Matching Items (3)

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Gender Non-Normative Behaviors in the Predictors of Peer Victimization

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The main purpose of this thesis was to further explore factors that render particular children more susceptible to bullying and peer victimization. Race, age, and the activities that the children

The main purpose of this thesis was to further explore factors that render particular children more susceptible to bullying and peer victimization. Race, age, and the activities that the children participated in were considered potential predictors of bullying and victimization. Self- and peer-reported data were gathered on 437 first and third grade children (234 boys and 203 girls, M age = 7 years, 6 months), including the frequency of peer victimization and the extent of their engagement in gender-typed activities. Activities were identified as either masculine (e.g., watching sports on television, playing with tools) or feminine (e.g., playing house, cheerleading) according to which sex was mostly likely to engage in them. Mixed support was obtained for the hypothesis that boys are at greater risk for being targets of peer aggression. Specifically, while peer-reports of victimization supported this hypothesis, self-reports revealed no sex differences. Support was obtained for the hypotheses that engaging in cross gender-typed activities would be a stronger risk factor for peer victimization for boys than for girls.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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The Role of Moral Disengagement in the Associations Between Children's Social Goals and Aggression

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The construct of moral disengagement has increasingly been used by researchers to account for the asymmetry between children’s moral reasoning and their moral behavior. According to this theory, moral disengagement

The construct of moral disengagement has increasingly been used by researchers to account for the asymmetry between children’s moral reasoning and their moral behavior. According to this theory, moral disengagement occurs most aptly when children are motivated to violate their moral beliefs, such as when they hold antisocial goals during social conflict. In line with this, the current study examined whether moral disengagement would mediate the associations among children’s antisocial and prosocial goals and aggressive behavior, both concurrently and over time. Specifically, cross-sectional and longitudinal data from 379 children were examined during and across their fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade school years. Findings provide evidence that moral disengagement mediates the concurrent association between antisocial goals and higher levels of aggressive behavior, as well as the concurrent association between prosocial goals and lower levels of aggressive behavior. Further, moral disengagement emerged as a significant mediator of the longitudinal association between prosocial goals and lower rates of aggressive behavior toward peers across the span of middle childhood. Finally, moral disengagement also emerged as a potential mechanism in the continued endorsement of relationship maintenance goals over time. Findings are discussed in terms of theoretical and practical implications.

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Date Created
  • 2015-01-01

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Child-level predictors of boys' and girls' trajectories of physical, verbal, and relational victimization

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For some children, peer victimization stops rather quickly, whereas for others it marks the beginning of a long trajectory of peer abuse (Kochenderfer-Ladd & Wardrop, 2001). Unfortunately, we know little

For some children, peer victimization stops rather quickly, whereas for others it marks the beginning of a long trajectory of peer abuse (Kochenderfer-Ladd & Wardrop, 2001). Unfortunately, we know little about these trajectories and what factors may influence membership in increasing or decreasing victimization over time. To address this question, I identified children's developmental patterns of victimization in early elementary school and examined which child-level factors influenced children's membership in victimization trajectories using latent growth mixture modeling. Results showed that boys and girls demonstrated differential victimization patterns over time that also varied by victimization type. For example, boys experienced more physical victimization than girls and increased victimization over time was predicted by boys who display high levels of negative emotion (e.g., anger) towards peers and low levels of effortful control (e.g., gets frustrated easily). Conversely, girls exhibited multiple trajectories of increasing relational victimization (i.e., talking about others behind their back) over time, whereas most boys experienced low levels or only slightly increasing relational victimization over time. For girls, withdrawn behavior lack of positive emotion, and displaying of negative emotions was predictive of experiencing high levels of victimization over time.

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Date Created
  • 2015