Matching Items (57)

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Glioblastoma in the Crosshairs: Development of a Dual Reporter Assay for Discovery of Olig2 Inhibiting Drugs

Description

A coincidence reporter construct, consisting of the p21-promoter and two luciferase genes (Firefly and Renilla), was constructed for the screening of drugs that might inhibit Olig2's tumorigenic role in glioblastoma.

A coincidence reporter construct, consisting of the p21-promoter and two luciferase genes (Firefly and Renilla), was constructed for the screening of drugs that might inhibit Olig2's tumorigenic role in glioblastoma. The reporter construct was tested using an Olig2 inhibitor, HSP990, as well as short hairpin RNA targeting Olig2. Further confirmatory analysis is needed before the reporter cell line is ready for high-throughput screening at the NIH and lead compound selection.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Alternative Treatments for Endocrine Resistant Breast Cancer

Description

The focus of this project was to look at alternative treatments for endocrine resistant breast cancer (ERBC), which are breast cancers that have become resistant to hormone therapies such as

The focus of this project was to look at alternative treatments for endocrine resistant breast cancer (ERBC), which are breast cancers that have become resistant to hormone therapies such as Tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors. The first part of this project involves investigating the relationship between histone de-acetylase inhibitor Vorinostat and Tamoxifen in MCF7 G11 cells, Tamoxifen resistant sub-clones, according to the PSOC Time grant. The second part involves targeting the androgen receptor (AR) in MCF7 sub-clones with AR antagonists, Bicalutamide and MDV3100, and investigating the possible usage of AR as a biomarker, due to over-expression of AR in ERBC, in accordance with the Mayo ASU Seed Grant.
The synergistic effects between Vorinostat and Tamoxifen observed through a phase II study on breast cancer patients resistant to hormone therapy may involve more than the modulation of ER-alpha to reverse Tamoxifen resistance in ERBC cells. RT-qPCR of genes expressed in Tamoxifen resistant cells, trefoil factor 1(TFF1) and v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC), were evaluated along with ESR1 and Diablo as a control. MYC was observed to have increased expression in the treated cells, whereas the other genes had a decrease in their expression levels after the cells were treated for 3 days with Vorinostat IC30 of 1 µM. As for targeting the AR, MCF7 Tamoxifen sensitive and resistant cells were not affected by the AR antagonists to determine an IC50. The cell viability for all MCF7 sub-clones only decreased for high concentrations of 5.56 µM - 50 µM in Bicalutamide and 16.67 µM – 50 µM of MDV1300. Furthermore, hormone depletion of MCF7 G11 Tamoxifen resistant sub-clones did not show a great response to DHT stimulation or the AR antagonists. In the RT-qPCR, the MCF7 G11 cells showed an increase in mRNA expression for ER, AR, and PR after 4 hours of treatment with estradiol. As for the DHT treatment, ER, AR, PR, and PSA had a minimal increase in the fold change, but the fold change in AR was less than in the estradiol treatment. The Mayo Clinic will investigate the possible usage of AR as a biomarker through immunohistochemistry.

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  • 2014-05

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Global Identification of AMPylation Substrates for SidM using Human Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays

Description

AMPylation is a post-translation modification that has an important role in the survival of many bacterial pathogens by affecting the host cell's molecular signaling. In the course of studying this

AMPylation is a post-translation modification that has an important role in the survival of many bacterial pathogens by affecting the host cell's molecular signaling. In the course of studying this intercellular manipulation, there has only been modest progression in the identification of the enzymes with AMPylation capabilities (AMPylators) and their respective targets. The reason for these minimal developments is the inability to analyze a large subset of these proteins. Therefore, to increase the efficiency of the identification and characterization of the proteins, Yu et al developed a high-throughput non-radioactive discovery platform using Human Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays (NAPPA) and a validation platform using bead-based assays. The large-scale unbiased screening of potential substrates for two bacterial AMPylators containing Fic domain, VopS and IbpAFic2, had been performed and dozens of novel substrates were identified and confirmed. With the efficiency of this method, the platform was extended to the identification of novel substrates for a Legionella virulence factor, SidM, containing a different adenylyl transferase domain. The screening was performed using NAPPA arrays comprising of 10,000 human proteins, the active AMPylator SidM, and its inactive D110/112A mutant as a negative control. Many potential substrates of SidM were found, including Rab GTPases and non-GTPase proteins. Several of which have been confirmed with the bead-based AMPylation assays.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Development of Viral Protein Arrays to Study the Role of Viral Infections in Type 1 Diabetes

Description

The pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is still not fully understood in the scientific community. Evidence has shown that viral infections are one of the important environmental factors associated

The pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is still not fully understood in the scientific community. Evidence has shown that viral infections are one of the important environmental factors associated with the disease development. Seven of the top T1D related viruses were selected to study the prevalence of viral humoral response in T1D patients using our innovative protein array platform called Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Array (NAPPA). In this study, each viral gene was individually captured using various PCR based techniques, cloned into a protein expression vector, and assembled as the first version of T1D viral protein array. Humoral responses of IgG, IgA, and IgM were examined. Although each class of immunoglobulin generated a wide-range of reactivity, responses to various viral proteins from different proteins were observed. In summary, we captured most of the T1D related viral genes, established viral protein expression on the protein array, and displayed the serum response on the viral protein array. The successful progress will help to fulfill the long term goal of testing the viral infection hypothesis in T1D development.

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  • 2013-05

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Differential Relationships Among Autoantibody Responses to P53 Family Proteins in Late Stage Colorectal Cancer

Description

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most highly diagnosed cancers in the United States and accounts for 9.5% of all new cancer cases worldwide. With a 50% five-year prognosis,

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most highly diagnosed cancers in the United States and accounts for 9.5% of all new cancer cases worldwide. With a 50% five-year prognosis, it is the second highest cancerous cause of death in the U.S. CRC tumors express antigens that are capable of inducing an immune response. The identification of autoantibodies (AAb) against tumor-associated antigens (TAA) may facilitate personalized tumor treatment in the form of targeted immunotherapy. The objective of this study was to observe the AAb expression raised against a 2000 human gene survey in late-stage colorectal cancer using the Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays (NAPPA). AAbs from serum samples were collected from 80 patients who died within 24 months of their last blood draw and 80 age and gender matched healthy control were profiled using NAPPA. TAA p53, a well-established protein that is one of the most highly mutated across a variety of cancers, was one of the top candidates based on statistical analysis, which, along with its family proteins p63 and p73 (which showed inverse AAb response profiles) warranted further testing via RAPID ELISA. Statistical analysis from these results revealed an inverse differential relationship between p53 and p63, in which p53 seropositivity was higher in patients than in controls, while the opposite was unexpectedly the case for p63. This study involving the AAb immunoprofiling of advanced stage CRC patients is one of the first to shed light on the high-throughput feasibility of immunoproteomic experiments using protein arrays as well as the identification of immunotherapy targets in a more rapid move towards specialized treatment of advanced CRC.

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  • 2014-12

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Discovery and characterization of a potential human AMPylator

Description

Protein AMPylation is a recently discovered and relatively unstudied post-translational modification (PTM). AMPylation has previously been shown to play an important role in metabolic regulation and host pathogenesis in bacteria,

Protein AMPylation is a recently discovered and relatively unstudied post-translational modification (PTM). AMPylation has previously been shown to play an important role in metabolic regulation and host pathogenesis in bacteria, but the recent identification of potential AMPylators across many species in every domain of life has supported the possibility that AMPylation could be a more fundamental and physiologically significant regulatory PTM. For the first time, we characterized the auto-AMPylation capability of the human protein SOS1 through in vitro AMPylation experiments using full-length protein and whole-domain truncation mutants. We found that SOS1 can become AMPylated at a tyrosine residue possibly within the Cdc25 domain of the protein, the Dbl homology domain is vital for efficient auto-AMPylation activity, and the C-terminal proline-rich domain exhibits a complex regulatory function. The proline-rich domain alone also appears to be capable of catalyzing a separate, unidentified covalent self-modification using a fluorescent ATP analogue. Finally, SOS1 was shown to be capable of catalyzing the AMPylation of two endogenous human protein substrates: a ubiquitous, unidentified protein of ~49kDa and another breast-cancer specific, unidentified protein of ~28kDa.

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  • 2014-05

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Asthma ICAM-1 2: The Effects of Vitamin C on s-ICAM Expression

Description

This study was conducted to observe the effects of vitamin C supplementation upon the expression of sICAM-1 in asthmatic subject. Two groups were created, each with a sample size of

This study was conducted to observe the effects of vitamin C supplementation upon the expression of sICAM-1 in asthmatic subject. Two groups were created, each with a sample size of 4 subjects. One group was the vitamin C group (VC) and the other was the placebo group (PL). The study was analyzed through observing concentrations of biomolecules present within samples of blood plasma and nasal lavages. These included vitamin C, sICAM-1 expression, and histamine. The following P-values calculated from the data collected from this study. The plasma vitamin C screening was p=0.3, and after 18 days of supplementation, p=0.03. For Nasal ICAM p=0.5 at Day 0, p=0.4 at Day 4, and p=0.9 at Day 18. For the Histamine samples p=0.9 at Day 0 and p=0.9 at Day 18. The following P-values calculated from the data collected from both studies. The plasma vitamin C screening was p=0.8, and after 18 days of supplementation, p=0.03. The change of vitamin C at the end of this study and the combined data both had a P-value that was calculated to be lower than 0.05, which meant that this change was significant because it was due to the intervention and not chance. For Nasal ICAM samples p=0.7 at Day 0, p=0.7 at Day 4, and p=1 at Day 18. For the Histamine p=0.7 at Day 0 and p=0.9 at Day 18. This study carries various implications although the study data was unable to show much significance. This was the second study to test this, and as more research is done, and the sample size grows, one will be able to observe whether this really is the mechanism through which vitamin C plays a role in immunological functions.

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Date Created
  • 2015-12

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Breast Cancer Biomarker Identification: Bottom-Up Glycomics and Glycan ‘Node’ Analysis

Description

Almost every form of cancer deregulates the expression and activity of anabolic glycosyltransferase (GT) enzymes, which incorporate particular monosaccharides in a donor acceptor as well as linkage- and anomer-specific manner

Almost every form of cancer deregulates the expression and activity of anabolic glycosyltransferase (GT) enzymes, which incorporate particular monosaccharides in a donor acceptor as well as linkage- and anomer-specific manner to assemble complex and diverse glycans that significantly affect numerous cellular events, including tumorigenesis and metastasis. Because glycosylation is not template-driven, GT deregulation yields heterogeneous arrays of aberrant intact glycan products, some in undetectable quantities in clinical bio-fluids (e.g., blood plasma). Numerous glycan features (e.g., 6 sialylation, β-1,6-branching, and core fucosylation) stem from approximately 25 glycan “nodes:” unique linkage specific monosaccharides at particular glycan branch points that collectively confer distinguishing features upon glycan products. For each node, changes in normalized abundance (Figure 1) may serve as nearly 1:1 surrogate measure of activity for culpable GTs and may correlate with particular stages of carcinogenesis. Complementary to traditional top down glycomics, the novel bottom-up technique applied herein condenses each glycan node and feature into a single analytical signal, quantified by two GC-MS instruments: GCT (time-of-flight analyzer) and GCMSD (transmission quadrupole analyzers). Bottom-up analysis of stage 3 and 4 breast cancer cases revealed better overall precision for GCMSD yet comparable clinical performance of both GC MS instruments and identified two downregulated glycan nodes as excellent breast cancer biomarker candidates: t-Gal and 4,6-GlcNAc (ROC AUC ≈ 0.80, p < 0.05). Resulting from the activity of multiple GTs, t-Gal had the highest ROC AUC (0.88) and lowest ROC p‑value (0.001) among all analyzed nodes. Representing core-fucosylation, glycan node 4,6-GlcNAc is a nearly 1:1 molecular surrogate for the activity of α-(1,6)-fucosyltransferase—a potential target for cancer therapy. To validate these results, future projects can analyze larger sample sets, find correlations between breast cancer stage and changes in t-Gal and 4,6-GlcNAc levels, gauge the specificity of these nodes for breast cancer and their potential role in other cancer types, and develop clinical tests for reliable breast cancer diagnosis and treatment monitoring based on t-Gal and 4,6-GlcNAc.

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  • 2016-05

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Multiplexed, In-Solution Protein Array (MISPA) for Identification of Novel Protein Interactions and Early Detection of Pathogen Induced Cancers

Description

Disturbances in the protein interactome often play a large role in cancer progression. Investigation of protein-protein interactions (PPI) can increase our understanding of cancer pathways and will disclose unknown targets

Disturbances in the protein interactome often play a large role in cancer progression. Investigation of protein-protein interactions (PPI) can increase our understanding of cancer pathways and will disclose unknown targets involved in cancer disease biology. Although numerous methods are available to study protein interactions, most platforms suffer from drawbacks including high false positive rates, low throughput, and lack of quantification. Moreover, most methods are not compatible for use in a clinical setting. To address these limitations, we have developed a multiplexed, in-solution protein microarray (MISPA) platform with broad applications in proteomics. MISPA can be used to quantitatively profile PPIs and as a robust technology for early detection of cancers. This method utilizes unique DNA barcoding of individual proteins coupled with next generation sequencing to quantitatively assess interactions via barcode enrichment. We have tested the feasibility of this technology in the detection of patient immune responses to oropharyngeal carcinomas and in the discovery of novel PPIs in the B-cell receptor (BCR) pathway. To achieve this goal, 96 human papillomavirus (HPV) antigen genes were cloned into pJFT7-cHalo (99% success) and pJFT7-n3xFlag-Halo (100% success) expression vectors. These libraries were expressed via a cell-free in vitro transcription-translation system with 93% and 96% success, respectively. A small-scale study of patient serum interactions with barcoded HPV16 antigens was performed and a HPV proteome-wide study will follow using additional patient samples. In addition, 15 query proteins were cloned into pJFT7_nGST expression vectors, expressed, and purified with 93% success to probe a library of 100 BCR pathway proteins and detect novel PPIs.

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  • 2016-12

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Migration and invasion study of non-transformed mammary epithelial cells overexpressing TP53 missense mutations frequently occurring in breast cancer

Description

The purpose of this project was to identify proteins associated with the migration and invasion of non-transformed MCF10A mammary epithelial cells with ectopically expressed missense mutations in p53. Because of

The purpose of this project was to identify proteins associated with the migration and invasion of non-transformed MCF10A mammary epithelial cells with ectopically expressed missense mutations in p53. Because of the prevalence of TP53 missense mutations in basal-like and triple-negative breast cancer tumors, understanding the effect of TP53 mutations on the phenotypic expression of human mammary epithelial cells may offer new therapeutic targets for those currently lacking in treatment options. As such, MCF10A mammary epithelial cells ectopically overexpressing structural mutations (G245S, H179R, R175H, Y163C, Y220C, and Y234C) and DNA-binding mutations (R248Q, R248W, R273C, and R273H) in the DNA-binding domain were selected for use in this project. Overexpression of p53 in the mutant cell lines was confirmed by western blot and q-PCR analysis targeting the V5 epitope tag present in the pLenti4 vector used to transduce TP53 into the mutant cell lines. Characterization of the invasion and migration phenotypes resulting from the overexpression of p53 in the mutant cell lines was achieved using transwell invasion and migration assays with Boyden chambers. Statistical analysis showed that three cell lines—DNA-contact mutants R248W and R273C and structural mutant Y220C—were consistently more migratory and invasive and demonstrated a relationship between the migration and invasion properties of the mutant cell lines. Two families of proteins were then explored: those involved in the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Results of q-PCR and immunofluorescence analysis of epithelial marker E-cadherin and mesenchymal proteins Slug and Vimentin did not show a clear relationship between mRNA and protein expression levels with the migration and invasiveness phenotypes observed in the transwell studies. Results of western blotting, q-PCR, and zymography of MMP-2 and MMP-9 also did not show any consistent results indicating a definite relationship between MMPs and the overall invasiveness of the cells. Finally, two drugs were tested as possible treatments inhibiting invasiveness: ebselen and SBI-183. These drugs were tested on only the most invasive of the MCF10A p53 mutant cell lines (R248W, R273C, and Y220C). Results of invasion assay following 30 μM treatment with ebselen and SBI-183 showed that ebselen does not inhibit invasiveness; SBI-183, however, did inhibit invasiveness in all three cell lines tested. As such, SBI-183 will be an important compound to study in the future as a treatment that could potentially serve to benefit triple-negative or basal-like breast cancer patients who currently lack therapeutic treatment options.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05