Matching Items (18)

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A mixed signal adaptive ripple cancellation technique for integrated buck converters

Description

Switching regulator has several advantages over linear regulator, but the drawback of switching regulator is ripple voltage on output. Previously people use LDO following a buck converter and multi-phase buck

Switching regulator has several advantages over linear regulator, but the drawback of switching regulator is ripple voltage on output. Previously people use LDO following a buck converter and multi-phase buck converter to reduce the output voltage ripple. However, these two solutions also have obvious drawbacks and limitations.

In this thesis, a novel mixed signal adaptive ripple cancellation technique is presented. The idea is to generate an artificial ripple current with the same amplitude as inductor current ripple but opposite phase that has high linearity tracking behavior. To generate the artificial triangular current, duty cycle information and inductor current ripple amplitude information are needed. By sensing switching node SW, the duty cycle information can be obtained; by using feedback the amplitude of the artificial ripple current can be regulated. The artificial ripple current cancels out the inductor current, and results in a very low ripple output current flowing to load. In top level simulation, 19.3dB ripple rejection can be achieved.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Hosting Capacity for Renewable Generations in Distribution Grids

Description

Nowadays, the widespread introduction of distributed generators (DGs) brings great challenges to the design, planning, and reliable operation of the power system. Therefore, assessing the capability of a distribution network

Nowadays, the widespread introduction of distributed generators (DGs) brings great challenges to the design, planning, and reliable operation of the power system. Therefore, assessing the capability of a distribution network to accommodate renewable power generations is urgent and necessary. In this respect, the concept of hosting capacity (HC) is generally accepted by engineers to evaluate the reliability and sustainability of the system with high penetration of DGs. For HC calculation, existing research provides simulation-based methods which are not able to find global optimal. Others use OPF (optimal power flow) based methods where

too many constraints prevent them from obtaining the solution exactly. They also can not get global optimal solution. Due to this situation, I proposed a new methodology to overcome the shortcomings. First, I start with an optimization problem formulation and provide a flexible objective function to satisfy different requirements. Power flow equations are the basic rule and I transfer them from the commonly used polar coordinate to the rectangular coordinate. Due to the operation criteria, several constraints are

incrementally added. I aim to preserve convexity as much as possible so that I can obtain optimal solution. Second, I provide the geometric view of the convex problem model. The process to find global optimal can be visualized clearly. Then, I implement segmental optimization tool to speed up the computation. A large network is able to be divided into segments and calculated in parallel computing where the results stay the same. Finally, the robustness of my methodology is demonstrated by doing extensive simulations regarding IEEE distribution networks (e.g. 8-bus, 16-bus, 32-bus, 64-bus, 128-bus). Thus, it shows that the proposed method is verified to calculate accurate hosting capacity and ensure to get global optimal solution.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Modeling and Large Signal Stability Analysis of A DC/AC Microgrid

Description

The concept of the microgrid is widely studied and explored in both academic and industrial societies. The microgrid is a power system with distributed generations and loads, which is intentionally

The concept of the microgrid is widely studied and explored in both academic and industrial societies. The microgrid is a power system with distributed generations and loads, which is intentionally planned and can be disconnected from the main utility grid. Nowadays, various distributed power generations (wind resource, photovoltaic resource, etc.) are emerging to be significant power sources of the microgrid.

This thesis focuses on the system structure of Photovoltaics (PV)-dominated microgrid, precisely modeling and stability analysis of the specific system. The grid-connected mode microgrid is considered, and system control objectives are: PV panel is working at the maximum power point (MPP), the DC link voltage is regulated at a desired value, and the grid side current is also controlled in phase with grid voltage. To simulate the real circuits of the whole system with high fidelity instead of doing real experiments, PLECS software is applied to construct the detailed model in chapter 2. Meanwhile, a Simulink mathematical model of the microgrid system is developed in chapter 3 for faster simulation and energy management analysis. Simulation results of both the PLECS model and Simulink model are matched with the expectations. Next chapter talks about state space models of different power stages for stability analysis utilization. Finally, the large signal stability analysis of a grid-connected inverter, which is based on cascaded control of both DC link voltage and grid side current is discussed. The large signal stability analysis presented in this thesis is mainly focused on the impact of the inductor and capacitor capacity and the controller parameters on the DC link stability region. A dynamic model with the cascaded control logic is proposed. One Lyapunov large-signal stability analysis tool is applied to derive the domain of attraction, which is the asymptotic stability region. Results show that both the DC side capacitor and the inductor of grid side filter can significantly influence the stability region of the DC link voltage. PLECS simulation models developed for the microgrid system are applied to verify the stability regions estimated from the Lyapunov large signal analysis method.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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DC-DC Converter Design Using Big Data Methodology

Description

With the rapid advancement in the technologies related to renewable energies such

as solar, wind, fuel cell, and many more, there is a definite need for new power con

verting methods involving

With the rapid advancement in the technologies related to renewable energies such

as solar, wind, fuel cell, and many more, there is a definite need for new power con

verting methods involving data-driven methodology. Having adequate information is

crucial for any innovative ideas to fructify; accordingly, moving away from traditional

methodologies is the most practical way of giving birth to new ideas. While working

on a DC-DC buck converter, the input voltages considered for running the simulations

are varied for research purposes. The critical aspect of the new data-driven method

ology is to propose a machine learning algorithm. In this design, solving for inductor

value and power switching losses, the parameters can be achieved while keeping the

input and output ratio close to the value as necessary. Thus, implementing machine

learning algorithms with the traditional design of a non-isolated buck converter deter

mines the optimal outcome for the inductor value and power loss, which is achieved

by assimilating a DC-DC converter and data-driven methodology.

The present thesis investigates the different outcomes from machine learning al

gorithms in comparison with the dynamic equations. Specifically, the DC-DC buck

converter will be focused on the thesis. In order to determine the most effective way

of keeping the system in a steady-state, different circuit buck converter with different

parameters have been performed.

At present, artificial intelligence plays a vital role in power system control and

theory. Consequently, in this thesis, the approximation error estimation has been

analyzed in a DC-DC buck converter model, with specific consideration of machine

learning algorithms tools that can help detect and calculate the difference in terms

of error. These tools, called models, are used to analyze the collected data. In the

present thesis, a focus on such models as K-nearest neighbors (K-NN), specifically

the Weighted-nearest neighbor (WKNN), is utilized for machine learning algorithm

purposes. The machine learning concept introduced in the present thesis lays down

the foundation for future research in this area so that to enable further research on

efficient ways to improve power electronic devices with reduced power switching losses

and optimal inductor values.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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On Enhancing Microgrid Control and the Optimal Design of a Modular Solid-State Transformer with Grid-Forming Inverter

Description

This dissertation covers three primary topics and relates them in context. High frequency transformer design, microgrid modeling and control, and converter design as it pertains to the other topics are

This dissertation covers three primary topics and relates them in context. High frequency transformer design, microgrid modeling and control, and converter design as it pertains to the other topics are each investigated, establishing a summary of the state-of-the-art at the intersection of the three as a baseline. The culminating work produced by the confluence of these topics is a novel modular solid-state transformer (SST) design, featuring an array of dual active bridge (DAB) converters, each of which contains an optimized high-frequency transformer, and an array of grid-forming inverters (GFI) suitable for centralized control in a microgrid environment. While no hardware was produced for this design, detailed modeling and simulation has been completed, and results are contextualized by rigorous analysis and comparison with results from published literature. The main contributions to each topic are best presented by topic area. For transformers, contributions include collation and presentation of the best-known methods of minimum loss high-frequency transformer design and analysis, descriptions of the implementation of these methods into a unified design script as well as access to an example of such a script, and the derivation and presentation of novel tools for analysis of multi-winding and multi-frequency transformers. For microgrid modeling and control, contributions include the modeling and simulation validation of the GFI and SST designs via state space modeling in a multi-scale simulation framework, as well as demonstration of stable and effective participation of these models in a centralized control scheme under phase imbalance. For converters, the SST design, analysis, and simulation are the primary contributions, though several novel derivations and analysis tools are also presented for the asymmetric half bridge and DAB.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Soft-Switching Techniques of Power Conversion System in Automotive Chargers

Description

This thesis investigates different unidirectional topologies for the on-board charger in an electric vehicle and proposes soft-switching solutions in both the AC/DC and DC/DC stage of the converter with a

This thesis investigates different unidirectional topologies for the on-board charger in an electric vehicle and proposes soft-switching solutions in both the AC/DC and DC/DC stage of the converter with a power rating of 3.3 kW. With an overview on different charger topologies and their applicability with respect to the target specification a soft-switching technique to reduce the switching losses of a single phase boost-type PFC is proposed. This work is followed by a modification to the popular soft-switching topology, the dual active bridge (DAB) converter for application requiring unidirectional power flow. The topology named as the semi-dual active bridge (S-DAB) is obtained by replacing the fully active (four switches) bridge on the load side of a DAB by a semi-active (two switches and two diodes) bridge. The operating principles, waveforms in different intervals and expression for power transfer, which differ significantly from the basic DAB topology, are presented in detail. The zero-voltage switching (ZVS) characteristics and requirements are analyzed in detail and compared to those of DAB. A small-signal model of the new configuration is also derived. The analysis and performance of S-DAB are validated through extensive simulation and experimental results from a hardware prototype.

Secondly, a low-loss auxiliary circuit for a power factor correction (PFC) circuit to achieve zero voltage transition is also proposed to improve the efficiency and operating frequency of the converter. The high dynamic energy generated in the switching node during turn-on is diverted by providing a parallel path through an auxiliary inductor and a transistor placed across the main inductor. The paper discusses the operating principles, design, and merits of the proposed scheme with hardware validation on a 3.3 kW/ 500 kHz PFC prototype. Modifications to the proposed zero voltage transition (ZVT) circuit is also investigated by implementing two topological variations. Firstly, an integrated magnetic structure is built combining the main inductor and auxiliary inductor in a single core reducing the total footprint of the circuit board. This improvement also reduces the size of the auxiliary capacitor required in the ZVT operation. The second modification redirects the ZVT energy from the input end to the DC link through additional half-bridge circuit and inductor. The half-bridge operating at constant 50% duty cycle simulates a switching leg of the following DC/DC stage of the converter. A hardware prototype of the above-mentioned PFC and DC/DC stage was developed and the operating principles were verified using the same.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Hybrid AC-High Voltage DC Grid Stability and Controls

Description

The growth of energy demands in recent years has been increasing faster than the expansion of transmission facility construction. This tendency cooperating with the continuous investing on the renewable energy

The growth of energy demands in recent years has been increasing faster than the expansion of transmission facility construction. This tendency cooperating with the continuous investing on the renewable energy resources drives the research, development, and construction of HVDC projects to create a more reliable, affordable, and environmentally friendly power grid.

Constructing the hybrid AC-HVDC grid is a significant move in the development of the HVDC techniques; the form of dc system is evolving from the point-to-point stand-alone dc links to the embedded HVDC system and the multi-terminal HVDC (MTDC) system. The MTDC is a solution for the renewable energy interconnections, and the MTDC grids can improve the power system reliability, flexibility in economic dispatches, and converter/cable utilizing efficiencies.

The dissertation reviews the HVDC technologies, discusses the stability issues regarding the ac and HVDC connections, proposes a novel power oscillation control strategy to improve system stability, and develops a nonlinear voltage droop control strategy for the MTDC grid.

To verify the effectiveness the proposed power oscillation control strategy, a long distance paralleled AC-HVDC transmission test system is employed. Based on the PSCAD/EMTDC platform simulation results, the proposed power oscillation control strategy can improve the system dynamic performance and attenuate the power oscillations effectively.

To validate the nonlinear voltage droop control strategy, three droop controls schemes are designed according to the proposed nonlinear voltage droop control design procedures. These control schemes are tested in a hybrid AC-MTDC system. The hybrid AC-MTDC system, which is first proposed in this dissertation, consists of two ac grids, two wind farms and a five-terminal HVDC grid connecting them. Simulation studies are performed in the PSCAD/EMTDC platform. According to the simulation results, all the three design schemes have their unique salient features.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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High Power Density, High Efficiency Single Phase Transformer-less Photovoltaic String Inverters

Description

Two major challenges in the transformer-less, single-phase PV string inverters are common mode leakage currents and double-line-frequency power decoupling. In the proposed doubly-grounded inverter topology with innovative active-power-decoupling approach, both

Two major challenges in the transformer-less, single-phase PV string inverters are common mode leakage currents and double-line-frequency power decoupling. In the proposed doubly-grounded inverter topology with innovative active-power-decoupling approach, both of these issues are simultaneously addressed. The topology allows the PV negative terminal to be directly connected to the neutral, thereby eliminating the common-mode ground-currents. The decoupling capacitance requirement is minimized by a dynamically-variable dc-link with large voltage swing, allowing an all-film-capacitor implementation. Furthermore, the use of wide-bandgap devices enables the converter operation at higher switching frequency, resulting in smaller magnetic components. The operating principles, design and optimization, and control methods are explained in detail, and compared with other transformer-less, active-decoupling topologies. A 3 kVA, 100 kHz single-phase hardware prototype at 400 V dc nominal input and 240 V ac output has been developed using SiC MOSFETs with only 45 μF/1100 V dc-link capacitance. The proposed doubly-grounded topology is then extended for split-phase PV inverter application which results in significant reduction in both the peak and RMS values of the boost stage inductor current and allows for easy design of zero voltage transition. A topological enhancement involving T-type dc-ac stage is also developed which takes advantage of the three-level switching states with reduced voltage stress on the main switches, lower switching loss and almost halved inductor current ripple.

In addition, this thesis also proposed two new schemes to improve the efficiency of conventional H-bridge inverter topology. The first scheme is to add an auxiliary zero-voltage-transition (ZVT) circuit to realize zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) for all the main switches and inherent zero-current-switching (ZCS) for the auxiliary switches. The advantages include the provision to implement zero state modulation schemes to decrease the inductor current THD, naturally adaptive auxiliary inductor current and elimination of need for large balancing capacitors. The second proposed scheme improves the system efficiency while still meeting a given THD requirement by implementing variable instantaneous switching frequency within a line frequency cycle. This scheme aims at minimizing the combined switching loss and inductor core loss by including different characteristics of the losses relative to the instantaneous switching frequency in the optimization process.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Real-Time Simulation of a Smart Inverter

Description

With the increasing penetration of Photovoltaic inverters, there is a necessity for recent PV inverters to have smart grid support features for increased power system reliability and security. The grid

With the increasing penetration of Photovoltaic inverters, there is a necessity for recent PV inverters to have smart grid support features for increased power system reliability and security. The grid support features include voltage support, active and reactive power control. These support features mean that inverters should have bidirectional power and communication capabilities. The inverter should be able to communicate with the grid utility and other inverter modules.

This thesis studies the real time simulation of smart inverters using PLECS Real Time Box. The real time simulation is performed as a Controller Hardware in the Loop (CHIL) real time simulation. In this thesis, the power stage of the smart inverter is emulated in the PLECS Real Time Box and the controller stage of the inverter is programmed in the Digital Signal Processor (DSP) connected to the real time box. The power stage emulated in the real time box and the controller implemented in the DSP form a closed loop smart inverter.

This smart inverter, with power stage and controller together, is then connected to an OPAL-RT simulator which emulates the power distribution system of the Arizona State University Poly campus. The smart inverter then sends and receives commands to supply power and support the grid. The results of the smart inverter with the PLECS Real time box and the smart inverter connected to an emulated distribution system are discussed under various conditions based on the commands received by the smart inverter.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Accurate Estimation of Core Losses for PFC Inductors

Description

As the world becomes more electronic, power electronics designers have continuously designed more efficient converters. However, with the rising number of nonlinear loads (i.e. electronics) attached to the grid, power

As the world becomes more electronic, power electronics designers have continuously designed more efficient converters. However, with the rising number of nonlinear loads (i.e. electronics) attached to the grid, power quality concerns, and emerging legislation, converters that intake alternating current (AC) and output direct current (DC) known as rectifiers are increasingly implementing power factor correction (PFC) by controlling the input current. For a properly designed PFC-stage inductor, the major design goals include exceeding minimum inductance, remaining below the saturation flux density, high power density, and high efficiency. In meeting these goals, loss calculation is critical in evaluating designs. This input current from PFC circuitry leads to a DC bias through the filter inductor that makes accurate core loss estimation exceedingly difficult as most modern loss estimation techniques neglect the effects of a DC bias. This thesis explores prior loss estimation and design methods, investigates finite element analysis (FEA) design tools, and builds a magnetics test bed setup to empirically determine a magnetic core’s loss under any electrical excitation. In the end, the magnetics test bed hardware results are compared and future work needed to improve the test bed is outlined.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019