Matching Items (19)

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Assisted Cycling Improves Cognitive and Motor Functioning in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

Description

This study examines cognitive and motor function in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS) following an 8-week assisted cycling therapy intervention. Forty-four participants were randomly assigned to three groups consisting of

This study examines cognitive and motor function in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS) following an 8-week assisted cycling therapy intervention. Forty-four participants were randomly assigned to three groups consisting of an assisted cycling (AC) (i.e., exercise accomplished through the use of a motor), a voluntary cycling (VC) (self-selected cadence), and a no cycling (NC) control group. Both ACT and VC groups rode a stationary bicycle for three 30-minute sessions a week, for a total of eight weeks. Participants completed cognitive testing that assessed information processing and manual dexterity at the beginning and at the end of the 8-week intervention. Consistent with our hypothesis, the results showed that information processing and manual dexterity improved following 8 weeks of cycling for the ACT group. These results were not seen for individuals in the voluntary and non-exercise groups. Our results suggest that assisted cycling therapy may induce permanent changes in the prefrontal cortex in adolescents with DS.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Analyzing Successful Participation in the First Lady's Let's Move! Initiative: A Collaboration Between Let's Move! Active Schools and the Community Action Research Experiences (CARE) Program

Description

Obesity has been designated as a global epidemic by the World Health Organization since 1998. Over the past 30 years, the prevalence of this epidemic has increased by two-fold in

Obesity has been designated as a global epidemic by the World Health Organization since 1998. Over the past 30 years, the prevalence of this epidemic has increased by two-fold in adults and three-fold in children. Let's Move! Active Schools (LMAS) seeks to fight obesity and promote healthy environments in schools. In collaboration with the Community Action Research Experiences (CARE) program at Arizona State University, three elementary schools in the greater Phoenix area were studied to determine factors associated with success or barriers to implementation of LMAS. Interviews were conducted with three physical educators to determine: the initial appeal and reason the school was attracted to LMAS, how leadership buy-in and participation have affected the success of LMAS in each school, how the resources and support provided by LMAS have best ensured the success of LMAS in each school, what LMAS can do to ensured the sustainability and continued success of the initiative, and how each school has implemented the five core principals of the Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP). Results of the interviews demonstrated that programs previously in place in the elementary school resembling LMAS aided in successful implementation as well as leadership buy-in and participation's positive effect on implementation. The resource most used by physical educators at the three elementary and district advocates and more local workshops were two of the resources requested by the physical educators. The five principals of CSPAP were found to be incorporated at each of the elementary schools. The principal at the award winning school was interviewed and expressed the value she saw in LMAS. Suggestions for more successful implementation of LMAS included targeting the administration, pushing the online material, clarifying the availability of local workshops, and promoting movement lab activities.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Grip Strength and How it Relates to the Functional Disabilities in Persons with Down Syndrome

Description

The aim of this study is to understand the affects of grip strength and manual dexterity in activities of daily living (ADL) in persons with Down syndrome (DS). This is

The aim of this study is to understand the affects of grip strength and manual dexterity in activities of daily living (ADL) in persons with Down syndrome (DS). This is important because it could help with future interventions that are focused around improving related disadvantages in this particular population. Ten participants with DS performed the manual dexterity tests (i.e., Purdue Pegboard) and measured their grip strength with a hydraulic dynamometer. Overall, grip strength was lower than the average for the typical population and was reduced after aeorbic exercise. Improvements, however, were found in their manual dexterity from pre-test to post-test. This indicates that the assisted moderate intensity exercise intervention helped their dexterity performance. The improvements in dexterity are consistent with previous research conducted by Ringenbach et al. (2007). These results suggest that a moderate intensity treadmill walking exercise intervention can increase precision and efficiency in dexterity in persons with Down syndrome, however their grip force production may be stimulated by another means.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012-12

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Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement: The Mind-Body Connection

Description

Children's wellbeing has been of utmost concern to society, and recently this topic has taken a particular focus in both health and achievement. As the focus shifts towards promoting a

Children's wellbeing has been of utmost concern to society, and recently this topic has taken a particular focus in both health and achievement. As the focus shifts towards promoting a healthier and more academically successful youth, the relationship between the two warrants investigation. Specifically, the relationship between physical fitness and academic performance (i.e. grades) in 4th grade students was assessed. A cross-sectional design was used to assess physical fitness of children (M=9.39 years) by means of the FITNESSGRAM assessment tool. Third-quarter grades were used to measure academic performance. Relationships between the variables were determined through bivariate plots, Pearson product moment correlation analysis, independent t-tests, and a three-step regression analysis. The results show a significant relationship between students' aerobic fitness and academic performance. Furthermore, the findings of this study suggest incremental validity between aerobic fitness and academic performance, thus implying predictive value associated with increased physical fitness and academic achievement.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012-12

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Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) Improves Depression in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

Description

The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on depression in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Twelve participants randomly completed one of two

The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on depression in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Twelve participants randomly completed one of two exercise interventions. The interventions were: 1) Voluntary Cycling (VC), in which participants cycled at their self-selected pedaling rate 2) Assisted Cycling (AC), in which the participants' voluntary pedaling rates were augmented with a motor to ensure the maintenance of 80 rpms. In each intervention, the participant completed three cycling sessions each week for a total of eight weeks. Depression scores did decrease or improved after both AC and VC, but not significantly. There was a greater mean improvement for participants in the AC group than VC when analyzing total score and t-score. Future research will include a greater sample size and control group to reach significant results as well as try and reveal the mechanisms involved in these mental health improvements found after an acute bout of assisted cycling in adolescents with DS.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-12

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Voluntary cycling improves maladaptive behaviors in adolescents with Down syndrome

Description

This research study examined the effects of assisted cycling using a stationary recumbent bicycle that had an internal motor to help participants pedal at a desired cadence. The participants were

This research study examined the effects of assisted cycling using a stationary recumbent bicycle that had an internal motor to help participants pedal at a desired cadence. The participants were either placed in an Assisted Cycling (AC), Voluntary Cycling (VC), or No Cycling (NC) intervention group. Those placed in the AC of VC groups then came to a laboratory setting 3 days a week for 8 weeks to cycle for 30 minutes. This research specifically analyzes the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale II to analyze the changes in daily living skills and maladaptive behaviors pre and post the exercise intervention. After analyzing the VABS II scores it was found that those in the VC intervention had statistically significant improvements in maladaptive behaviors. An interpretation of this finding is that the VC intervention had an increased heart rate over the span of the intervention and had a larger power output than those in the AC group. A limitation of this research is that it was a self-reported questionnaire that was given to the caregivers of the participant. The caregivers were not always controlled for, so in some cases two different caregivers were given the questionnaire for a single participant. A suggestion for future research would be to use the participant's mental age versus their chronological age when using the VABS-II and to use the Adaptive Behaviors Assessment System III (ABAS-III).

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Anthropology, Dance, and Education: Integrated Curriculum in Social Studies

Description

Students not only deserve to be actively involved and engaged in learning content knowledge, but it can in fact help them learn better. Arguably too few classrooms actually utilize teaching

Students not only deserve to be actively involved and engaged in learning content knowledge, but it can in fact help them learn better. Arguably too few classrooms actually utilize teaching methods that support this kind of environment. There is perhaps fear that methods like integrated curriculum may detract from student knowledge. The purpose of this intervention study was to determine how the integration of dance and social studies with an anthropological framework effects student learning of content knowledge in social studies, as well as student attitude toward the topic. Research questions that were addressed in this study are the following: (a) How does the integration of dance and social studies with an anthropological framework affect students' chapter test scores when compared to typical instruction?; (b) How does the integration of dance and social studies with an anthropological framework affect students' attitude toward social studies when compared to typical instruction?. Participants were two 6th grade classes at the same elementary school. As a supplement to a unit on Ancient Egypt, the experimental group received four intervention lessons, taught by the investigator, incorporating creative dance to encourage student exploration and increased understanding of content. An anthropological framework was also implemented to foster respectful investigation of culture. Results show that at posttest the intervention group had significantly higher content knowledge, as measured by a chapter test, compared to the control group. This suggests that this program did in fact help students to reach a better understanding of content. Though surveys showed no difference in attitude between groups or over the course of the study, qualitative student responses from the experimental group suggest extremely positive feelings towards concepts covered in the intervention lessons.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Measures of Effective Teaching: National Board Certification and Physical Education Teachers

Description

The non-profit National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) grew out of the belief that teachers were a key factor in improving student achievement and that the profession needed a

The non-profit National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) grew out of the belief that teachers were a key factor in improving student achievement and that the profession needed a way to recognize and reward exemplary classroom teachers. Over 100,000 teachers nationwide have achieved National Board Certification across all certificate areas, with approximately 1,800 of those in the area of Physical Education. Although National Board Certified Teachers (NBCTs) have been the subjects of several studies since the inception of NBPTS, very few have investigated the impact of National Board Certification (NBC) and Physical Education Teachers. This study examined the teaching effectiveness of NBCPETs and non-NBCPETs as they taught intact Physical Education classes with their own students. Participating teachers were provided with an experimental teaching unit (ETU) with a specific learning objective, but were free to plan and design the intended instruction. This study also examined the cognitive processes of NBCPETs and non-NBCPETs during interactive teaching. Academic Learning Time-Physical Education (ALT-PE), the System for Observing Fitness Instructional Time (SOFIT), stimulated-recall interviews, and document analysis were utilized for data collection. Pre- and post-tests on the ETU specific learning objective were conducted to determine student learning and three lessons were videotaped and used in subsequent analysis. Stimulated recall interviews were conducted following each lesson, lasting between 5 to 15 minutes. Themes that emerged from the stimulated-recall interviews across all teachers included: 1) building on past skills, 2) modifications to increase physical activity, and 3) goal-directed instruction. In addition, there is no difference between the amount of time students of NBCPETs engage in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) as compared to students of non-NBCPETs. Similarly, students of non-NBCPETs are provided the same amount of motor activity at an appropriate success rate (ALT-PE) as students of NBCPETs. Lastly, the results showed no difference in gain scores of the learning objectives between the two groups of teachers.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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The effect of training and peer mentor shadowing designed to increase mentor capacity on teacher mentor self-efficacy

Description

This action research study focused on training for teacher mentors and teacher mentor self-efficacy. Specifically, this project explored the impact participation in a teacher mentor training program and teacher

This action research study focused on training for teacher mentors and teacher mentor self-efficacy. Specifically, this project explored the impact participation in a teacher mentor training program and teacher mentor peer shadowing had on teacher mentor self-efficacy. While there is a plethora of literature on teacher self-efficacy, minimal literature exists on the self-efficacy of teacher mentors. Bandura’s self-efficacy theory and cognitive and collaborative apprenticeship provided the foundational body of knowledge in order to understand teacher mentors’ experiences.

This study followed thirty-seven teacher mentors through the first half of the Arizona K12 Center’s Professional Learning Series – Mentor Academy Year 1. Teacher mentors were given a pre-survey upon their first day in the training series, a mid-point survey halfway through the semester and a post-survey at the beginning of the following semester. Teacher mentor self-efficacy data was collected from the surveys and analyzed to determine the impact their participation in the training program had on their self-efficacy. Five random teacher mentors were also selected for interviews. This qualitative data were collected to compliment the quantitative survey data. The second part of the study consisted of interviewing six teacher mentors in a local secondary education school district to gauge the impact the peer mentor shadowing program had on their self-efficacy. Quantitative and qualitative data collected provided insights on the impact these supports had on teacher mentor self-efficacy.

The results of this study indicate the challenge and complexities of being a teacher mentor. The data showed that teacher mentors who lacked training prior to or upon initial entry into their new position of teacher mentor struggled to be effective which negatively affected their self-efficacy. The data also indicated that teacher mentors who participated in the Arizona K12 Center’s mentor training program had greater self-efficacy for their roles. Finally, teacher mentors participating in peer mentor shadowing opportunities found it to be of the greatest impact leading to stronger self-efficacy.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Physical activity patterns and school aged children perceptions of after school programs

Description

With many students of all ages attending after school programs (APSs) where there are a variety of program specific goals, this study examined the physical activity (PA) patterns of youth

With many students of all ages attending after school programs (APSs) where there are a variety of program specific goals, this study examined the physical activity (PA) patterns of youth and teens attending afterschool programs as well as their physical activity during the school week. The first phase of the study used a validated observational instrument System for Observing Play and Leisure in Youth (SOPLAY) to record PA data and contextual aspects. Data was analyzed using cross-tabulations, chi-square test, and a table created to understand moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels and contextual variables of the ASP. Findings suggest both girls and boys engaged in MVPA in environments built for play, while the mean percentage of girls engaged in MVPA was less than boys regardless of activity area. The second phase of the study used a survey comprised of two self-administered instruments. The first section used the Middle School Health Behavior Survey (MSHBS), which has been previously validated to record youth and teens PA behaviors during the past school week inside and outside of school. The second portion of the survey asked youth and teens about PA participation, leisure time, perceptions of the after school program, and choices within the after school program using the validated Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS). Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics to calculate and summarize data within and across both groups. Results showed more than half of youth and teens surveyed were active in some form during the past week regardless of being in school or outside of school, approximately less than a third are in front of a television or computer for less than an hour, and the favorite part of the ASP to youth and teens was the Gym and Friends respectively.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015