Matching Items (12)

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The Effects of Embodied Cognition and Dialogic Reading on Children's Literacy Skills

Description

Both dialogic reading and embodied cognition have showed to be effective strategies in the development of early literacy skills. Additionally, the use of electronic books has been found to also have a positive effect, including in combination with dialogic reading.

Both dialogic reading and embodied cognition have showed to be effective strategies in the development of early literacy skills. Additionally, the use of electronic books has been found to also have a positive effect, including in combination with dialogic reading. The effectiveness of dialogic reading and embodied strategy while reading an e-book has not been compared. The purpose of the study is to determine if embodied cognition can improve dialogic reading practices and possibly offer a theoretical framework for why dialogical reading practices work. Additionally, this study aims to determine the impact of embodied cognition and dialogic reading on the development of both vocabulary and story recall skills in preschool-aged children. Twenty-nine preschool children between the ages of 3 and 5 years old took part in a matched pairs experiment that included reading an e-book. Children in the experimental groups received four readings of either an embodied cognition condition or a dialogic reading condition. Following the four readings, the groups switched treatment. The children who received the embodied cognition conditions scored significantly higher on both story recall and vocabulary acquisition compared to those in the dialogic reading and control groups. Results of the study suggest embodied cognition in conjugation with dialogic reading practices could provide a more effective and improved model for promoting early literacy skills.

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Date Created
2018-05

Do 2-Year-Olds Understand Object Permanence?

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According to Jean Piaget, a prominent cognitive development psychologist in 1954, infants should have an understanding of object permanence at 12 months of age. Current research has backed this idea and shown that children younger than 2 years of age

According to Jean Piaget, a prominent cognitive development psychologist in 1954, infants should have an understanding of object permanence at 12 months of age. Current research has backed this idea and shown that children younger than 2 years of age understand object permanence- shown through their increased looking times to inconsistent displays in which a moving object appears to have fallen through a solid shelf. However, current research used active search tasks with 2 year olds and found that they failed to search for the object consistently. My thesis explores why 2 year olds are failing search tasks if infants are appearing the understand object permanence with their looking responses. The Theory of Mind Lab at ASU designed a simple two door/two room apparatus to test 2 year olds’ ability to search for an object once it goes out of sight. Two doors open to two rooms separated by a green wall that extends above the front wall. Results showed that 2-year-olds randomly searched for the object. Perhaps children were not able to clearly differentiate the two separate spaces and ultimately started guessing because they assumed both doors go to the same room. Therefore, my thesis involved adding a ‘hallway’ between the two rooms to help children mentally separate the two spaces by showing them the bottom of the barrier. Despite the hallway, results showed that 2-year-olds again hardly performed above chance across all 6 trials. To remove the social aspects and the need to coordinate motor movement with knowledge of the object’s location, I designed a Visual Anticipation Task with automatic doors that required 2-year olds to merely look at the correct door for the hidden object. Results showed that children looked correctly at the first location correctly but when hidden in a new location in the second trial, perseverated and looked back at the first location. These results showed that 2-year olds do not understand object permanence at this age when it comes to both searching and looking.

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Date Created
2019-05

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Automatic Recording of Children's Activity Within a Classroom: A Study of Levy Flights

Description

The diagnosis for an attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children is heavily based on teacher or parent opinion, and not on scientific evidence. This causes children to be wrongly diagnosed with a disorder and be prescribed medicine that they do

The diagnosis for an attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children is heavily based on teacher or parent opinion, and not on scientific evidence. This causes children to be wrongly diagnosed with a disorder and be prescribed medicine that they do not need to be taking. This paper discusses a project that was completed for the Child Study Lab (CSL) preschool at Arizona State University (ASU), in which children’s activity within a classroom was automatically recorded using ultra-wideband technology. This project’s goal was to gather location data on the children in the CSL and analyze and assess the collected data for any patterns of behavior. The hope was that if a child’s data displayed a pattern that strayed from the norm, that this analysis could pose as a more objective way to indicate that a child may have an attention deficit problem. Fractal Dimensions and Levy Flights were researched and applied to the data analysis portion of this project.

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Date Created
2020-05

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Do Emotions Make A Difference? Determining if Positive Emotions Moderate the Effectiveness of an Embodied Language Comprehension Intervention

Description

Previous research demonstrated the overall efficacy of an embodied language intervention (EMBRACE) that taught pre-school children how to simulate (imagine) language in a heard narrative. However, EMBRACE was not effective for every child. To try to explain this variable

Previous research demonstrated the overall efficacy of an embodied language intervention (EMBRACE) that taught pre-school children how to simulate (imagine) language in a heard narrative. However, EMBRACE was not effective for every child. To try to explain this variable response to the intervention, the video recordings made during the four-day intervention sessions were assessed and emotion was coded. Each session was emotion-coded for child emotions and for child-researcher emotions. The child specific emotions were 1) engagement in the task, this included level of participation in the activity, 2) motivation/attention to persist and complete the task, as well as stay focused, and 3) positive affect throughout the session. The child-researcher specific emotions were 1) engagement with each other, this involved how the child interacted with the researcher and under what context, and 2) researcher’s positive affect, this incorporated how enthusiastic and encouraging the researcher was throughout the session. It was hypothesized that effectiveness of the intervention would be directly correlated with the degree that the child displayed positive emotions during the intervention. Thus, the analysis of these emotions should highlight differences between the control and EMBRACE group and help to explain variability in effectiveness of the intervention. The results did indicate that children in the EMBRACE group generally had a significantly higher positive affect compared to the control group, but these results did not influence the ability for the child to effectively recall or moderate the EEG variables in the post-test. The results also showed that children who interacted with the researcher more tended to be in the EMBRACE group, whereas children who did not interact with the researcher more frequently were in the control group, showing that the EMBRACE intervention ended up being a more collaborative task.

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Date Created
2020-05

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The Role of Attention in the Development of Coordination: Assessing the Effects of Attention on Fine and Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children

Description

Previous research has shown that there is a significant relation between one’s attentional abilities and one’s motor coordination. However, little research has been done that compares attention’s effects on the two major motor skills and what that could mean for

Previous research has shown that there is a significant relation between one’s attentional abilities and one’s motor coordination. However, little research has been done that compares attention’s effects on the two major motor skills and what that could mean for one with significant attention problems. Additionally, there has not been much research done on this topic among a population of preschool-aged children. The current study sought to explore the relation between attention and motor coordination among a sample of preschoolers. A comparison of gross motor skills and fine motor skills was also assessed in order to address any potential differing effects. A sample of twenty-six preschool children participated in an experiment consisting of completing fine motor tasks, gross motor tasks, and an attention task. Additionally, parent and teacher surveys were collected that asked both parents and teachers to report their child’s behaviors at home. It was hypothesized that attention would have a significant relation with fine motor skills because past research has found that the variable of inattention is highly correlated with weaker fine motor skills. However, the current study found that attention had a more significant relation with gross motor skills. This finding was reflected across the experiments that the children completed and across the parent/teacher surveys.

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Date Created
2020-05

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A Child's Ability to Learn Emotion Understanding and Coping Strategies

Description

Self-regulation in the form of coping with emotions is something that most people have effectively adapted to by adulthood. This is an organically learned process that begins in early childhood through play, parenting, education, and peer interactions. This study examines

Self-regulation in the form of coping with emotions is something that most people have effectively adapted to by adulthood. This is an organically learned process that begins in early childhood through play, parenting, education, and peer interactions. This study examines whether six children aged 4-5 (M age= 4.72, SD= 0.372, 50% female, 100% Caucasian) are able to understand basic emotions and how to cope with them through one of two protocols. The conditions were either directive instruction or embodied cognition, and children were evaluated with a pre and post-test measure. Findings did not indicate any significant effect of the conditions on memorizing coping mechanisms, nor did it indicate that there was a significant improvement in emotion understanding following the sessions. These findings were limited by the sample size and participant interest.

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Date Created
2017-12

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Going Back in Time: Children’s Word Learning Through Backwards Integration

Description

For many years now, early word learning in children has been an important subject among many researchers. There are many ways in which children learn word-object pairings including using co-occurrences, forwards integration, and backwards integration. This study primarily focuses on

For many years now, early word learning in children has been an important subject among many researchers. There are many ways in which children learn word-object pairings including using co-occurrences, forwards integration, and backwards integration. This study primarily focuses on backwards integration. Backwards integration entails using learned information to be able to recall a word-object pairing from a previous time. In this thesis, three different studies were conducted with children aged 3-7 years old. In the general task, children were presented with a computerized word-learning task in which they could track word-referent pairings using co-occurrence statistics, forward integration, and backward integration. The goal of Study 1 and Study 2 was to determine the best task design to study backwards integration. The goal of the final study, Study 3, was to provide preliminary data on backwards integration. The overall results indicate that a between subjects design is the most beneficial way to test backwards integration because as a group, children were learning when compared to chance. In addition, the results from Study 3 showed that children were not learning in the task. In general, this suggests that this task may have been very difficult for children to complete. One limitation of Study 3
was that there was a small sample size of only 29 children. In order to account for this, the sample sizes in Study 2 and Study 3 were combined. This combined data did show that children succeeded at the backwards integration condition. It is noteworthy to mention that backwards integration was above chance in Study 2 and in the Study 2 and 3 combination. Therefore, the overall results suggest that children may possibly be able to backwards integrate; however, no evidence of learning in any of the other conditions were present.

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Created

Date Created
2019-05

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Introspection and Certainty Training in Preschool Children

Description

This study assessed preschool children's (N= 52) ability to introspect and monitor their own levels of certainty. After a book reading intervention, children reported that they were less certain of answer choices in a picture identification game. School differences showed

This study assessed preschool children's (N= 52) ability to introspect and monitor their own levels of certainty. After a book reading intervention, children reported that they were less certain of answer choices in a picture identification game. School differences showed that some groups of children reported improved levels of certainty monitoring, while other groups of children reported scores dissimilar to those predicted. This indicated that children who were immersed in rich learning environments, where strict curriculum and emotion understanding training were enforced, could be predisposed to this type of certainty understanding.

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Created

Date Created
2018-12

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E-books and Emergent Literacy in Early Childhood Education: The Impact of Dialogic Reading on Vocabulary Knowledge and Story Retell

Description

The incorporation of electronic books (e-books) into the classroom and home of young children has been shown to have positive effects on the acquisition of early literacy skills. Dialogic reading methods, which include interactive conversations between caregiver and child about

The incorporation of electronic books (e-books) into the classroom and home of young children has been shown to have positive effects on the acquisition of early literacy skills. Dialogic reading methods, which include interactive conversations between caregiver and child about a story as it is being read, additionally are known to improve skills that lead to improved literacy during the school years. No research to date, however, has examined e-books and dialogic reading when used together. This study examines how using dialogic reading with a child reading an e-book will impact the acquisition of emergent literacy skills, particularly vocabulary knowledge and story recall ability. Twenty-three children aged 3 to 5 took part in a matched pairs experiment that included reading a select e-book four times in which half received a dialogic reading intervention. The children who received the intervention scored significantly higher in the story recall measure of the posttest than those in the control group. No differences were found between the experimental and control groups on the vocabulary measure, although mutual gains were found among both groups from the pretest to the posttest. The results suggest that dialogic reading when incorporated with e-books may improve a child's ability to recall a story. Further, the results indicate that repeated reading of the same e-book may increase vocabulary knowledge.

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Created

Date Created
2014-12

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Sum sed cogitone? Can children introspect their mental states?

Description

Introspective awareness refers to direct access to one’s own internal and subjective thoughts and feelings (Wimmer & Hartl, 1991). Two theories, simulation theory and theory-theory, have been used to understand our access to our mental states. Simulation theory (Harris, 1991)

Introspective awareness refers to direct access to one’s own internal and subjective thoughts and feelings (Wimmer & Hartl, 1991). Two theories, simulation theory and theory-theory, have been used to understand our access to our mental states. Simulation theory (Harris, 1991) involves imagining yourself in another person’s situation, reading off of your mental state, and attributing that state to the other person. Theory-theory (Gopnik, 1993) involves an interrelated body of knowledge, based on core mental-state constructs, including beliefs and desires, that may be applied to everyone—self and others (Gopnik & Wellman, 1994). Introspection is taken for granted by simulation theory, and explicitly denied by theory-theory. This study is designed to test for evidence of introspection in young children using simple perception and knowledge task. The current evidence is against introspective awareness in children because the data suggest that children cannot report their own false beliefs and they cannot report their on-going thoughts (Flavell, Green & Flavell, 1993; Gopnik & Astington, 1988). The hypothesis in this study states that children will perform better on Self tasks compared to Other tasks, which will be evidence for introspection. The Other-Perception tasks require children to calculate the other’s line of sight and determine if there is something obscuring his or her vision. The Other-Knowledge tasks require children to reason that the other’s previous looking inside a box means that he or she will know what is inside the box when it is closed. The corresponding Self tasks could be answered either by using the same reasoning for the self or by introspection to determine what it is they see and do not see, and know and do not know. Children performing better on Self tasks compared to Other tasks will be an indication of introspection. Tests included Yes/No and Forced Choice questions, which was initially to ensure that the results will not be caused by a feature of a single method of questioning. I realized belatedly, however, that Forced Choice was not a valid measure of introspection as children could introspect in both the Self and Other conditions. I also expect to replicate previous findings that reasoning about Perception is easier for children than reasoning about Knowledge.

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Created

Date Created
2013-12