a bag of features approach for classifying native Arizona snakes in images as venomous or non-venomous. The image category classifier was implemented in MATLAB and trained on a set of 245 images of native Arizona snakes (171 non-venomous, 74 venomous). To test this approach, 10-fold cross-validation was performed and the average accuracy was 0.7772. While this approach is functional, the results could be improved, ideally with a higher average accuracy, in order to be reliable. In false positives, the features may have been associated with the color or pattern, which is similar between venomous and non-venomous snakes due to mimicry. Polymorphic traits, color morphs, variation, and juveniles that may exhibit different colors can cause false negatives and misclassification. Future work involves pre-training image processing such as improving the brightness and contrast or converting to grayscale, interactively specifying or generating regions of interest for feature detection, and targeting reducing the false negative rate and improve the true positive rate. Further study is needed with a larger and balanced image set to evaluate its performance. This work may potentially serve as a tool for herpetologists to assist in their field research and to classify large image sets.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Using Facebook to Examine Smoking Behavior through ""Quit Smoking"" Support Groups

Description

Background: As the growth of social media platforms continues, the use of the constantly increasing amount of freely available, user-generated data they receive becomes of great importance. One apparent use

Background: As the growth of social media platforms continues, the use of the constantly increasing amount of freely available, user-generated data they receive becomes of great importance. One apparent use of this content is public health surveillance; such as for increasing understanding of substance abuse. In this study, Facebook was used to monitor nicotine addiction through the public support groups users can join to aid their quitting process. Objective: The main objective of this project was to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of nicotine addiction online and provide content analysis of Facebook posts obtained from "quit smoking" support groups. Methods: Using the Facebook Application Programming Interface (API) for Python, a sample of 9,970 posts were collected in October 2015. Information regarding the user's name and the number of likes and comments they received on their post were also included. The posts crawled were then manually classified by one annotator into one of three categories: positive, negative, and neutral. Where positive posts are those that describe current quits, negative posts are those that discuss relapsing, and neutral posts are those that were not be used to train the classifiers, which include posts where users have yet to attempt a quit, ads, random questions, etc. For this project, the performance of two machine learning algorithms on a corpus of manually labeled Facebook posts were compared. The classification goal was to test the plausibility of creating a natural language processing machine learning classifier which could be used to distinguish between relapse (labeled negative) and quitting success (labeled positive) posts from a set of smoking related posts. Results: From the corpus of 9,970 posts that were manually labeled: 6,254 (62.7%) were labeled positive, 1,249 (12.5%) were labeled negative, and 2467 (24.8%) were labeled neutral. Since the posts labeled neutral are those which are irrelevant to the classification task, 7,503 posts were used to train the classifiers: 83.4% positive and 16.6% negative. The SVM classifier was 84.1% accurate and 84.1% precise, had a recall of 1, and an F-score of 0.914. The MNB classifier was 82.8% accurate and 82.8% precise, had a recall of 1, and an F-score of 0.906. Conclusions: From the Facebook surveillance results, a small peak is given into the behavior of those looking to quit smoking. Ultimately, what makes Facebook a great tool for public health surveillance is that it has an extremely large and diverse user base with information that is easily obtainable. This, and the fact that so many people are actually willing to use Facebook support groups to aid their quitting processes demonstrates that it can be used to learn a lot about quitting and smoking behavior.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Design and Analysis of Algorithmic Trading Automation

Description

With the coming advances of computational power, algorithmic trading has become one of the primary strategies to trading on the stock market. To understand why and how these strategies have

With the coming advances of computational power, algorithmic trading has become one of the primary strategies to trading on the stock market. To understand why and how these strategies have been effective, this project has taken a look at the complete process of creating tools and applications to analyze and predict stock prices in order to perform low-frequency trading. The project is composed of three main components. The first component is integrating several public resources to acquire and process financial trading data and store it in order to complete the other components. Alpha Vantage API, a free open source application, provides an accurate and comprehensive dataset of features for each stock ticker requested. The second component is researching, prototyping, and implementing various trading algorithms in code. We began by focusing on the Mean Reversion algorithm as a proof of concept algorithm to develop meaningful trading strategies and identify patterns within our datasets. To augment our market prediction power (“alpha”), we implemented a Long Short-Term Memory recurrent neural network. Neural Networks are an incredibly effective but often complex tool used frequently in data science when traditional methods are found lacking. Following the implementation, the last component is to optimize, analyze, compare, and contrast all of the algorithms and identify key features to conclude the overall effectiveness of each algorithm. We were able to identify conclusively which aspects of each algorithm provided better alpha and create an entire pipeline to automate this process for live trading implementation. An additional reason for automation is to provide an educational framework such that any who may be interested in quantitative finance in the future can leverage this project to gain further insight.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Building Invariant, Robust And Stable Machine Learning Systems Using Geometry and Topology

Description

Over the past decade, machine learning research has made great strides and significant impact in several fields. Its success is greatly attributed to the development of effective machine learning algorithms

Over the past decade, machine learning research has made great strides and significant impact in several fields. Its success is greatly attributed to the development of effective machine learning algorithms like deep neural networks (a.k.a. deep learning), availability of large-scale databases and access to specialized hardware like Graphic Processing Units. When designing and training machine learning systems, researchers often assume access to large quantities of data that capture different possible variations. Variations in the data is needed to incorporate desired invariance and robustness properties in the machine learning system, especially in the case of deep learning algorithms. However, it is very difficult to gather such data in a real-world setting. For example, in certain medical/healthcare applications, it is very challenging to have access to data from all possible scenarios or with the necessary amount of variations as required to train the system. Additionally, the over-parameterized and unconstrained nature of deep neural networks can cause them to be poorly trained and in many cases over-confident which, in turn, can hamper their reliability and generalizability. This dissertation is a compendium of my research efforts to address the above challenges. I propose building invariant feature representations by wedding concepts from topological data analysis and Riemannian geometry, that automatically incorporate the desired invariance properties for different computer vision applications. I discuss how deep learning can be used to address some of the common challenges faced when working with topological data analysis methods. I describe alternative learning strategies based on unsupervised learning and transfer learning to address issues like dataset shifts and limited training data. Finally, I discuss my preliminary work on applying simple orthogonal constraints on deep learning feature representations to help develop more reliable and better calibrated models.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Super-resolution for Natural Images and Magnetic Resonance Images

Description

Image super-resolution (SR) is a low-level image processing task, which has manyapplications such as medical imaging, satellite image processing, and video enhancement,
etc. Given a low resolution image, it aims

Image super-resolution (SR) is a low-level image processing task, which has manyapplications such as medical imaging, satellite image processing, and video enhancement,
etc. Given a low resolution image, it aims to reconstruct a high resolution
image. The problem is ill-posed since there can be more than one high resolution
image corresponding to the same low-resolution image. To address this problem, a
number of machine learning-based approaches have been proposed.
In this dissertation, I present my works on single image super-resolution (SISR)
and accelerated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (a.k.a. super-resolution on MR
images), followed by the investigation on transfer learning for accelerated MRI reconstruction.
For the SISR, a dictionary-based approach and two reconstruction based
approaches are presented. To be precise, a convex dictionary learning (CDL)
algorithm is proposed by constraining the dictionary atoms to be formed by nonnegative
linear combination of the training data, which is a natural, desired property.
Also, two reconstruction-based single methods are presented, which make use
of (i)the joint regularization, where a group-residual-based regularization (GRR) and
a ridge-regression-based regularization (3R) are combined; (ii)the collaborative representation
and non-local self-similarity. After that, two deep learning approaches
are proposed, aiming at reconstructing high-quality images from accelerated MRI
acquisition. Residual Dense Block (RDB) and feedback connection are introduced
in the proposed models. In the last chapter, the feasibility of transfer learning for
accelerated MRI reconstruction is discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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On Feature Saliency and Deep Neural Networks

Description

Technological advances have allowed for the assimilation of a variety of data, driving a shift away from the use of simpler and constrained patterns to more complex and diverse patterns

Technological advances have allowed for the assimilation of a variety of data, driving a shift away from the use of simpler and constrained patterns to more complex and diverse patterns in retrieval and analysis of such data. This shift has inundated the conventional techniques and has stressed the need for intelligent mechanisms that can model the complex patterns in the data. Deep neural networks have shown some success at capturing complex patterns, including the so-called attentioned networks, have significant shortcomings in distinguishing what is important in data from what is noise. This dissertation observes that the traditional neural networks primarily rely solely on gradient-based learning to model deep features maps while ignoring the key insight in the data that can be leveraged as complementary information to help learn an accurate model. In particular, this dissertation shows that the localized multi-scale features (captured implicitly or explicitly) can be leveraged to help improve model performance as these features capture salient informative points in the data.

This dissertation focuses on “working with the data, not just on data”, i.e. leveraging feature saliency through pre-training, in-training, and post-training analysis of the data. In particular, non-neural localized multi-scale feature extraction, in images and time series, are relatively cheap to obtain and can provide a rough overview of the patterns in the data. Furthermore, localized features coupled with deep features can help learn a high performing network. A pre-training analysis of sizes, complexities, and distribution of these localized features can help intelligently allocate a user-provided kernel budget in the network as a single-shot hyper-parameter search. Additionally, these localized features can be used as a secondary input modality to the network for cross-attention. Retraining pre-trained networks can be a costly process, yet, a post-training analysis of model inferences can allow for learning the importance of individual network parameters to the model inferences thus facilitating a retraining-free network sparsification with minimal impact on the model performance. Furthermore, effective in-training analysis of the intermediate features in the network help learn the importance of individual intermediate features (neural attention) and this analysis can be achieved through simulating local-extrema detection or learning features simultaneously and understanding their co-occurrences. In summary, this dissertation argues and establishes that, if appropriately leveraged, localized features and their feature saliency can help learn high-accurate, yet cheaper networks.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Automatic text summarization using importance of sentences for email corpus

Description

With the advent of Internet, the data being added online is increasing at enormous rate. Though search engines are using IR techniques to facilitate the search requests from users, the

With the advent of Internet, the data being added online is increasing at enormous rate. Though search engines are using IR techniques to facilitate the search requests from users, the results are not effective towards the search query of the user. The search engine user has to go through certain webpages before getting at the webpage he/she wanted. This problem of Information Overload can be solved using Automatic Text Summarization. Summarization is a process of obtaining at abridged version of documents so that user can have a quick view to understand what exactly the document is about. Email threads from W3C are used in this system. Apart from common IR features like Term Frequency, Inverse Document Frequency, Term Rank, a variation of page rank based on graph model, which can cluster the words with respective to word ambiguity, is implemented. Term Rank also considers the possibility of co-occurrence of words with the corpus and evaluates the rank of the word accordingly. Sentences of email threads are ranked as per features and summaries are generated. System implemented the concept of pyramid evaluation in content selection. The system can be considered as a framework for Unsupervised Learning in text summarization.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Saliency cut: an automatic approach for video object segmentation based on saliency energy minimization

Description

Video object segmentation (VOS) is an important task in computer vision with a lot of applications, e.g., video editing, object tracking, and object based encoding. Different from image object segmentation,

Video object segmentation (VOS) is an important task in computer vision with a lot of applications, e.g., video editing, object tracking, and object based encoding. Different from image object segmentation, video object segmentation must consider both spatial and temporal coherence for the object. Despite extensive previous work, the problem is still challenging. Usually, foreground object in the video draws more attention from humans, i.e. it is salient. In this thesis we tackle the problem from the aspect of saliency, where saliency means a certain subset of visual information selected by a visual system (human or machine). We present a novel unsupervised method for video object segmentation that considers both low level vision cues and high level motion cues. In our model, video object segmentation can be formulated as a unified energy minimization problem and solved in polynomial time by employing the min-cut algorithm. Specifically, our energy function comprises the unary term and pair-wise interaction energy term respectively, where unary term measures region saliency and interaction term smooths the mutual effects between object saliency and motion saliency. Object saliency is computed in spatial domain from each discrete frame using multi-scale context features, e.g., color histogram, gradient, and graph based manifold ranking. Meanwhile, motion saliency is calculated in temporal domain by extracting phase information of the video. In the experimental section of this thesis, our proposed method has been evaluated on several benchmark datasets. In MSRA 1000 dataset the result demonstrates that our spatial object saliency detection is superior to the state-of-art methods. Moreover, our temporal motion saliency detector can achieve better performance than existing motion detection approaches in UCF sports action analysis dataset and Weizmann dataset respectively. Finally, we show the attractive empirical result and quantitative evaluation of our approach on two benchmark video object segmentation datasets.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Techniques for soundscape retrieval and synthesis

Description

The study of acoustic ecology is concerned with the manner in which life interacts with its environment as mediated through sound. As such, a central focus is that of the

The study of acoustic ecology is concerned with the manner in which life interacts with its environment as mediated through sound. As such, a central focus is that of the soundscape: the acoustic environment as perceived by a listener. This dissertation examines the application of several computational tools in the realms of digital signal processing, multimedia information retrieval, and computer music synthesis to the analysis of the soundscape. Namely, these tools include a) an open source software library, Sirens, which can be used for the segmentation of long environmental field recordings into individual sonic events and compare these events in terms of acoustic content, b) a graph-based retrieval system that can use these measures of acoustic similarity and measures of semantic similarity using the lexical database WordNet to perform both text-based retrieval and automatic annotation of environmental sounds, and c) new techniques for the dynamic, realtime parametric morphing of multiple field recordings, informed by the geographic paths along which they were recorded.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Exploring video denoising using matrix completion

Description

Video denoising has been an important task in many multimedia and computer vision applications. Recent developments in the matrix completion theory and emergence of new numerical methods which can efficiently

Video denoising has been an important task in many multimedia and computer vision applications. Recent developments in the matrix completion theory and emergence of new numerical methods which can efficiently solve the matrix completion problem have paved the way for exploration of new techniques for some classical image processing tasks. Recent literature shows that many computer vision and image processing problems can be solved by using the matrix completion theory. This thesis explores the application of matrix completion in video denoising. A state-of-the-art video denoising algorithm in which the denoising task is modeled as a matrix completion problem is chosen for detailed study. The contribution of this thesis lies in both providing extensive analysis to bridge the gap in existing literature on matrix completion frame work for video denoising and also in proposing some novel techniques to improve the performance of the chosen denoising algorithm. The chosen algorithm is implemented for thorough analysis. Experiments and discussions are presented to enable better understanding of the problem. Instability shown by the algorithm at some parameter values in a particular case of low levels of pure Gaussian noise is identified. Artifacts introduced in such cases are analyzed. A novel way of grouping structurally-relevant patches is proposed to improve the algorithm. Experiments show that this technique is useful, especially in videos containing high amounts of motion. Based on the observation that matrix completion is not suitable for denoising patches containing relatively low amount of image details, a framework is designed to separate patches corresponding to low structured regions from a noisy image. Experiments are conducted by not subjecting such patches to matrix completion, instead denoising such patches in a different way. The resulting improvement in performance suggests that denoising low structured patches does not require a complex method like matrix completion and in fact it is counter-productive to subject such patches to matrix completion. These results also indicate the inherent limitation of matrix completion to deal with cases in which noise dominates the structural properties of an image. A novel method for introducing priorities to the ranked patches in matrix completion is also presented. Results showed that this method yields improved performance in general. It is observed that the artifacts in presence of low levels of pure Gaussian noise appear differently after introducing priorities to the patches and the artifacts occur at a wider range of parameter values. Results and discussion suggesting future ways to explore this problem are also presented.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013