Matching Items (26)

The Importance and Integration of Dietary Fiber

Description

The concept of this thesis is the importance of dietary fiber and how it can be further integrated into the American diet. The adequate intake (AI) of fiber for men and women is thirty-eight and twenty-five grams respectively. I was

The concept of this thesis is the importance of dietary fiber and how it can be further integrated into the American diet. The adequate intake (AI) of fiber for men and women is thirty-eight and twenty-five grams respectively. I was inspired to focus my research on increasing fiber intake because the typical American consumes fifteen grams of dietary fiber which is well below the AI. The purpose of this project was to inform individuals on the importance of dietary fiber, but also to create and compile recipes which would make it easy for people to increase their intake of dietary fiber. There are two parts to this project: a literature review and a cookbook. The literature review discusses the health benefits of fiber as to how its properties of viscosity and fermentability allow for weight loss, decrease appetite and energy intake, decrease postprandial insulin and glucose levels, impact gut health, lower blood lipid levels in order to protect against atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, decrease inflammation, and reduce levels of inflammatory marker C-reactive protein. The cookbook provides the ideas for integrating high fiber foods into one's diet. There are three different categories in the cookbook: snacks, lunch and dinner, and breakfast. The snacks and breakfast provide around five grams of fiber per serving, if not more, whereas the lunch and dinner options provide around fifteen grams in a meal. Not only are these recipes high in fiber, but they are also nutrient dense, meaning they provide more than just the listed health benefits in the literature review. Having these recipes and increasing awareness of the benefits which they contain will help individuals to meet the AI of fiber while still enjoying delicious meals.

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Created

Date Created
2017-12

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Antiglycemic Properties of Mustard, a Condiment High in Vinegar

Description

According to the CDC, diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in the U.S. and rates are continuing to rise nationally and internationally. Chronically elevated blood glucose levels can lead to type 2 diabetes and other complications. Medications can

According to the CDC, diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in the U.S. and rates are continuing to rise nationally and internationally. Chronically elevated blood glucose levels can lead to type 2 diabetes and other complications. Medications can be used to treat diabetes, but often have side effects. Lifestyle and diet modifications can be just as effective as medications in helping to improve glycemic control, and prevent diabetes or improve the condition in those who have it. Studies have demonstrated that consuming vinegar with carbohydrates can positively impact postprandial glycemia in diabetic and healthy individuals. Continuous vinegar intake with meals may even reduce fasting blood glucose levels. Since vinegar is a primary ingredient in mustard, the purpose of this study was to determine if mustard consumption with a carbohydrate-rich meal (bagel and fruit juice) had an effect on the postprandial blood glucose levels of subjects. The results showed that mustard improved glycemia by 17% when subjects consumed the meal with mustard as opposed to the control. A wide variety of vinegars exists. The defining ingredient in all vinegars is acetic acid, behind the improvement in glycemic response observed with vinegar ingestion. Vinegar-containing foods range from mustard, to vinaigrette dressings, to pickled foods. The benefits of vinegar ingestion with carbohydrates are dose-dependent, meaning that adding even small amounts to meals can help. Making a conscious effort to incorporate these foods into meals, in addition to an overall healthy lifestyle, could provide an additional tool for diabetics and nondiabetics alike to consume carbohydrates in a healthier manner.

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Created

Date Created
2016-05

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An Examination of Fish Oil on Blood Clotting Times in Blood Types A and O

Description

Background. Research suggests that fish oil can be used as an intervention to increase clotting times and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Objective. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of fish oil supplementation on

Background. Research suggests that fish oil can be used as an intervention to increase clotting times and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Objective. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of fish oil supplementation on blood coagulation parameters in adults with blood type A (BTA) compared to blood type O (BTO) over an eight-week intervention.
Design. The study was a randomized, double-blind dietary intervention using healthy adults with blood types A or O. A total of 18 participants completed the study. Subjects were randomized into two groups: an experimental group (fish oil) made up of 7 BTO and 4 BTA adults, and a control group (coconut oil) made up of 4 BTO and 3 BTA adults. Non-fasting blood was drawn and analyzed for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (PTT), and international normalized ratio (INR) at weeks 0 and 8. A food frequency questionnaire was completed at week 0, and anthropometric data collected at weeks 0 and 8.
Results. Baseline PTT results differed significantly between blood types, 28.1±1.4 seconds and 29.7±1.3 seconds for BTA and BTO respectively (p<0.05). Physical activity differed significantly between the experimental and control group at baseline, 53.9±26.8 METS and 86.0±41.9 METS, respectively (p<0.05). In the Fish oil group, prothrombin time increased for BTA vs. BTO, 0.18±0.29 seconds vs -0.11±0.31 seconds respectively (p<0.10indicating a statistical trend). There were no other differences between groups for the other outcome variables.
Conclusion. Fish oil supplementation prolonged clotting time in BTA adults and may be a useful strategy in this population for reducing cardiovascular disease risk. More research is needed to verify and expand these results.

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Created

Date Created
2014-05

Development and Evaluation of a Nutritious Menu for Lions Camp Tatiyee: An Entrepreneurial Endeavor in Designing a Nutrition Program for Individuals with Special Needs

Description

The intention of this thesis is to create a cookbook to best serve the needs of all who attend Lions Camp Tatiyee. The cookbook was used as a resource in providing the Lions Camp Tatiyee Kitchen staff with simple, healthy

The intention of this thesis is to create a cookbook to best serve the needs of all who attend Lions Camp Tatiyee. The cookbook was used as a resource in providing the Lions Camp Tatiyee Kitchen staff with simple, healthy recipes to use in the implementation of their summer menu. This thesis discusses the culmination of the idea, the process of execution, current research concerning the relationship between nutrition and health concerns related to special needs, and achievements and further advancements of my creative project.

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Created

Date Created
2015-12

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Paleo Nutrition: Investigating Possible Consequences of Fad Dieting

Description

The aim of this paper is to investigate a few of the primary pillars of the Paleo diet for evidence to either support or refute their efficacy and safety such that a more educated decision can be made by lay-persons

The aim of this paper is to investigate a few of the primary pillars of the Paleo diet for evidence to either support or refute their efficacy and safety such that a more educated decision can be made by lay-persons who are wishing to make improvements in their overall health via dieting. To accomplish this goal a basic overview of The Paleo Diet (also known to some as the Paleolithic Nutrition Movement) is given based on the writings of Dr. Loren Cordain in his book The Paleo Diet. Next, analyses of a few of the basic characteristics of the diet are presented based on an in-depth literature review that was performed using PubMed (Medline), Cochrane and Google Scholar databases until March of 2015. The findings of this investigation raise concerns with respect to the safety of some of the main principles of the diet such as its high protein, low carbohydrate content that is relies heavily on the consumption of red meat. The current literature on what the diet of the people of the Paleolithic era may have consisted of is also presented in order to shed light on the origins of the diet and see how closely the diet prescribed The Paleo Diet meshes with the most current data on the topic.

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Date Created
2015-05

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Eating in the absence of hunger in college students

Description

The body is capable of regulating hunger in several ways. Some of these hunger regulation methods are innate, such as genetics, and some, such as the responses to stress and to the smell of food, are innate but can be

The body is capable of regulating hunger in several ways. Some of these hunger regulation methods are innate, such as genetics, and some, such as the responses to stress and to the smell of food, are innate but can be affected by body conditions such as BMI and physical activity. Further, some hunger regulation methods stem from learned behaviors originating from cultural pressures or parenting styles. These latter regulation methods for hunger can be grouped into the categories: emotion, environment, and physical. The factors that regulate hunger can also influence the incidence of disordered eating, such as eating in the absence of hunger (EAH). Eating in the absence of hunger can occur in one of two scenarios, continuous EAH or beginning EAH. College students are at a particularly high risk for EAH and weight gain due to stress, social pressures, and the constant availability of energy dense and nutrient poor food options. The purpose of this study is to validate a modified EAH-C survey in college students and to discover which of the three latent factors (emotion, environment, physical) best predicts continual and beginning EAH. To do so, a modified EAH-C survey, with additional demographic components, was administered to students at a major southwest university. This survey contained two questions, one each for continuing and beginning EAH, regarding 14 factors related to emotional, physical, or environmental reasons that may trigger EAH. The results from this study revealed that the continual and beginning EAH surveys displayed good internal consistency reliability. We found that for beginning and continuing EAH, although emotion is the strongest predictor of EAH, all three latent factors are significant predictors of EAH. In addition, we found that environmental factors had the greatest influence on an individual's likelihood to continue to eat in the absence of hunger. Due to statistical abnormalities and differing numbers of factors in each category, we were unable to determine which of the three factors exerted the greatest influence on an individual's likelihood to begin eating in the absence of hunger. These results can be utilized to develop educational tools aimed at reducing EAH in college students, and ultimately reducing the likelihood for unhealthy weight gain and health complications related to obesity.

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Created

Date Created
2013

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A comparison of the impact of temperature and glucose concentration on percent glycated serum albumin between chickens and humans

Description

The glycation of plasma proteins leading to the production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and subsequent damage is a driving factor in the pathophysiology of diabetic complications. The overall research objective was to elucidate the mechanisms by which birds

The glycation of plasma proteins leading to the production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and subsequent damage is a driving factor in the pathophysiology of diabetic complications. The overall research objective was to elucidate the mechanisms by which birds prevent protein glycation in the presence of naturally high plasma glucose concentrations. This was accomplished through the specific purpose of examining the impact of temperature and glucose concentration on the percent glycation of chicken serum albumin (CSA) in comparison to human serum albumin (HSA). Purified CSA and HSA solutions prepared at four different glucose concentrations (0 mM, 5.56 mM, 11.11 mM, and 22.22 mM) were incubated at three different temperatures (37.0°C, 39.8°C, and 41.4°C) on separate occasions for seven days with aliquots extracted on days 0, 3, and 7. Samples were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS for percent glycation of albumin. The statistically significant interaction between glucose concentration, temperature, albumin type, and time as determined by four-way repeated measures ANOVA (p = 0.032) indicated that all independent variables interacted to affect the mean percent glycation of albumin. As glucose concentration increased, the percent glycation of both HSA and CSA increased over time at all temperatures. In addition, HSA was glycated to a greater extent than CSA at the two higher glucose concentrations examined for all temperature conditions. Temperature differentially affected percent glycation of HSA and CSA wherein glycation increased with rising temperatures for HSA but not CSA. The results of this study suggest an inherent difference between the human and chicken albumin that contributes to the observed differences in glycation. Further research is needed to characterize this inherent difference in an effort to elucidate the mechanism by which birds protect plasma proteins from glycation. Future related work has the potential to lead to the development of novel therapies to prevent or reverse protein glycation prior to the formation of AGEs in humans, thus preventing the development and devastating effects of numerous diabetic complications.

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Created

Date Created
2016

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Are weight and diet related to the gut microbiome in healthy college students living in the dorms?: a cross-sectional observational analysis

Description

College weight gain and obesity are significant problems impacting our society, leading to a considerable number of comorbidities during and after college. Gut microbiota are increasingly recognized for their role in obesity and weight gain. Currently, research exploring

College weight gain and obesity are significant problems impacting our society, leading to a considerable number of comorbidities during and after college. Gut microbiota are increasingly recognized for their role in obesity and weight gain. Currently, research exploring the gut microbiome and its associations with dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) is limited among this population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess associations between the gut microbiome, BMI, and dietary intake in a population of healthy college students living in two dorms at Arizona State University (n=90). Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken including 24-hour dietary recalls and anthropometrics (height, weight and BMI). High throughput Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing of fecal samples was performed to quantify the gut microbiome and analyses were performed at phyla and family levels. Within this population, the mean BMI was 24.4 ± 5.3 kg/m2 and mean caloric intake was 1684 ± 947 kcals/day. Bacterial community analysis revealed that there were four predominant phyla and 12 predominant families accounting for 99.3% and 97.1% of overall microbial communities, respectively. Results of this study suggested that a significant association occurred between one principal component (impacted most by 22 microbial genera primarily within Firmicutes) and BMI (R2=0.053, p=0.0301). No significant correlations or group differences were observed when assessing the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in relation to BMI or habitual dietary intake. These results provide a basis for gut microbiome research in college populations. Although, findings suggest that groups of microbial genera may be most influential in obesity, further longitudinal research is necessary to more accurately describe these associations over me. Findings from future research may be used to develop interventions to shift the gut microbiome to help moderate or prevent excess weight gain during this important life stage.

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Created

Date Created
2016

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All About The Beets - Cookbook

Description

Beets have a history of bad reputation for not having the most appetizing qualities compared to other vegetables. Despite the nutritional and health benefits of Beta vulgaris rubra (commonly red beetroot or red beets) the potential of this vegetable has

Beets have a history of bad reputation for not having the most appetizing qualities compared to other vegetables. Despite the nutritional and health benefits of Beta vulgaris rubra (commonly red beetroot or red beets) the potential of this vegetable has yet to be glorified as compared to i.e. Brassica oleracea var. sabellica (kale), or Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa). When considering this root vegetable as a vehicle for providing your body with a source of dietary nitrate, Beta vulgaris rubra can be classified as a functional food. This work dives deeper into the function of Nitric Oxide (NO) within the human body, and explains the potential benefits of consuming red beets. Followed is a proposal for a cookbook focused on dishes containing this vegetable, as well as a sample of recipes varying from breakfast to dinner to dessert. The amount of nitrate provided by each serving of any of the dishes has not been established, and it is rather a creative attempt to shine positive light on this functional food.

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Created

Date Created
2016-12

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Kids in the Kitchen: A Cookbook for Little Chefs

Description

Cases of diet-related illnesses are some of the most common illnesses we witness today. From heart disease to type 2 diabetes, from obesity to hypertension, many of these diseases are easily prevented by lifestyle changes. However, it is much easier

Cases of diet-related illnesses are some of the most common illnesses we witness today. From heart disease to type 2 diabetes, from obesity to hypertension, many of these diseases are easily prevented by lifestyle changes. However, it is much easier to instill healthy habits in a population from the start rather than trying to change habits later, even if one's health depends on it. A pastime as simple as cooking allows us to take responsibility for our own health by (quite literally) taking it into our own hands. This is why I chose to write a cookbook for my honor's thesis. More importantly, this is why I chose to write a cookbook geared towards young children. My target audience is 8-11 years old because that's when I first started to cook, and it's a habit that has kept me well to this day. Within this cookbook, readers will find over 30 (mostly) healthy recipes for breakfast, lunch, dinner, snacks, and desserts, complete with written instructions and photographs to aid with meal preparation. My hope is that, during my career, I will be able to publish this book and distribute it to children who might not have an interest in cooking, but can learn basic cooking skills from my book. If kids get working in the kitchen, they might keep cooking as they grow older, which will help them keep control of their health for the better.

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Created

Date Created
2016-12