Matching Items (3)

Sex-specific association patterns in bonobos and chimpanzees reflect species differences in cooperation

Description

In several group-living species, individuals' social preferences are thought to be influenced by cooperation. For some societies with fission–fusion dynamics, sex-specific association patterns reflect sex differences in cooperation in within-

In several group-living species, individuals' social preferences are thought to be influenced by cooperation. For some societies with fission–fusion dynamics, sex-specific association patterns reflect sex differences in cooperation in within- and between-group contexts. In our study, we investigated this hypothesis further by comparing sex-specific association patterns in two closely related species, chimpanzees and bonobos, which differ in the level of between-group competition and in the degree to which sex and kinship influence dyadic cooperation. Here, we used long-term party composition data collected on five chimpanzee and two bonobo communities and assessed, for each individual of 10 years and older, the sex of its top associate and of all conspecifics with whom it associated more frequently than expected by chance. We found clear species differences in association patterns. While in all chimpanzee communities males and females associated more with same-sex partners, in bonobos males and females tended to associate preferentially with females, but the female association preference for other females is lower than in chimpanzees. Our results also show that, for bonobos (but not for chimpanzees), association patterns were predominantly driven by mother–offspring relationships. These species differences in association patterns reflect the high levels of male–male cooperation in chimpanzees and of mother–son cooperation in bonobos. Finally, female chimpanzees showed intense association with a few other females, and male chimpanzees showed more uniform association across males. In bonobos, the most differentiated associations were from males towards females. Chimpanzee male association patterns mirror fundamental human male social traits and, as in humans, may have evolved as a response to strong between-group competition. The lack of such a pattern in a closely related species with a lower degree of between-group competition further supports this notion.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05-03

131663-Thumbnail Image.png

Validating morphological condition indices and their relationship with reproductive success in great-tailed grackles

Description

Morphological variation among individuals has the potential to influence multiple life history characteristics such as dispersal, migration, reproductive success, and survival (Wilder et al., 2016). Research has shown that individuals

Morphological variation among individuals has the potential to influence multiple life history characteristics such as dispersal, migration, reproductive success, and survival (Wilder et al., 2016). Research has shown that individuals that are in better "condition" can disperse or migrate further or more successfully, have greater reproductive success, and survive for longer (Wilder et al., 2016; Heidinger et al., 2010; Liao et al., 2011), particularly in years where environmental conditions are harsh (Milenkaya et al., 2014). An individual's body condition can be defined in various ways, but is most often considered an individual's energetic or immune state (Milenkaya et al., 2014). Since these traits are hard to measure directly, researchers have instead used a variety of morphological proxy variables to quantify condition such as fat score (Kaiser, 1993), weight, ratio of weight to tarsus length (Labocha et al., 2014), a scaled mass index (Peig and Green, 2009), as well as hematological indices for immune system function (Fleskes et al., 2017, Kraft et al., 2019). However, there is mixed support regarding whether these condition indices relate to life history characteristics (Wilder et al., 2016; Labocha et al., 2014), and whether the relationship is linear (Mcnamara et al., 2005; Milenkaya et al., 2014). Additionally, although some researchers use multiple morphological proxy variables for condition (e.g. Warnock and Bishop, 1998), rarely have there been direct comparisons among proxies to validate that they measure the same trait. In this investigation, we define condition as an energetic state and we attempt to measure it by comparing two indices (fat score and the scaled mass index) to validate whether they measure the same trait in our study system, the great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus). We found that the morphological proxy variables did not correlate with each other, indicating that they were not measuring the same trait. Further, the proxy variables did not correlate with reproductive success, measured as whether a female had a fledgling and whether a male held a territory containing nests. These results improve our understanding of measures of condition in grackles, and birds in general, and the importance of condition for reproductive success - a necessary component for selection to act.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

131422-Thumbnail Image.png

Investigating sex differences in genetic relatedness in great-tailed grackles in Tempe, Arizona to infer potential sex biases in dispersal

Description

In most bird species, females disperse prior to their first breeding attempt, while males remain close to the place they were hatched for their entire lives (Greenwood and Harvey (1982)).

In most bird species, females disperse prior to their first breeding attempt, while males remain close to the place they were hatched for their entire lives (Greenwood and Harvey (1982)). Explanations for such female bias in natal dispersal have focused on the potential benefits that males derive from knowing the local environment to establish territories, while females search for suitable mates (Greenwood (1980)). However, the variables shaping dispersal decisions appear more complex (Mabry et al. (2013), Végvári et al. (2018)). There are a number of different variables that could act as a driving force behind dispersal including the social mating system, food competition, inbreeding avoidance, predation, and others. Here, we investigate whether females are the dispersing sex in great-tailed grackles, which have a mating system where the males hold territories and the females choose which territory to place their nest in (Johnson et al. (2000)). We used genetic approaches to identify sex biases in the propensity to disperse. In the experiment, we found that the male grackles were less related to each other while the female grackles were more related to each other. Building on that, the average distance between closely related individuals of the male group was longer than the average distance of closely related females. But, the mantel correlograms for the males and females both lack a consistent trend. Overall, the results indicated suggest that the males are the dispersing sex while the females are potentially philopatric and that the average dispersal distance for the grackle is greater than 2000 meters, the size of the sampling range used in the experiment. These results will inform our long-term study on the relationship between behavioral flexibility and rapid geographic range expansion by elucidating which individuals are likely to experience similar conditions across their lives, and which are likely to face new conditions when they become breeders.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05