Matching Items (14)

133637-Thumbnail Image.png

The Role of Parenting and Parental Pain in Children's Chronic Pain Experience

Description

Children's chronic pain has many contributing factors, including family environment, genetics, and parenting. Still, pediatric chronic pain remains understudied, and little research has been conducted on predictors of child pain

Children's chronic pain has many contributing factors, including family environment, genetics, and parenting. Still, pediatric chronic pain remains understudied, and little research has been conducted on predictors of child pain onset. This study aims to elucidate some of these factors by examining the role of parenting style and parental pain in children's chronic pain experience. The study answered the following questions: 1) Is child chronic pain heritable?; 2) Do parenting styles and/or parental pain predict child pain?; and 3) Is parenting style the mediating variable in the relation between parent pain and child pain? A twin study design was employed to account for both genetic and environmental influences in pain. Primary and secondary caregivers completed pain questionnaires regarding their own and their children's pain. The caregivers also completed questionnaires regarding their own parenting styles. Observer ratings were used as additional measures of primary caregiver parenting. Results indicated that child pain is heritable and that parental pain was significantly related to child pain. However, parenting style did not predict child pain and was not a mediator in the relationship between parental pain and child pain. Further research on other parenting factors or predictors of pain may lead to prevention of pediatric chronic pain or more effective management of child pain symptoms.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

133481-Thumbnail Image.png

The Role of Calcium Channel Genes in Childhood Psychiatric Symptoms

Description

Adolescent mental health problems are predicative of future problems such as depression, anxiety, ADHD, compulsive disorder, and substance use. Previous studies show that in emerging adulthood, the high prevalence and

Adolescent mental health problems are predicative of future problems such as depression, anxiety, ADHD, compulsive disorder, and substance use. Previous studies show that in emerging adulthood, the high prevalence and associated burdens of psychopathology increase vulnerability to disorders. These diagnoses are less common but are more severe and chronic (Tanner et al., 2009). The causes of these disorders are still being explored with recent studies showing that these mental health problems are genetically influenced. This makes understanding which gene that corresponds to what biological system is important in determining mental health. From recent studies, genes that code for calcium channels are good candidates for mental health problems. These voltage-gated channels are important mediators for physiological functions in the central nervous system and their activation provides unique responses within the brain. In a previous study, it supports the association of polymorphisms in calcium and potassium channels with the genetic risk for bipolar disorders and other mental illness (Imbrici et al., 2013). The purpose of the study was to examine if calcium channel genes influence childhood psychiatric symptoms. The first goal of this study was to form a polygenic risk score representing genetic influence on calcium channels. The second goal was to use this risk score in genetic association analyses to understand genetic risk for childhood psychopathology. Overall, the study did accomplish the goal as a polygenic risk score was created and was used to examine genetic association with child psychopathology. Based on the results, the polygenic risk score was not correlated with either parent or child- reported symptoms; however, results did show that disorders were related to each other and differed by race.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

130389-Thumbnail Image.png

Interactions among catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype, parenting, and sex predict children's internalizing symptoms and inhibitory control: Evidence for differential susceptibility

Description

We used sex, observed parenting quality at 18 months, and three variants of the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (Val[superscript 158]Met [rs4680], intron1 [rs737865], and 3′-untranslated region [rs165599]) to predict mothers' reports of

We used sex, observed parenting quality at 18 months, and three variants of the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (Val[superscript 158]Met [rs4680], intron1 [rs737865], and 3′-untranslated region [rs165599]) to predict mothers' reports of inhibitory and attentional control (assessed at 42, 54, 72, and 84 months) and internalizing symptoms (assessed at 24, 30, 42, 48, and 54 months) in a sample of 146 children (79 male). Although the pattern for all three variants was very similar, Val[superscript 158]Met explained more variance in both outcomes than did intron1, the 3′-untranslated region, or a haplotype that combined all three catechol-O-methyltransferase variants. In separate models, there were significant three-way interactions among each of the variants, parenting, and sex, predicting the intercepts of inhibitory control and internalizing symptoms. Results suggested that Val[superscript 158]Met indexes plasticity, although this effect was moderated by sex. Parenting was positively associated with inhibitory control for methionine–methionine boys and for valine–valine/valine–methionine girls, and was negatively associated with internalizing symptoms for methionine–methionine boys. Using the “regions of significance” technique, genetic differences in inhibitory control were found for children exposed to high-quality parenting, whereas genetic differences in internalizing were found for children exposed to low-quality parenting. These findings provide evidence in support of testing for differential susceptibility across multiple outcomes.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-08-01

129218-Thumbnail Image.png

Trajectories of Sensory Over-Responsivity from Early to Middle Childhood: Birth and Temperament Risk Factors

Description

Sensory over-responsivity, a subtype of sensory modulation disorder, is characterized by extreme negative reactions to normative sensory experiences. These over-reactions can interfere with daily activities and cause stress to children

Sensory over-responsivity, a subtype of sensory modulation disorder, is characterized by extreme negative reactions to normative sensory experiences. These over-reactions can interfere with daily activities and cause stress to children and their families. The etiology and developmental course of sensory over-responsivity is still largely unknown. We measured tactile and auditory over-responsivity in a population-based, typically developing sample of twins (N=978) at age two years via a caregiver report temperament questionnaire and again at age seven years via a sensory over-responsivity symptom inventory. Participating twins were treated as singletons although all analyses controlled for clustering within families. Children were divided into four trajectory groups based on risk status at both ages: low symptom (N=768), remitted (N=75), late-onset (N=112), and chronic (N=24). A subset of children who screened positive for SOR in toddlerhood (N = 102) took part in a pilot study focused on sensory over-responsivity at four years of age. Children in the chronic group had more severe symptoms of sensory sensitivity at age four years, including more motion sensitivity, than the other trajectory groups. Children in the chronic group had a younger gestational age and were more likely to be low birth-weight than the low symptom group. Differences between remitted and late-onset groups and the low-symptoms group were inconsistent across measures. Sensory over-responsivity was modestly correlated across ages (r = .22 for tactile over-responsivity and r = .11 for auditory over-responsivity), but symptoms were more stable among children born prematurely or who had more fearful and less soothable temperaments. A clear implication is that assessment over development may be necessary for a valid sensory processing disorder diagnosis, and a speculative implication is that sensory over-responsivity symptoms may be etiologically heterogeneous, with different causes of transient and stable symptoms.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-06-24

129316-Thumbnail Image.png

Self-conscious Shyness: Growth during Toddlerhood, Strong Role of Genetics, and No Prediction from Fearful Shyness

Description

Fearful and self-conscious subtypes of shyness have received little attention in the empirical literature. Study aims included the following: (1) determining whether fearful shyness predicted self-conscious shyness, (2) describing development

Fearful and self-conscious subtypes of shyness have received little attention in the empirical literature. Study aims included the following: (1) determining whether fearful shyness predicted self-conscious shyness, (2) describing development of self-conscious shyness, and (3) examining genetic and environmental contributions to fearful and self-conscious shyness. Observed self-conscious shyness was examined at 19, 22, 25, and 28 months in same-sex twins (MZ = 102, DZ = 111, missing zygosity = 3 pairs). Self-conscious shyness increased across toddlerhood, but onset was earlier than predicted by theory. Fearful shyness (observed [6 and 12 months] and parents’ reports [12 and 22 months]) was not predictive of self-conscious shyness. Independent genetic factors made strong contributions to parent-reported (but not observed) fearful shyness (additive genetic influence = .69 and .72 at 12 and 22 months, respectively) and self-conscious shyness (additive genetic influence = .90 for the growth model intercept). Results encourage future investigation of patterns of change and inter-relations in shyness subtypes.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-03-01

129593-Thumbnail Image.png

Relative Influence of Genetics and Shared Environment on Child Mental Health Symptoms Depends on Comorbidity

Description

Background: Comorbidity among childhood mental health symptoms is common in clinical and community samples and should be accounted for when investigating etiology. We therefore aimed to uncover latent classes of

Background: Comorbidity among childhood mental health symptoms is common in clinical and community samples and should be accounted for when investigating etiology. We therefore aimed to uncover latent classes of mental health symptoms in middle childhood in a community sample, and to determine the latent genetic and environmental influences on those classes.
Methods: The sample comprised representative cohorts of twins. A questionnaire-based assessment of mental health symptoms was used in latent class analyses. Data on 3223 twins (1578 boys and 1645 girls) with a mean age of 7.5 years were analyzed. The sample was predominantly non-Hispanic Caucasian (92.1%).
Results: Latent class models delineated groups of children according to symptom profiles–not necessarily clinical groups but groups representing the general population, most with scores in the normative range. The best-fitting models suggested 9 classes for both girls and boys. Eight of the classes were very similar across sexes; these classes ranged from a ‘‘Low Symptom’’ class to a ‘‘Moderately Internalizing & Severely Externalizing’’ class. In addition, a ‘‘Moderately Anxious’’ class was identified for girls but not boys, and a ‘‘Severely Impulsive & Inattentive’’ class was identified for boys but not girls. Sex-combined analyses implicated moderate genetic influences for all classes. Shared environmental influences were moderate for the ‘‘Low Symptom’’ and ‘‘Moderately Internalizing & Severely Externalizing’’ classes, and small to zero for other classes.
Conclusions: We conclude that symptom classes are largely similar across sexes in middle childhood. Heritability was moderate for all classes, but shared environment played a greater role for classes in which no one type of symptom predominated.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-07-31

156704-Thumbnail Image.png

Examining the Link Between Emotional Childhood Abuse and Social Relationships in Midlife: The Moderating Role of the Oxytocin Receptor Gene

Description

The current study examined the unique influence of emotional childhood abuse on positive and negative aspects of different types of social relationships (e.g., family, spouse/partner, and friends) in midlife and

The current study examined the unique influence of emotional childhood abuse on positive and negative aspects of different types of social relationships (e.g., family, spouse/partner, and friends) in midlife and whether genetic variations of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) moderated these associations. Genetic variations in OXTR are measured by single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which have been the most substantially studied prospects for explaining individual differences in socio-behavioral phenotypes. Specifically, an SNP, rs53576, involving a guanine (G) to adenine (A) substitution located in the third intron of the OXTR has been associated with fundamental aspects of social processes and behaviors. Compared to A carriers, individuals homozygous for the G allele have enhanced social competencies and tend to elicit more positive responses from social partners, consequently increasing the overall quality of social relationships across the lifespan. However, the G allele of the OXTR has also been associated with greater social sensitivity. In the current study, conducted among a sample of 614 adults in midlife, it was shown that emotional childhood abuse was significantly associated with having less supportive and more strained relationships in midlife. Regarding supportive family relationships, the effect of emotional childhood abuse was moderated by the OXTR rs53576 polymorphism. Specifically, under conditions of more emotional abuse in childhood, individuals homozygous for the G allele had more supportive family relationships in midlife compared to A carriers. Overall, the findings suggest that genetic variations of OXTR rs53576 may be an important candidate in understanding the development of social relationship functioning within the context of negative early life experiences.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

154083-Thumbnail Image.png

Genetic and environmental influences on parenting, sibling conflict, and childhood sleep in five-year-old twins

Description

Understanding how interpersonal relationships, such as parenting and sibling relationships, may contribute to early sleep development is important, as early sleep dysregulation has been shown to impact later sleep behavior

Understanding how interpersonal relationships, such as parenting and sibling relationships, may contribute to early sleep development is important, as early sleep dysregulation has been shown to impact later sleep behavior (Sadeh & Anders, 1993), as well as cognitive and behavioral functioning (Gregory et al., 2006; Soffer-Dudek et al., 2011). In addition, twin studies provide an optimal opportunity to estimate genetic and environmental contributions to parenting, sibling relationships and child sleep, as they are influenced by both genetic and contextual factors. As such, the current thesis examined whether parental punitive discipline and sibling conflict were associated with child sleep duration, dysregulation and daytime sleepiness at 12 months, 30 months, and five years in a longitudinal sample of young twins recruited through birth records (Lemery-Chalfant et al., 2013). Mixed model regression analyses and quantitative behavioral genetic models (univariate and bivariate) were conducted to explore bidirectional relations and estimate genetic and environmental contributions to parental punitive punishment, sibling conflict and child sleep parameters. Sleep duration and dysregulation showed stability over time. Parental punitive discipline did not predict concurrent or future sleep parameters, nor were there bidirectional relations between punitive discipline and child sleep behaviors. Greater sibling conflict at five years was associated with shorter concurrent child sleep duration and greater daytime sleepiness, suggesting that sibling conflict may be a critical interpersonal stressor that negatively impacts child sleep. Shared environmental factors also accounted for the greatest proportion of the covariance between sibling conflict and sleep duration and daytime sleepiness at five years. These findings hold promise for sleep and sibling interaction interventions, including educating parents about fostering positive sibling relations and teaching caregivers to utilize specific parenting behaviors that may encourage better child sleep behaviors (e.g., establishing bedtime routines). Future studies should aim to understand the nuances of associations between family relationships (like punitive discipline and sibling conflict) and child sleep, as well as other explore person- and family-level factors, such as child negative emotions and parenting, that may influence associations between family relationships and child sleep.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

155074-Thumbnail Image.png

Stress reactivity as a predictor of emotional eating

Description

Childhood obesity is associated with many well established health risks as well as high annual public health costs. Because of this, the childhood obesity literature has highlighted the need to

Childhood obesity is associated with many well established health risks as well as high annual public health costs. Because of this, the childhood obesity literature has highlighted the need to detect at-risk groups in order to implement targeted preventions. Emotional eating has been identified as an unhealthy behavior and a risk factor for overweight status among children though very little is known about what predisposes children to emotionally eat. Stress has often been found to elicit emotional eating but most studies looking at this relationship have relied on self-reports in adult and clinical samples. Thus, the current study seeks to investigate the relationship between stress reactivity (measured using heart rate variability) and emotional eating in a sample of 247 children between the ages of 4-6. Furthermore, levels of control may moderate the relationship between stress reactivity (HRV) and emotional eating. Linear regression analysis was used to explore these relationships. It was expected that higher levels of reactivity to stress would predict an increased likelihood of emotional eating. This association was expected to be attenuated among children with higher levels of inhibitory control and attentional focusing as well as lower levels of impulsivity. However, the hypothesized findings were not supported by the data. Despite these null findings, and in light of several limitations, it is still hypothesized that emotional eating involves physiological and impulsivity/effortful control processes. Implications of future research are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

154400-Thumbnail Image.png

Temperament as a moderator of the relation between interparental conflict and maladjustment in children from divorced families

Description

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional study examined whether the temperament dimensions of negative emotionality, positive emotionality, and impulsivity moderated the relation between interparental conflict and children’s internalizing and externalizing problems. The sample consisted

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional study examined whether the temperament dimensions of negative emotionality, positive emotionality, and impulsivity moderated the relation between interparental conflict and children’s internalizing and externalizing problems. The sample consisted of 355 divorced mothers and their children (9-12 years old) who participated in a randomized controlled trial of a preventive parenting intervention for divorcing families. Children provided reports of their experiences of interparental conflict and internalizing and externalizing problems; mothers provided reports of children’s temperament and internalizing and externalizing problems. The relations were examined separately for child report and mother report of outcomes using multiple regression analyses. Results found no support for the interactive effect of interparental conflict and temperament dimensions on children’s internalizing or externalizing problems. Consistent with an additive model of their effects, interparental conflict and temperament dimensions were directly and independently related to the outcomes. There was a significant, positive effect of interparental conflict and negative emotionality on children’s internalizing and externalizing problems. Positive emotionality was significantly, negatively related to internalizing and externalizing problems. Impulsivity was significantly, positively related to externalizing problems only. The patterns of results varied somewhat across mother and child report of interparental conflict on externalizing problems and positive emotionality on internalizing problems. The results of this study are consistent with the previous research on the significant main effects of interparental conflict and temperament dimensions on children’s internalizing and externalizing problems. These findings suggest that children’s environment and intrapersonal characteristics, represented by children’s experiences of interparental conflict and temperament, both uniquely contribute to children’s post-divorce internalizing and externalizing problems.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016