Matching Items (55)

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Multiplexed Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays

Description

Rationale: Cell-free protein microarrays display naturally-folded proteins based on just-in-time in situ synthesis, and have made important contributions to basic and translational research. However, the risk of spot-to-spot cross-talk from

Rationale: Cell-free protein microarrays display naturally-folded proteins based on just-in-time in situ synthesis, and have made important contributions to basic and translational research. However, the risk of spot-to-spot cross-talk from protein diffusion during expression has limited the feature density of these arrays.
Methods: In this work, we developed the Multiplexed Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Array (M-NAPPA), which significantly increases the number of displayed proteins by multiplexing as many as five different gene plasmids within a printed spot.
Results: Even when proteins of different sizes were displayed within the same feature, they were readily detected using protein-specific antibodies. Protein-protein interactions and serological antibody assays using human viral proteome microarrays demonstrated that comparable hits were detected by M-NAPPA and non-multiplexed NAPPA arrays. An ultra-high density proteome microarray displaying > 16k proteins on a single microscope slide was produced by combining M-NAPPA with a photolithography-based silicon nano-well platform. Finally, four new tuberculosis-related antigens in guinea pigs vaccinated with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) were identified with M-NAPPA and validated with ELISA.
Conclusion: All data demonstrate that multiplexing features on a protein microarray offer a cost-effective fabrication approach and have the potential to facilitate high throughput translational research.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-09-20

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DNASU plasmid and PSI:Biology-Materials repositories: resources to accelerate biological research

Description

The mission of the DNASU Plasmid Repository is to accelerate research by providing high-quality, annotated plasmid samples and online plasmid resources to the research community through the curated DNASU database,

The mission of the DNASU Plasmid Repository is to accelerate research by providing high-quality, annotated plasmid samples and online plasmid resources to the research community through the curated DNASU database, website and repository (http://dnasu.asu.edu or http://dnasu.org). The collection includes plasmids from grant-funded, high-throughput cloning projects performed in our laboratory, plasmids from external researchers, and large collections from consortia such as the ORFeome Collaboration and the NIGMS-funded Protein Structure Initiative: Biology (PSI:Biology). Through DNASU, researchers can search for and access detailed information about each plasmid such as the full length gene insert sequence, vector information, associated publications, and links to external resources that provide additional protein annotations and experimental protocols. Plasmids can be requested directly through the DNASU website. DNASU and the PSI:Biology-Materials Repositories were previously described in the 2010 NAR Database Issue (Cormier, C.Y., Mohr, S.E., Zuo, D., Hu, Y., Rolfs, A., Kramer, J., Taycher, E., Kelley, F., Fiacco, M., Turnbull, G. et al. (2010) Protein Structure Initiative Material Repository: an open shared public resource of structural genomics plasmids for the biological community. Nucleic Acids Res., 38, D743–D749.). In this update we will describe the plasmid collection and highlight the new features in the website redesign, including new browse/search options, plasmid annotations and a dynamic vector mapping feature that was developed in collaboration with LabGenius. Overall, these plasmid resources continue to enable research with the goal of elucidating the role of proteins in both normal biological processes and disease.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-11-12

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In situ drug-receptor binding kinetics in single cells: a quantitative label-free study of anti-tumor drug resistance

Description

Many drugs are effective in the early stage of treatment, but patients develop drug resistance after a certain period of treatment, causing failure of the therapy. An important example is

Many drugs are effective in the early stage of treatment, but patients develop drug resistance after a certain period of treatment, causing failure of the therapy. An important example is Herceptin, a popular monoclonal antibody drug for breast cancer by specifically targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2). Here we demonstrate a quantitative binding kinetics analysis of drug-target interactions to investigate the molecular scale origin of drug resistance. Using a surface plasmon resonance imaging, we measured the in situ Herceptin-Her2 binding kinetics in single intact cancer cells for the first time, and observed significantly weakened Herceptin-Her2 interactions in Herceptin-resistant cells, compared to those in Herceptin-sensitive cells. We further showed that the steric hindrance of Mucin-4, a membrane protein, was responsible for the altered drug-receptor binding. This effect of a third molecule on drug-receptor interactions cannot be studied using traditional purified protein methods, demonstrating the importance of the present intact cell-based binding kinetics analysis.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-10-14

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AAgAtlas 1.0: a human autoantigen database

Description

Autoantibodies refer to antibodies that target self-antigens, which can play pivotal roles in maintaining homeostasis, distinguishing normal from tumor tissue and trigger autoimmune diseases. In the last three decades, tremendous

Autoantibodies refer to antibodies that target self-antigens, which can play pivotal roles in maintaining homeostasis, distinguishing normal from tumor tissue and trigger autoimmune diseases. In the last three decades, tremendous efforts have been devoted to elucidate the generation, evolution and functions of autoantibodies, as well as their target autoantigens. However, reports of these countless previously identified autoantigens are randomly dispersed in the literature. Here, we constructed an AAgAtlas database 1.0 using text-mining and manual curation. We extracted 45 830 autoantigen-related abstracts and 94 313 sentences from PubMed using the keywords of either ‘autoantigen’ or ‘autoantibody’ or their lexical variants, which were further refined to 25 520 abstracts, 43 253 sentences and 3984 candidates by our bio-entity recognizer based on the Protein Ontology. Finally, we identified 1126 genes as human autoantigens and 1071 related human diseases, with which we constructed a human autoantigen database (AAgAtlas database 1.0). The database provides a user-friendly interface to conveniently browse, retrieve and download human autoantigens as well as their associated diseases. The database is freely accessible at http://biokb.ncpsb.org/aagatlas/. We believe this database will be a valuable resource to track and understand human autoantigens as well as to investigate their functions in basic and translational research.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-10-19

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NAPPA as a Real New Method for Protein Microarray Generation

Description

Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays (NAPPA) have emerged as a powerful and innovative technology for the screening of biomarkers and the study of protein-protein interactions, among others possible applications. The

Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays (NAPPA) have emerged as a powerful and innovative technology for the screening of biomarkers and the study of protein-protein interactions, among others possible applications. The principal advantages are the high specificity and sensitivity that this platform offers. Moreover, compared to conventional protein microarrays, NAPPA technology avoids the necessity of protein purification, which is expensive and time-consuming, by substituting expression in situ with an in vitro transcription/translation kit. In summary, NAPPA arrays have been broadly employed in different studies improving knowledge about diseases and responses to treatments. Here, we review the principal advances and applications performed using this platform during the last years.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-04-24

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The Hippo Transducer TAZ Interacts with the SWI/SNF Complex to Regulate Breast Epithelial Lineage Commitment

Description

Lineage-committed cells of many tissues exhibit substantial plasticity in contexts such as wound healing and tumorigenesis, but the regulation of this process is not well understood. We identified the Hippo

Lineage-committed cells of many tissues exhibit substantial plasticity in contexts such as wound healing and tumorigenesis, but the regulation of this process is not well understood. We identified the Hippo transducer WWTR1/TAZ in a screen of transcription factors that are able to prompt lineage switching of mammary epithelial cells. Forced expression of TAZ in luminal cells induces them to adopt basal characteristics, and depletion of TAZ in basal and/or myoepithelial cells leads to luminal differentiation. In human and mouse tissues, TAZ is active only in basal cells and is critical for basal cell maintenance during homeostasis. Accordingly, loss of TAZ affects mammary gland development, leading to an imbalance of luminal and basal populations as well as branching defects. Mechanistically, TAZ interacts with components of the SWI/SNF complex to modulate lineage-specific gene expression. Collectively, these findings uncover a new role for Hippo signaling in the determination of lineage identity through recruitment of chromatin-remodeling complexes.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-03-27

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Mycobacterial Membrane Vesicles Administered Systemically in Mice Induce a Protective Immune Response to Surface Compartments of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Description

Pathogenic and nonpathogenic species of bacteria and fungi release membrane vesicles (MV), containing proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids, into the extracellular milieu. Previously, we demonstrated that several mycobacterial species, including bacillus

Pathogenic and nonpathogenic species of bacteria and fungi release membrane vesicles (MV), containing proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids, into the extracellular milieu. Previously, we demonstrated that several mycobacterial species, including bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, release MV containing lipids and proteins that subvert host immune response in a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-dependent manner (R. Prados-Rosales et al., J. Clin. Invest. 121:1471–1483, 2011, doi:10.1172/JCI44261). In this work, we analyzed the vaccine potential of MV in a mouse model and compared the effects of immunization with MV to those of standard BCG vaccination. Immunization with MV from BCG or M. tuberculosis elicited a mixed humoral and cellular response directed to both membrane and cell wall components, such as lipoproteins. However, only vaccination with M. tuberculosis MV was able to protect as well as live BCG immunization. M. tuberculosis MV boosted BCG vaccine efficacy. In summary, MV are highly immunogenic without adjuvants and elicit immune responses comparable to those achieved with BCG in protection against M. tuberculosis.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-09-30

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Reduced Incidence of Prevotella and Other Fermenters in Intestinal Microflora of Autistic Children

Description

High proportions of autistic children suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, implying a link between autism and abnormalities in gut microbial functions. Increasing evidence from recent high-throughput sequencing analyses indicates that

High proportions of autistic children suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, implying a link between autism and abnormalities in gut microbial functions. Increasing evidence from recent high-throughput sequencing analyses indicates that disturbances in composition and diversity of gut microbiome are associated with various disease conditions. However, microbiome-level studies on autism are limited and mostly focused on pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, here we aimed to define systemic changes in gut microbiome associated with autism and autism-related GI problems. We recruited 20 neurotypical and 20 autistic children accompanied by a survey of both autistic severity and GI symptoms. By pyrosequencing the V2/V3 regions in bacterial 16S rDNA from fecal DNA samples, we compared gut microbiomes of GI symptom-free neurotypical children with those of autistic children mostly presenting GI symptoms. Unexpectedly, the presence of autistic symptoms, rather than the severity of GI symptoms, was associated with less diverse gut microbiomes. Further, rigorous statistical tests with multiple testing corrections showed significantly lower abundances of the genera Prevotella, Coprococcus, and unclassified Veillonellaceae in autistic samples. These are intriguingly versatile carbohydrate-degrading and/or fermenting bacteria, suggesting a potential influence of unusual diet patterns observed in autistic children. However, multivariate analyses showed that autism-related changes in both overall diversity and individual genus abundances were correlated with the presence of autistic symptoms but not with their diet patterns. Taken together, autism and accompanying GI symptoms were characterized by distinct and less diverse gut microbial compositions with lower levels of Prevotella, Coprococcus, and unclassified Veillonellaceae.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-06-03

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Disarming Olig2: Targeting its partner protein Hdac1

Description

Glioblastoma is the most aggressive and lethal brain tumor, due to its resistance to current conventional therapy. The resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy has been attributed to a special population

Glioblastoma is the most aggressive and lethal brain tumor, due to its resistance to current conventional therapy. The resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy has been attributed to a special population of cells known as glioma stem cells. Previous literature has shown the importance of a Central Nervous System-restricted transcription factor OLIG2 in maintaining the tumor-propagating potential of these glioma stem cells. OLIG2's function was further elucidated, with its pro-mitogenic function due to its ability to negatively regulate the p53 pathway by suppressing the acetylation of the p53 protein's C terminal domain. Past work in our lab has confirmed that one of OLIG2's partner proteins is Histone Deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). In vitro experiments have also shown that targeting HDAC1 using hairpin RNA in glioma stem cells negatively impacts proliferation. In a survival study using a murine glioma model, targeting Hdac1 using hairpin RNA is shown to reduce tumor burden and increase survival. In this paper, we demonstrate that silencing Hdac1 expression reduces proliferation, increases cell death, likely a result of increased acetylation of p53. Olig2 expression levels seem to be unaffected in GSCs, demonstrating that the Hdac1 protein ablation is indeed lethal to GSCs. This work builds upon previously collected results, confirming that Hdac1 is a potential surrogate target for Olig2's pro-mitotic function in regulating the p53 pathway.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Differential Relationships Among Autoantibody Responses to P53 Family Proteins in Late Stage Colorectal Cancer

Description

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most highly diagnosed cancers in the United States and accounts for 9.5% of all new cancer cases worldwide. With a 50% five-year prognosis,

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most highly diagnosed cancers in the United States and accounts for 9.5% of all new cancer cases worldwide. With a 50% five-year prognosis, it is the second highest cancerous cause of death in the U.S. CRC tumors express antigens that are capable of inducing an immune response. The identification of autoantibodies (AAb) against tumor-associated antigens (TAA) may facilitate personalized tumor treatment in the form of targeted immunotherapy. The objective of this study was to observe the AAb expression raised against a 2000 human gene survey in late-stage colorectal cancer using the Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays (NAPPA). AAbs from serum samples were collected from 80 patients who died within 24 months of their last blood draw and 80 age and gender matched healthy control were profiled using NAPPA. TAA p53, a well-established protein that is one of the most highly mutated across a variety of cancers, was one of the top candidates based on statistical analysis, which, along with its family proteins p63 and p73 (which showed inverse AAb response profiles) warranted further testing via RAPID ELISA. Statistical analysis from these results revealed an inverse differential relationship between p53 and p63, in which p53 seropositivity was higher in patients than in controls, while the opposite was unexpectedly the case for p63. This study involving the AAb immunoprofiling of advanced stage CRC patients is one of the first to shed light on the high-throughput feasibility of immunoproteomic experiments using protein arrays as well as the identification of immunotherapy targets in a more rapid move towards specialized treatment of advanced CRC.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-12