Matching Items (12)

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Barriers to Local Sourcing

Description

Over the last several years there has been increased enthusiasm surrounding local interests, particularly when it comes to the economic development of local communities (Esteves, Barclay, 2011). This study seeks

Over the last several years there has been increased enthusiasm surrounding local interests, particularly when it comes to the economic development of local communities (Esteves, Barclay, 2011). This study seeks to identify potential barriers to local sourcing that have not been previously identified in literature. By conducting interviews with organizations in the private and public sectors, this study was able to gain a broad perspective of the sourcing decision making process across these sectors. The study was able to determine three new barriers to local sourcing. First, in the private sector, the lack of personal commitment to local sourcing from the decision maker to source locally is a barrier. Second, in the public sector, the intention behind procurement policies are creating the barrier for local sourcing opportunities. Finally, both private and public sectors experience the same external barriers due to a mismatch of the local supply base and the needs of the organization.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Analyzing Conflict Mineral Policy Compliance in the Technology Industry

Description

Conflict minerals are those that are taken from violent, militia controlled mines in areas like the Democratic Republic of the Congo and used in technology such as laptops, cellphones, and

Conflict minerals are those that are taken from violent, militia controlled mines in areas like the Democratic Republic of the Congo and used in technology such as laptops, cellphones, and computers. They are then sold to fund bloody wars that have been raging for years. The issue of conflict minerals continue to rise as technology advances. To combat the issue, the Dodd-Frank Act was implemented in the U.S. in 2010. The act requires companies listed on the stock exchange to report information on possible conflict mineral usage. However, there is a large discrepancy in the compliance levels between many similar technology companies subject to the Dodd-Frank Act. This paper addresses the factors driving compliance through the use of a theory testing method known as pattern matching, and attempts to answer why such similar companies have such different compliance levels. The pattern matching technique looks to test the applicability of theories based on what they theorize will happen and what actually happens in a given scenario. In this instance, the theories know as general deterrence, institutional, and stakeholder theory were put to the test in order to identify the factors driving compliance levels with conflict mineral policies. Both general deterrence and stakeholder theory were able to adequately match their theorized outcomes of conflict mineral compliance with actual observed outcomes. However, general deterrence theory more adequately explained the differences in compliance levels between similar companies. This information has implications on the policy side of the issue, as it reveals a way to more effectively drive up compliance levels by increasing disincentives and penalties in accordance with general deterrence theory.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Performance Metrics of US Renewable Energy Initiatives

Description

This study was conducted to better understand the making and measuring of renewable energy goals by the federal government. Three different energy types are studied: wind, solar, and biofuel, for

This study was conducted to better understand the making and measuring of renewable energy goals by the federal government. Three different energy types are studied: wind, solar, and biofuel, for two different federal departments: the Department of Defense and the Department of Energy. A statistical analysis and a meta-analysis of current literature will be the main pieces of information. These departments and energy types were chosen as they represent the highest potential for renewable energy production. It is important to understand any trends in goal setting by the federal government, as well as to understand what these trends represent in terms of predicting renewable energy production. The conclusion for this paper is that the federal government appears to set high goals for renewable energy initiatives. While the goals appear to be high, they are designed based on required characteristics described by the federal government. These characteristics are most often technological advancements, tax incentives, or increased production, with tax incentives having the highest priority. However, more often than not these characteristics are optimistic or simply not met. This leads to the resetting of goals before any goal can be evaluated, making it difficult to determine the goal-setting ability of the federal government.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

How To Increase The Value of Advertising Spend at a Professional Services Firm When Cost Reductions Are Impractical

Description

This thesis is structured as a case study that draws primarily from the field of marketing with supplements from supply chain management. It focuses on the Law Offices of Jennifer

This thesis is structured as a case study that draws primarily from the field of marketing with supplements from supply chain management. It focuses on the Law Offices of Jennifer Hayes over a time period of six months that spans from September 2012 to February 2013. This project examines how the firm's marketing efforts were expanded to include online pay-per-click marketing through Google Adwords. The project was a huge success as it helped fuel the growth of the business through the generation of qualified leads. Additionally, this thesis also tells the story of the complexities and decisions surrounding the project from its inception to its completion. In the process, this thesis found that the value of the advertising spend at a professional services firm can be increased even when cost reductions are impractical. This was be done by first confirming that there is in fact room to enhance value in this spend category. Secondly, the strategy to accomplish this goal took a holistic approach that enhanced the overall competitiveness of the company, not just its revenues.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Supplier Selection Behavior Under Uncertainty: Contextual and Cognitive Effects on Risk Perception and Choice

Description

Buyers often make supplier selection decisions under conditions of uncertainty. Although the analytical aspects of supplier selection are well developed, the psychological aspects are less so. This article uses supply

Buyers often make supplier selection decisions under conditions of uncertainty. Although the analytical aspects of supplier selection are well developed, the psychological aspects are less so. This article uses supply chain management and behavioral decision theories to propose that attributes of the purchasing situation (category difficulty, category importance, and contingent pay) affect cognition that, in turn, affects a supply manager's choice. We conducted a supplier selection behavioral experiment with practicing managers to test the model's hypotheses. When the context involves an important or difficult sourcing category, higher risk perceptions exist that increase preference for a supplier with more certain outcomes, even when that choice has a lower expected payoff. However, the presence of contingent pay decreases risk perceptions through higher perceived supplier control. We also find that a manager's risk propensity increases preferences for a supplier with less certain outcomes regardless of perceived risk. Our model and results provide a theoretical framework for further study into the cognitive aspects of supplier selection behavior and provide insight into biases that influence practicing supply chain managers.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-06-01

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Competitive Goals and Plant Investment in Environment and Safety Practices: Moderating Effect of National Culture

Description

Operations managers clearly play a critical role in targeting plant-level investments toward environment and safety practices. In principle, a “rational” response would be to align this investment with senior management's

Operations managers clearly play a critical role in targeting plant-level investments toward environment and safety practices. In principle, a “rational” response would be to align this investment with senior management's competitive goals for operational performance. However, operations managers also are influenced by contingent factors, such as their national culture, thus creating potential tension that might bias investment away from a simple rational response. Using data from 1,453 plants in 24 countries, we test the moderating influence of seven of the national cultural characteristics on investment at the plant level in environment and safety practices. Four of the seven national cultural characteristics from GLOBE (i.e., uncertainty avoidance, in-group collectivism, future orientation and performance orientation) shifted investment away from an expected “rational” response. Positive bias was evident when the national culture favored consistency and formalized procedures and rewarded performance improvement. In contrast, managers exhibited negative bias when familial groups and local coalitions were powerful, or future outcomes—rather than current actions—were more important. Overall, this study highlights the critical importance of moving beyond a naïve expectation that plant-level investment will naturally align with corporate competitive goals for environment and safety. Instead, the national culture where the plant is located will influence these investments, and must be taken into account by senior management.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-02-01

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Supplier Opportunism in Buyer-Supplier New Product Development: A China-US Study of Antecedents, Consequences, and Cultural/Institutional Contexts

Description

Collaborating with a supplier in a buying firm's new product development (NPD) project is commonly advocated and adopted, but does not always improve project performance. Some pre-existing collaboration contexts, such

Collaborating with a supplier in a buying firm's new product development (NPD) project is commonly advocated and adopted, but does not always improve project performance. Some pre-existing collaboration contexts, such as buyer–supplier NPD projects, are especially exposed to supplier opportunism due to the uncertain nature of the collaboration process. Adopting agency theory and transaction cost theory perspectives, we examine: (i) contextual antecedents and project consequences of supplier opportunism and (ii) if these causal influences vary in different cultural and institutional contexts. Using a survey sample of 214 United States (U.S.) and 212 Chinese buying firms’ responses about buyer–supplier NPD projects, we find that supplier opportunism is significantly influenced by the task and relational contexts. We also show that supplier opportunism damages both design quality and efficiency, two aspects of project performance. When comparing U.S. to China, we find that task and relational contexts have a greater impact on supplier opportunism in the U.S., but design efficiency is less hurt by supplier opportunism there. Finally, we show challenges of preventing supplier opportunism in certain NPD collaboration contexts, and offer solutions for overcoming these challenges.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-04-01

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Essays on Environmental Spillovers in Supply Chains

Description

The phenomenon of global warming and climate change has increasingly attracted attention by researchers in the field of supply chain and operations management. Firms have developed efficient plans and intervention

The phenomenon of global warming and climate change has increasingly attracted attention by researchers in the field of supply chain and operations management. Firms have developed efficient plans and intervention measures to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. While a majority of research in supply chain management has adopted a firm-centric view to study environmental management, this dissertation focuses on the context of GHG emissions reduction by considering a firm’s vertical and horizontal relationships with other parties, and the associated spillover effects. A theoretical framework is first proposed to facilitate the field's understanding of the possible spillover effects in GHG emissions reduction via vertical and horizontal interactions. Two empirical studies are then presented to test the spillover effect in GHG emissions reduction, focusing on the vertical interactions - when firms interact with their supply chain members. Drawing data from Bloomberg Environmental Social and Governance, and Bloomberg SPLC, this study conducts econometric analyses using various models. The results suggest that first, a higher level of supply chain GHG emissions is associated with the adoption of emissions reduction programs by a firm, and that this supply chain leakage contributes to the firm’s financial performance. Second, a firm's supply base innovativeness can contribute to its internal GHG emissions reduction, and this effect is contingent on a firm's supply base structure. As such, this dissertation answers the recent call in the field of supply chain and operations management for more empirical research in socially and environmentally responsible value chains. Further, this study contributes to the literature by providing a better understanding of the externalities that value chain members can impose on one another when pursuing sustainability goals.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Reframing buyer-supplier agency problems beyond the dyad

Description

While agency problems inevitably exist in buyer-supplier relationships, the focus on how to overcome such problems has been confined to the buyer-supplier dyad as if the dyad exists in isolation.

While agency problems inevitably exist in buyer-supplier relationships, the focus on how to overcome such problems has been confined to the buyer-supplier dyad as if the dyad exists in isolation. In this dissertation, I re-frame the agency problems beyond the dyadic relationship between a buyer and its supplier and suggest a new way to overcome agency problems. While the current Agency Theory suggests that the buyer can monitor and provide incentives to mitigate the agency problems, I propose to look beyond the dyad in addressing buyer-supplier agency problems.

In the first chapter, I examine the impact of the “indirect links” in which the buyer is connected to the supplier through a third actor. I propose a conceptual framework that specifies how the indirect links can overcome agency problems through the effects of information exchange, mutual monitoring, power change, and network governance. These different effects are enabled by the indirect links based on the different network positions and levels of connectivity of the third actor. The first chapter provides a theoretical framework for Chapter 2 and 3.

In Chapter 2, the effect of network governance enabled by the indirect links is investigated. In particular, two scenario-based role-play experiments were conducted with managers to examine the effects of dyadic and network governance mechanisms on supplier opportunism. In Study 1, the participants took the perspective of a supplier, while in Study 2, the participants took the role of a buyer. The results show that network governance mechanism reduces the supplier's opportunistic behavioral intentions directly and indirectly through the negative affection prediction, and while suppliers may overlook the buyer's reactions as they make decisions, the buyers are likely to react against the supplier, such as engage in negative word-of-mouth or reduce level of commitment.

Finally, directed sourcing, a direct application of how a buyer could overcome agency problems beyond the dyad, is examined in Chapter 3. Directed sourcing is an emerging sourcing practice in which the buying firms bypass the top-tier suppliers and directly manage or contract with lower-tier suppliers, and research on this new practice is in its infancy. Therefore, multi-tier multi-task principal-agent models are developed to investigate the effect of directed sourcing practice on each member in this three-tier supply chain, comparing with traditional tiered sourcing. The results show that directed sourcing generally benefits the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and the lower-tier supplier, while it harms the top-tier supplier. Yet, directed sourcing is not always beneficial to the OEM. Therefore, an OEM should be selective in implementing this new strategy.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

Cognitive Antecedents to the Knowledge Asset Outsourcing Decision

Description

In the current knowledge economy, the decision on whether to outsource knowledge assets is arguably the most important decision in operations and supply chain management (OSCM). However, the theories of

In the current knowledge economy, the decision on whether to outsource knowledge assets is arguably the most important decision in operations and supply chain management (OSCM). However, the theories of transaction cost economics (TCE) and the resource-based theory (RBT) are inconsistent in their ability to predict, describe or explain knowledge outsourcing decisions. Currently, a theory to explain this important OSCM decision does not seem to be available. This dissertation takes a view that strategic decisions like that of knowledge asset outsourcing are made by a two step decision process where (1) an individual level cognitive process where managers generate their solutions and (2) a firm level social process where managers seek to influence other managers about their opinion. Part I uses a behavioral experiment to understand how managers form their solutions to the knowledge outsourcing question. The part tests if the psychological closeness to a task being outsourced i.e. the task affinity and self-interest influences the managers to subvert the rational decision process and make “favorable” outsourcing decisions. Additionally, it also tests if the influence is indirect and mediated by the perception of asset specificity (TCE variable) and core competence (RBT variable). Part 2 adopts a naturalistic paradigm and conducts case study research to understand how these cognitive managers with different mindsets try to influence the firm decision. The structuration theory framework is adopted to study 11 decision opportunities and frame a typology of decision processes that are used by managers. The parsimonious typology has 4 ideal types based on the nature of data exchange (naive and involved) and the nature of mindset exchange (naive or involved). The dissertation offers a comprehensive understanding of how knowledge asset outsourcing decisions emerge. It aligns the strategy research in OSCM field to the current beliefs in strategic management. The typology can be used to develop contingencies that suggest the type of decision process to use in different conditions. The experiment validates that TCE and RBT influences how managers make decisions but shows that task affinity and self-interest influences the perception of core competency and the outsourcing decision.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020