Matching Items (21)

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Review of the PE Metrics cognitive assessment tool for fifth grade students

Description

Study aim: this study examined the item difficulty and item discrimination scores for the HRFK PE Metrics cognitive assessment tool for 5th-grade students.
Materials and methods: ten elementary physical education

Study aim: this study examined the item difficulty and item discrimination scores for the HRFK PE Metrics cognitive assessment tool for 5th-grade students.
Materials and methods: ten elementary physical education teachers volunteered to participate. Based on convenience, participating teachers selected two 5th grade physical education classes. Teachers then gave students (N = 633) a 28-question paper and pencil HRFK exam using PE Metrics Standards 3 and 4. Item difficulty and discrimination analysis and Rasch Modeling were used data to determine underperforming items.
Results: analysis suggests that at least three items are problematic. The Rasch Model confirmed this result and identified similar items with high outfit mean square values and low Point Biserial correlation values.
Conclusions: teachers are in need of valid and reliable HRFK assessment tools. Without the removal of three items in the PE Metrics HRFK exam for 5th-grade students, complete use of the exam could offer incorrect conclusions.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-09-08

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Combined Impact of Aerobic Exercise and Music on Glycemic Control and Anxiety Symptoms in Type 2 Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Men and Women

Description

ABSTRACT
Background: Although aerobic exercise has been shown to improve the glycemic control of individuals with type 2 diabetes, a simple and effective approach to manage post-meal glycemic control remains

ABSTRACT
Background: Although aerobic exercise has been shown to improve the glycemic control of individuals with type 2 diabetes, a simple and effective approach to manage post-meal glycemic control remains less clear.
Purpose: This study examined the effect of 15-minute of post-meal aerobic exercise on the glycemic control and anxiety scores as compared with control trials in participants with and without type 2 diabetes.
Methods: Six adults volunteered to participate in the study (3 adults with type 2 diabetes, age = 44.33 ± 7.71; and 3 adults without type 2 diabetes, age = 31.67 ± 15.76). All participants received aerobic exercise intervention and control treatments. The aerobic exercise treatment was listening to upbeat music and dancing for 15-minutes, whereas the control participants ingested 1 gram of vitamin C 30-minutes post-meal. Glucose levels were measured at baseline, and the 10, and 15-minute mark in both exercise intervention and control conditions 30-minutes post-meal.
Results: There was a significant interaction between treatment and time on the change in glucose levels (P<0.001). There was a significant mean difference in change in glucose levels between exercise intervention and control conditions (P = 0.002). Change in glucose levels in exercise intervention was significantly decreased at 10-minute (-18 ± 4.35 vs. 1.67 ± 4.34, P = 0.009) and 15-minute (-24 ± 4.88 vs. 5.67 ± 4.88, P = 0.001) compared with control condition. Although there were no statistical differences in state anxiety scores between pre- and post-exercise intervention (p=0.42), there was a significant trend in the reduction of state anxiety scores in diabetic participants, as compared with healthy participants, after 15-minute exercise intervention (-8 vs. -1).
Conclusion: Aerobic exercise for 15-minute by dancing to music after a meal is an effective approach to controlling the blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic and healthy persons.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Prevalence of Optimal Lifestyle Behaviors in College Undergraduate Students

Description

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in the United States and remains a great public health challenge. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors (e.g., unhealthy diet, sedentary behavior, cigarette

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in the United States and remains a great public health challenge. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors (e.g., unhealthy diet, sedentary behavior, cigarette smoking, and obesity) are associated with a greater risk of incident CVD and all-cause mortality. From the prevention strategy, maintaining a healthy lifestyle throughout a lifetime is a key to CVD prevention. Nonetheless, the prevalence of healthy lifestyle behaviors in US communities is low as 3 to 5%. Moreover, the prevalence of a healthy population among college students remains unknown. Objective: We investigated the prevalence of healthy lifestyle behaviors among college students. Methods: We recruited 747 undergraduate students from Arizona State University using a survey questionnaire. The survey questionnaire investigated demographic characteristics, body mass index, dietary habits, physical activity habits, and smoking habits. The chi-square test was used to investigate the frequency of ideal lifestyle behaviors in college students. Results: Prevalence of students who met all 4 ideal health behaviors (ideal cardiovascular health) is very low at 7.6%. Approximately 55.7% of students had only 2 or less ideal lifestyle behaviors (poor cardiovascular health). In addition, there were no statistical differences in combined ideal lifestyle behaviors across gender and different years of undergraduate studies. Conclusion: College students had a very low prevalence of healthy lifestyle behaviors. Increasing healthy low-risk students throughout college education is an important strategy to prevent chronic disease morbidity and mortality at individual and population level.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Eating in the absence of hunger in college students

Description

The body is capable of regulating hunger in several ways. Some of these hunger regulation methods are innate, such as genetics, and some, such as the responses to stress and

The body is capable of regulating hunger in several ways. Some of these hunger regulation methods are innate, such as genetics, and some, such as the responses to stress and to the smell of food, are innate but can be affected by body conditions such as BMI and physical activity. Further, some hunger regulation methods stem from learned behaviors originating from cultural pressures or parenting styles. These latter regulation methods for hunger can be grouped into the categories: emotion, environment, and physical. The factors that regulate hunger can also influence the incidence of disordered eating, such as eating in the absence of hunger (EAH). Eating in the absence of hunger can occur in one of two scenarios, continuous EAH or beginning EAH. College students are at a particularly high risk for EAH and weight gain due to stress, social pressures, and the constant availability of energy dense and nutrient poor food options. The purpose of this study is to validate a modified EAH-C survey in college students and to discover which of the three latent factors (emotion, environment, physical) best predicts continual and beginning EAH. To do so, a modified EAH-C survey, with additional demographic components, was administered to students at a major southwest university. This survey contained two questions, one each for continuing and beginning EAH, regarding 14 factors related to emotional, physical, or environmental reasons that may trigger EAH. The results from this study revealed that the continual and beginning EAH surveys displayed good internal consistency reliability. We found that for beginning and continuing EAH, although emotion is the strongest predictor of EAH, all three latent factors are significant predictors of EAH. In addition, we found that environmental factors had the greatest influence on an individual's likelihood to continue to eat in the absence of hunger. Due to statistical abnormalities and differing numbers of factors in each category, we were unable to determine which of the three factors exerted the greatest influence on an individual's likelihood to begin eating in the absence of hunger. These results can be utilized to develop educational tools aimed at reducing EAH in college students, and ultimately reducing the likelihood for unhealthy weight gain and health complications related to obesity.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Effects of Motor-Assisted and Functional Electrical Stimulation Cyclings on Postprandial Glucose in Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes and Activities of Daily Living Disability

Description

Background: Effective glucose management using exercise modalities in older patients with type 2 diabetes and activities of daily living (ADL) disabilities are unknown.

Purpose: The study investigated the acute

Background: Effective glucose management using exercise modalities in older patients with type 2 diabetes and activities of daily living (ADL) disabilities are unknown.

Purpose: The study investigated the acute effects of motor-assisted cycling and functional electrical stimulation (FES) cycling on the 2-h postprandial glucose responses compared with sitting control in older adults with type 2 diabetes and ADL disabilities.

Methods: The study used a 3×3 crossover study design. Nine participants were randomly assigned to one of the three treatment sequences: ABC, BCA, and CAB. (A, motor-assisted cycling; B, FES cycling; C, sitting control). Linear mixed models (LMM) with Bonferroni post-hoc tests were used to test the mean differences for the 2-h postprandial glucose, estimated by the area under the curve (AUC) and incremental AUC (iAUC), between intervention and control treatments after adjustment for covariates (e.g., age, sex, and race).

Results: There were significant mean differences for iAUC (p = 0.005) and AUC (p = 0.038) across motor-assisted cycling, control, and FES cycling treatments. The FES cycling had a lower mean of 2-hour postprandial iAUC as compared with sitting control (iAUC 3.98 mmol∙h/L vs 6.92 mmol∙h/L, p = 0.006, effect size [ES] = 1.72) and the motor-assisted cycling (iAUC, 3.98 mmol∙h/L vs 6.19 mmol∙h/L , p = 0.0368, ES = 1.29), respectively. The FES cycling also had a lower mean of the 2-hour postprandial AUC as compared with sitting control (AUC, 18.29 mmol∙h/L vs 20.95 mmol∙h/L, p = 0.043, ES = 0.89), but had an AUC similar to the motor-assisted cycling (18.29 mmol∙h/L vs 20.23 mmol∙h/L , p = 0.183, ES = 0.19). There were no statistical differences in iAUC (6.19 mmol∙h/L vs 6.92 mmol∙h/L) and AUC (20.23 mmol∙h/L vs 20.95 mmol∙h/L) between the motor-assisted cycling and sitting control (all p>0.05).

Conclusion: Performing 30 minutes of FES cycling on a motor-assisted bike (40 Hz, 39 rpm, 25-29 mA) significantly decreased the 2-h postprandial glucose levels in older adults with type 2 diabetes and ADL disabilities. These findings suggested that FES cycling can be a promising exercise modality for glucose management in diabetic patients with ADL disabilities.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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The Effect of Resistance Training on Arterial Stiffness and Central Hemodynamics

Description

Cardiovascular disease has long been one of the leading causes of morbidity in the world and places a large burden on the health care system. Exercise has been shown to

Cardiovascular disease has long been one of the leading causes of morbidity in the world and places a large burden on the health care system. Exercise has been shown to reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and the risk factors associated with it. Much of the focus of research has been on aerobic exercise modalities and their effect on these risk factors, and less is known in regard to the effect of resistance training. One novel risk factor for cardiovascular disease is arterial stiffness, specifically aortic stiffness. Aortic stiffness can be measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and central pressure characteristics such as central blood pressures and augmentation index. The objective of this study was to assess the effect that two different 12-week long resistance training interventions would have on these measurements in sedentary, overweight and obese men and women (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). Twenty-one subjects completed the study and were randomized into one of the following groups: control, a low repetition/high load (LRHL) group which performed 3 sets of 5 repetitions for all exercises, and a high repetition/low load (HRLL) group which performed 3 sets of 15 repetitions for all exercises. Those in the resistance training groups performed full-body exercise routines on 3 nonconsecutive days of the week. Changes in arterial stiffness, central blood pressures, and brachial blood pressures were measured before and after the 12-week intervention period. PWV showed significant group by time interaction (p= 0.024) but upon post hoc testing no significant differences were observed due to the control group confounding (control: 7.6 ± 0.8 vs. 7.1 ± 0.8, LRHL: 6.7 ± 0.5 vs. 6.9 ± 0.5, HRLL: 7.03 ± 0.67 vs. 6.59). No other significant interactions or differences were observed for any of the variables tested. Based on the results of this study a 12-week long resistance intervention training, neither high nor moderate-intensity resistance training, resulted in improvements in indices of vascular stiffness or central and peripheral blood pressures.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Effects of eight weeks of high-intensity interval training on blood glucose control, endothelial function, and visceral fat in obese adults

Description

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of death in the United States and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity lead to cardiovascular disease. Obese adults are more susceptible

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of death in the United States and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity lead to cardiovascular disease. Obese adults are more susceptible to CVD compared to their non-obese counterparts. Exercise training leads to large reductions in the risk of CVD and T2D. Recent evidence suggests high-intensity interval training (HIT) may yield similar or superior benefits in a shorter amount of time compared to traditional continuous exercise training. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of HIT to continuous (CONT) exercise training for the improvement of endothelial function, glucose control, and visceral adipose tissue. Seventeen obese men (N=9) and women (N=8) were randomized to eight weeks of either HIT (N=9, age=34 years, BMI=37.6 kg/m2) or CONT (N=8, age=34 years, BMI=34.6 kg/m2) exercise 3 days/week for 8 weeks. Endothelial function was assessed via flow-mediated dilation (FMD), glucose control was assessed via continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), and visceral adipose tissue and body composition was measured with an iDXA. Incremental exercise testing was performed at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. There were no changes in weight, fat mass, or visceral adipose tissue measured by the iDXA, but there was a significant reduction in body fat that did not differ by group (46±6.3 to 45.4±6.6%, P=0.025). HIT led to a significantly greater improvement in FMD compared to CONT exercise (HIT: 5.1 to 9.0%; CONT: 5.0 to 2.6%, P=0.006). Average 24-hour glucose was not improved over the whole group and there were no group x time interactions for CGM data (HIT: 103.9 to 98.2 mg/dl; CONT: 99.9 to 100.2 mg/dl, P>0.05). When statistical analysis included only the subjects who started with an average glucose at baseline > 100 mg/dl, there was a significant improvement in glucose control overall, but no group x time interaction (107.8 to 94.2 mg/dl, P=0.027). Eight weeks of HIT led to superior improvements in endothelial function and similar improvements in glucose control in obese subjects at risk for T2D and CVD. HIT was shown to have comparable or superior health benefits in this obese sample with a 36% lower total exercise time commitment.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Effects of intermittent vs. continuous exercise on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and glucose regulation

Description

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of two novel intermittent exercise prescriptions on glucose regulation and ambulatory blood pressure. Methods: Ten subjects (5 men

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of two novel intermittent exercise prescriptions on glucose regulation and ambulatory blood pressure. Methods: Ten subjects (5 men and 5 women, ages 31.5 ± 5.42 yr, height 170.38 ± 9.69 cm and weight 88.59 ± 18.91 kg) participated in this four-treatment crossover trial. All subjects participated in four trials, each taking place over three days. On the evening of the first day, subjects were fitted with a continuous glucose monitor (CGM). On the second day, subjects were fitted with an ambulatory blood pressure monitor (ABP) and underwent one of the following four conditions in a randomized order: 1) 30-min: 30 minutes of continuous exercise at 60 - 70% VO2peak; 2) Mod 2-min: twenty-one 2-min bouts of walking at 3 mph performed once every 20 minutes; 3) HI 2-min: eight 2-min bouts of walking at maximal incline performed once every hour; 4) Control: a no exercise control condition. On the morning of the third day, the CGM and ABP devices were removed. All meals were standardized during the study visits. Linear mixed models were used to compare mean differences in glucose and blood pressure regulation between the four trials. Results: Glucose concentrations were significantly lower following the 30-min (91.1 ± 14.9 mg/dl), Mod 2-min (93.7 ± 19.8 mg/dl) and HI 2-min (96.1 ± 16.4 mg/dl) trials as compared to the Control (101.1 ± 20 mg/dl) (P < 0.001 for all three comparisons). The 30-min trial was superior to the Mod 2-min, which was superior to the HI 2-min trial in lowering blood glucose levels (P < 0.001 and P = 0.003 respectively). Only the 30-min trial was effective in lowering systolic ABP (124 ± 12 mmHg) as compared to the Control trial (127 ± 14 mmHg; P < 0.001) for up to 11 hours post exercise. Conclusion: Performing frequent short (i.e., 2 minutes) bouts of moderate or high intensity exercise may be a viable alternative to traditional continuous exercise in improving glucose regulation. However, 2-min bouts of exercise are not effective in reducing ambulatory blood pressure in healthy adults.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Adoption and use of social media among registered dietitians nationwide: implications for health communication

Description

Currently, there has been limited research on evaluating the social media use and

competency level of registered dietitian
utritionists (RD/N). With health information increasingly sought on social media, it is imperative

Currently, there has been limited research on evaluating the social media use and

competency level of registered dietitian
utritionists (RD/N). With health information increasingly sought on social media, it is imperative to understand the social media competency of health professionals. The social media use, reach, and competency level of a nationwide RD/N sample was assessed utilizing an online survey. The sample (n=500) while mostly female (97%) was representative of RD/Ns compared to the nationwide statistics from the Commission on Dietetic Registration. The sample included RD/Ns from forty-six states with California (n=44), New York (n=42), and Texas (n=34) having the largest proportion of respondents. The majority of RD/Ns engage in social media for personal use (92.4%) and 39.2% engage for professional use. One hundred and twenty-five RD/Ns reported 777 ± 1063 (mean ± SD) social media followers. As compared to non-millennial RD/Ns, millennial RD/Ns engaged significantly more in social media for personal and professional use (+10% and +13.5% respectively, p<0.001) and scored significantly higher for social media competency (p<0.001). Additionally, food and nutrition management and consultant/private practice/industry RD/Ns had significantly higher competency scores than clinical RD/Ns (p=0.015 and p=0.046, respectively). RD/Ns who use social media personally and professionally had a significantly higher competency score than RD/Ns who did not (p<0.001). There were significant associations of Facebook, Twitter, total followers and total average followers with the social media competency score (r=0.265, 0.404, 0.338, & 0.320, respectively) in RD/Ns. Specifically, the social media competency score, was found to explain 16% of the variation in the number of Twitter followers and 10% of the variation in the average number of followers by platform. These data suggest an opportunity to increase RD/Ns’ social media reach (i.e. following) by improving competency level.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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The effects of assisted cycle therapy on executive and motor functioning in young adult females with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Description

Voluntary exercise has been shown to generate post exercise improvements in executive function within the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) population. Research is limited on the link between exercise and motor

Voluntary exercise has been shown to generate post exercise improvements in executive function within the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) population. Research is limited on the link between exercise and motor function in this population. Whether or not changes in executive and motor function are observed under assisted exercise conditions is unknown. This study examined the effect of a six-week cycling intervention on executive and motor-function responses in young adult females with ADHD. Participants were randomized to either a voluntary exercise (VE) or an assisted exercise (AE) group. Both groups performed 30 minute cycling sessions, three times per week, at either a voluntary or assisted rate, on a modified Theracycle Model 200 motorized stationary cycle ergometer. The Mann-Whitney U tests were used to detect median differences between groups, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to test median differences within groups. Executive function improvements were greater for AE compared to VE in activation (MDNAE = 162 vs. MDNVE = 308, U = .00, p = .076, ES = .79); planning (MDNAE = 51.0 vs. MDNAE = 40.5, U = .00, p = .083, ES = .77); attention (MDNAE = 13.0 vs. MDNVE = 10.0, U = .00, p = .083, ES = .77); and working memory (MDNAE = 10.0 vs. MDNVE = 6.5, U = .00, p = .076, ES = .79). Motor function improvements were greater for AE compared to VE in manual dexterity (MDNAE = 18 vs. MDNVE = 15.8, U = .00, p = .083, ES = .77); bimanual coordination (MDNAE = 28.0 vs. MDNVE = 25.3, U = .00, p = .083, ES = .77); and gross motor movements of the fingers, hands, and arms (MDNAE = 61.7 vs. MDNVE = 56.0, U = .00, p = .083, ES = .77). Deficits in executive and motor functioning have been linked to lifelong social and psychological impairments in individuals with ADHD. Finding ways to improve functioning in these areas is important for cognitive, emotional and social stability. Compared to VE, AE is a more effective strategy for improving executive and motor functioning in young adult females with ADHD.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014