Matching Items (4)

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Gender Non-Normative Behaviors in the Predictors of Peer Victimization

Description

The main purpose of this thesis was to further explore factors that render particular children more susceptible to bullying and peer victimization. Race, age, and the activities that the children participated in were considered potential predictors of bullying and victimization.

The main purpose of this thesis was to further explore factors that render particular children more susceptible to bullying and peer victimization. Race, age, and the activities that the children participated in were considered potential predictors of bullying and victimization. Self- and peer-reported data were gathered on 437 first and third grade children (234 boys and 203 girls, M age = 7 years, 6 months), including the frequency of peer victimization and the extent of their engagement in gender-typed activities. Activities were identified as either masculine (e.g., watching sports on television, playing with tools) or feminine (e.g., playing house, cheerleading) according to which sex was mostly likely to engage in them. Mixed support was obtained for the hypothesis that boys are at greater risk for being targets of peer aggression. Specifically, while peer-reports of victimization supported this hypothesis, self-reports revealed no sex differences. Support was obtained for the hypotheses that engaging in cross gender-typed activities would be a stronger risk factor for peer victimization for boys than for girls.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2013-05

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The Role of Moral Disengagement in the Associations Between Children's Social Goals and Aggression

Description

The construct of moral disengagement has increasingly been used by researchers to account for the asymmetry between children’s moral reasoning and their moral behavior. According to this theory, moral disengagement occurs most aptly when children are motivated to violate their

The construct of moral disengagement has increasingly been used by researchers to account for the asymmetry between children’s moral reasoning and their moral behavior. According to this theory, moral disengagement occurs most aptly when children are motivated to violate their moral beliefs, such as when they hold antisocial goals during social conflict. In line with this, the current study examined whether moral disengagement would mediate the associations among children’s antisocial and prosocial goals and aggressive behavior, both concurrently and over time. Specifically, cross-sectional and longitudinal data from 379 children were examined during and across their fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade school years. Findings provide evidence that moral disengagement mediates the concurrent association between antisocial goals and higher levels of aggressive behavior, as well as the concurrent association between prosocial goals and lower levels of aggressive behavior. Further, moral disengagement emerged as a significant mediator of the longitudinal association between prosocial goals and lower rates of aggressive behavior toward peers across the span of middle childhood. Finally, moral disengagement also emerged as a potential mechanism in the continued endorsement of relationship maintenance goals over time. Findings are discussed in terms of theoretical and practical implications.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2015-01-01

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Child-level predictors of boys' and girls' trajectories of physical, verbal, and relational victimization

Description

For some children, peer victimization stops rather quickly, whereas for others it marks the beginning of a long trajectory of peer abuse (Kochenderfer-Ladd & Wardrop, 2001). Unfortunately, we know little about these trajectories and what factors may influence membership in

For some children, peer victimization stops rather quickly, whereas for others it marks the beginning of a long trajectory of peer abuse (Kochenderfer-Ladd & Wardrop, 2001). Unfortunately, we know little about these trajectories and what factors may influence membership in increasing or decreasing victimization over time. To address this question, I identified children's developmental patterns of victimization in early elementary school and examined which child-level factors influenced children's membership in victimization trajectories using latent growth mixture modeling. Results showed that boys and girls demonstrated differential victimization patterns over time that also varied by victimization type. For example, boys experienced more physical victimization than girls and increased victimization over time was predicted by boys who display high levels of negative emotion (e.g., anger) towards peers and low levels of effortful control (e.g., gets frustrated easily). Conversely, girls exhibited multiple trajectories of increasing relational victimization (i.e., talking about others behind their back) over time, whereas most boys experienced low levels or only slightly increasing relational victimization over time. For girls, withdrawn behavior lack of positive emotion, and displaying of negative emotions was predictive of experiencing high levels of victimization over time.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2015

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Students’ Perceptions of Engagement in Online Courses and Its Effect on Academic Performance and Retention Rates

Description

Online learning in higher education has been increasing over the last two decades (NCES, 2016). Previous research has highlighted the importance of student engagement for academic achievement and performance (Fuller, Wilson, & Tobin, 2011; Northey et al., 2018).

Online learning in higher education has been increasing over the last two decades (NCES, 2016). Previous research has highlighted the importance of student engagement for academic achievement and performance (Fuller, Wilson, & Tobin, 2011; Northey et al., 2018). The current study aims to further understand students’ perceptions of peer interactions, assess the application of the Theory of Involvement in online learning environments, and identify factors of student engagement. Data were collected from 1,514 undergraduate students enrolled in online courses at Arizona State University (Mage = 25.96 years old; SD = 7.64; 1,259 female, 232 male, 12 non-binary, and 1 gender fluid). The results of this dissertation study indicate that the vast majority of students (94% of the sample) want opportunities for peer interaction in their online courses. Confirmatory Factor Analyses were conducted to validate three of the primary measures and these measurement models were used in subsequent analyses. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) revealed that students who demonstrated high levels of Academic, Online Community, Life Application, and Social Engagement were more likely to perform well on measures of Academic Performance (i.e., doing well on quizzes or tests, earning higher letter grades). Additional SEM analyses indicated that sense of a community was related to all four aspects of student engagements. There was evidence that certain pedagogical factors were also associated with higher rates of student engagement. For example, students who reported high levels for Instructional Design (e.g., felt the course objectives were clear) were more likely to be academically engaged (i.e., demonstrated strong study habits). Lastly, while there were no significant differences in student engagement by gender, ethnicity, or living arrangements, students who valued peer interaction were more likely to report higher levels of Online Student Engagement. The findings of this research emphasize the desire online students have to interact with their peers, demonstrates the importance of engaging online students, and serves as a guide for educators in creating online courses that foster student engagement.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2021