In UAVs and parking lots, it is typical to first collect an enormous number of pixels using conventional imagers. This is followed by employment of expensive methods to compress by throwing away redundant data. Subsequently, the compressed data is transmitted to a ground station. The past decade has seen the emergence of novel imagers called spatial-multiplexing cameras, which offer compression at the sensing level itself by providing an arbitrary linear measurements of the scene instead of pixel-based sampling. In this dissertation, I discuss various approaches for effective information extraction from spatial-multiplexing measurements and present the trade-offs between reliability of the performance and computational/storage load of the system. In the first part, I present a reconstruction-free approach to high-level inference in computer vision, wherein I consider the specific case of activity analysis, and show that using correlation filters, one can perform effective action recognition and localization directly from a class of spatial-multiplexing cameras, called compressive cameras, even at very low measurement rates of 1\%. In the second part, I outline a deep learning based non-iterative and real-time algorithm to reconstruct images from compressively sensed (CS) measurements, which can outperform the traditional iterative CS reconstruction algorithms in terms of reconstruction quality and time complexity, especially at low measurement rates. To overcome the limitations of compressive cameras, which are operated with random measurements and not particularly tuned to any task, in the third part of the dissertation, I propose a method to design spatial-multiplexing measurements, which are tuned to facilitate the easy extraction of features that are useful in computer vision tasks like object tracking. The work presented in the dissertation provides sufficient evidence to high-level inference in computer vision at extremely low measurement rates, and hence allows us to think about the possibility of revamping the current day computer systems.