Matching Items (11)

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Professional Help-seeking Attitudes among Latter-day Saints: The Role of Gender, Distress, and Religiosity

Description

Factors of gender, marital status, and psychological distress are known to be related to help-seeking attitudes. This study sought to explore and understand the relations between gender, marital status, religiosity,

Factors of gender, marital status, and psychological distress are known to be related to help-seeking attitudes. This study sought to explore and understand the relations between gender, marital status, religiosity, psychological distress, and help-seeking attitudes among members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons). The moderating effect of religious commitment on psychological distress and attitudes towards seeking professional help was explored through an online survey of 1,201 Latter-day Saint individuals. It was predicted that gender and marital status would predict distress and helping seeking attitudes and that religiosity would moderate the relation between distress and help-seeking attitudes among religious individuals, with individuals who experience high distress and low religiosity being more likely to seek help than individuals with high distress and high religiosity. Participants completed the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-10), Religious Commitment Inventory-10, and the Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help-Short Form online. Multiple hierarchical regressions were used to test the study hypotheses. Although the accounted for variances were small, gender was the most significant variable associated with both distress and help seeking. Females reported higher distress and being more willing to seek psychological help than did males. Religiosity did not moderate the relation between distress and help-seeking attitudes. These findings are discussed in light of previous research and gender role schemas as relevant to Mormon culture.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Parent Caregivers of a Child with a Chronic Illness: Effects on Psychological Outcomes

Description

Over 25% of children in the United States suffer from a chronic illness, and close to 70% of all childhood deaths are due to chronic illness. Prevalence of childhood chronic

Over 25% of children in the United States suffer from a chronic illness, and close to 70% of all childhood deaths are due to chronic illness. Prevalence of childhood chronic illness continues to increase, and as a result, the pervasiveness of parents faced with stress associated with caregiving for their child with a chronic illness is also rising. The Stress Process Model (SPM) conceptualizes the caregiving experience as a multidimensional process influenced by the caregiving context, primary and secondary stressors, resources, and caregiver outcomes. Utilizing the SPM, the goals of this study were to examine the relations between caregiving stress (role overload and role strain) and resources (instrumental support, social support, and positive attitudes) and psychological outcomes (depression and anxiety) to determine whether resources moderated the associations between caregiving stress and psychological outcomes.

Participants included 200 parent caregivers of a child with a chronic illness. Participants responded to an online survey that measured demographics, role overload (Role Overload scale), role strain (The Revised Caregiver Burden Measure), instrumental support and social support (Medical Outcomes Survey), positive attitudes about caregiving (Brief Assessment Scale for Caregivers), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), and anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale-7). Pearson correlations and six hierarchical regression models were tested to examine caregiving stress, resources, and psychological outcomes.

Consistent with the study hypotheses, positive correlations between caregiving stress (role overload and role strain) and depression and anxiety were found. Negative correlations were found between resources (instrumental support, social support, positive attitudes) and depression and anxiety. Both instrumental support and social support had negative moderating effects on the relations between role overload and psychological outcomes (depression and anxiety). Positive attitudes also negatively moderated the relations between role strain and psychological outcomes. Thus, when participants reported high instrumental and social support, they also reported low depression and anxiety, even when role overload was high. Participants also reported low anxiety and depression when they reported high positive attitudes, even when role strain was high. Implications of these findings are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Pre-treatment client interpersonal problems relation to the initial working alliance using multilevel modeling

Description

This study examined the relationship of client pretreatment interpersonal problems (measured by the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems) to the therapeutic alliance (as measured early in treatment by a self report

This study examined the relationship of client pretreatment interpersonal problems (measured by the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems) to the therapeutic alliance (as measured early in treatment by a self report version of the Working Alliance Inventory‐ Short) using multilevel modeling to account for client and counselor variables. Specifically, the correlations of dominance, hostility and cold/distance interpersonal problems with the initial working alliance were investigated. Participants consisted of 144 clients and 44 graduate student counselors at the Counselor Training Center at Arizona State University. The intraclass value of .23 indicated there is a sizable effect, with counselor differences accounting for 23% of the variance in client alliance ratings, supporting the use of multilevel modeling. There was a dominance counselor gender interaction with working alliance scores. Clients who had problems with dominance reported higher working alliance scores with male counselors while clients who had problems with submissiveness reported higher working alliance scores with female counselors. Hostile dominance interpersonal problems were associated with lower initial working alliance scores regardless of counselor gender. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Graduate school stress, dyadic coping, and well-being in asymmetrical graduate student couples

Description

The demands and expectations of graduate school can be stressful for any student. Graduate students in a romantic relationship, in particular, contend with both individual and dyadic effects of graduate

The demands and expectations of graduate school can be stressful for any student. Graduate students in a romantic relationship, in particular, contend with both individual and dyadic effects of graduate school stress, as stress has been found to be negatively associated with both individual and relational well-being. Asymmetrical graduate student couples, wherein one partner is in graduate school and the other is not, may be particularly vulnerable to relationship strain because of differences in their experience of graduate school. However, non-student partners can help the graduate student cope with stress through dyadic coping. This study sought to examine whether: a) there were associations between graduate school stress on individual (life satisfaction) and relational (relationship satisfaction) well-being, and b) whether these associations were moderated by positive and negative dyadic coping behaviors. Cross-sectional data from 62 asymmetrical graduate student couples were gathered using an online survey. Data were analyzed using Actor-Partner Interdependence Models (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook 2006). Separate models were conducted to examine overall associations between graduate stress and well-being, and additional analyses were conducted to examine potential moderation effects of perceptions of partner dyadic coping (actor effects) and partner self-reported dyadic coping (partner effects) on the overall associations between stress and life- and relationship satisfaction mentioned above. Results for the overall model suggested that graduate stress is associated with both individual- and relational well-being. Surprisingly, and against prior literature, positive dyadic coping did not buffer the negative association between graduate stress and well-being, and negative dyadic coping did not exacerbate the association. Implications of the findings for future research and for mental health counselors are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Latinas coping with intimate partner violence and posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology

Description

Previous research indicates that survivors of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) are at a greater risk of developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptomatology. IPV survivors often use maladaptive coping strategies in

Previous research indicates that survivors of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) are at a greater risk of developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptomatology. IPV survivors often use maladaptive coping strategies in response to IPV that place them at a higher risk for PTSD. Cultural gender roles/beliefs have been known to influence coping methods. Marianismo, a Latino/a gender role belief, has not been investigated in relation to IPV, coping strategies, and PTSD among Latinas. This study examined whether physical, psychological, or sexual abuse by a romantic partner, coping strategies, and Marianismo were associated with PTSD symptomatology among 157 college-aged Latinas. The participants completed an on-line survey that assessed IPV frequency, disengaged and engaged coping, Marianismo, and PTSD symptomatology. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that, regardless of IPV type, more IPV and disengaged coping strategies were the best predictors of PTSD symptomatology. Marianismo did not significantly moderate the relation between coping and PTSD. However, the strong zero-order correlation between disengaged coping and Marianismo indicated they were highly correlated variables. The study findings are consistent with previous research that suggested that coping strategies are culturally dependent on beliefs and gender role expectations. Latinas may use more disengaged coping strategies because these methods may be deemed more culturally appropriate and reflect Marianismo beliefs. Psychologists working with Latina IPV survivors need to develop culturally sensitive approaches to psychoeducation on IPV and coping strategies that empower these women within their cultural belief systems and reduce their PTSD symptomatology.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Damaged petals and tenacity: values expressed in fourth generation rap

Description

Employing ethnographic content analysis of 110 top Hip-Hop songs of 2004-2014 from Billboard and BET awards, this study investigated the most popular value themes of 4th generation Hip-Hop music and

Employing ethnographic content analysis of 110 top Hip-Hop songs of 2004-2014 from Billboard and BET awards, this study investigated the most popular value themes of 4th generation Hip-Hop music and compared the messages of female and male rap artists. The 12 most frequently referenced messages included: 1) Celebration of Personal Success (77%), 2) Urban Consciousness, Identity, and Pride (68.8%), 3) Sexual Prowess/Seductive Power (62.1%), 4) Recreational Drug Use (54.9%), 5) Ready and Willing to Become Violent (48.8%), 6) Sexual Objectification (48.2%), 7) Reappropriation of Stigma Labels (36.4%), 8) Drive and Ambition (28.5%), 9) Self-Objectification (28.5%), 10) Struggle and Resilience (20%), 11) Providing Resources in Exchange for Sex (15.1%), and 12) Providing Sex in Exchange for Resources (10.3%). Male and female rap artists expressed similar messages. However, female rap artists were more likely to reappropriate stigma labels, promote self-objectifying lyrics, and depict themselves as providing sex in exchange for resources in their lyrics than were male rap artists. Male rap artists were more likely to sexually objectify others in their lyrics and depict themselves as providing resources in exchange for sex than were their female counterparts. Implications for counseling and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Ethnic identity as a moderator of the association between school connectedness and academic achievement among Mexican-origin youth

Description

The current study investigates the relationship between school connectedness and academic achievement and whether this relationship is moderated by ethnic identity. Participants included 436 Mexican-origin youth attending a middle school

The current study investigates the relationship between school connectedness and academic achievement and whether this relationship is moderated by ethnic identity. Participants included 436 Mexican-origin youth attending a middle school in a southwestern U.S. state. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze whether school connectedness is predictive of academic achievement, measured as standardized test scores, and whether ethnic identity moderates the association in this sample of Mexican-origin youth. Findings revealed that after controlling for age, lunch status, generational status, and gender, school connectedness was a positive predictor of standardized test scores in reading and math. Results also indicated that ethnic private regard moderated the association between school connectedness and standardized test scores in reading. These findings underscore the importance of possessing a positive ethnic identity for Mexican-origin youth in predicting academic outcomes.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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The influence of psychological assessment language on counselor trainees' evaluations of client characteristics

Description

ABSTRACT

Psychological assessments contain important diagnostic information and are central to therapeutic service delivery. Therapists' personal biases, invalid cognitive schemas, and emotional reactions can be expressed in the language of

ABSTRACT

Psychological assessments contain important diagnostic information and are central to therapeutic service delivery. Therapists' personal biases, invalid cognitive schemas, and emotional reactions can be expressed in the language of the assessments they compose, causing clients to be cast in an unfavorable light. Logically, the opinions of subsequent therapists may then be influenced by reading these assessments, resulting in negative attitudes toward clients, inaccurate diagnoses, adverse experiences for clients, and poor therapeutic outcomes. However, little current research exists that addresses this issue. This study analyzed the degree to which strength-based, deficit-based, and neutral language used in psychological assessments influenced the opinions of counselor trainees (N= 116). It was hypothesized that participants assigned to each type of assessment would describe the client using adjectives that closely conformed to the language used in the assessment they received. The hypothesis was confirmed (p = .000), indicating significant mean differences between all three groups. Limitations and implications of the study were identified and suggestions for further research were discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Role of cognitive shift in resilient adaptation to difficult events

Description

Sometimes difficult life events challenge our existing resources in such a way that routinized responses are inadequate to handle the challenge. Some individuals will persist in habitual, automatic behavior, regardless

Sometimes difficult life events challenge our existing resources in such a way that routinized responses are inadequate to handle the challenge. Some individuals will persist in habitual, automatic behavior, regardless of environmental cues that indicate a mismatch between coping strategy and the demands of the stressor. Other individuals will marshal adaptive resources to construct new courses of action and reconceptualize the problem, associated goals and/or values. A mixed methods approach was used to describe and operationalize cognitive shift, a relatively unexplored construct in existing literature. The study was conducted using secondary data from a parent multi-year cross-sectional study of resilience with eight hundred mid-aged adults from the Phoenix metro area. Semi-structured telephone interviews were analyzed using a purposive sample (n=136) chosen by type of life event. Participants' beliefs, assumptions, and experiences were examined to understand how they shaped adaptation to adversity. An adaptive mechanism, "cognitive shift," was theorized as the transition from automatic coping to effortful cognitive processes aimed at novel resolution of issues. Aims included understanding when and how cognitive shift emerges and manifests. Cognitive shift was scored as a binary variable and triangulated through correlational and logistic regression analyses. Interaction effects revealed that positive personality attributes influence cognitive shift most when people suffered early adversity. This finding indicates that a certain complexity, self-awareness and flexibility of mind may lead to a greater capacity to find meaning in adversity. This work bridges an acknowledged gap in literature and provides new insights into resilience.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Personal conceptualization and use of mindfulness: developing an emerging model using a grounded theory framework

Description

An exploratory qualitative study was conducted using a grounded theory approach (Charmaz, 2006) to examine the subjective experiences of mindfulness. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 individuals who practice mindfulness

An exploratory qualitative study was conducted using a grounded theory approach (Charmaz, 2006) to examine the subjective experiences of mindfulness. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 individuals who practice mindfulness on a regular basis. Data analysis revealed domains related to the experience, conditions, strategies and consequences related to the practice of mindfulness. The following main themes emerged: subjective experience, mechanism of practice, use of metaphors, contextual influences, and shift in perception. An emerging theoretical model related to the experience of mindfulness is also proposed. Implications, limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013