Matching Items (45)

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The Social and Political Consequences of Autonomous Vehicles

Description

When, in 1958, Disney aired a program titled “Magic Highway USA” featuring autonomous vehicles directed by punch-cards, few would have predicted touchscreen reprogrammable devices. None could have foreseen a battery powered car capable of fully autonomous operation and a zero

When, in 1958, Disney aired a program titled “Magic Highway USA” featuring autonomous vehicles directed by punch-cards, few would have predicted touchscreen reprogrammable devices. None could have foreseen a battery powered car capable of fully autonomous operation and a zero to sixty mph acceleration in 1.9 seconds. The 21st century has proven to be one of exponential technological advancement and stunning innovation, with few case studies more obvious than that of the progression of autonomous vehicle (AV) technology. Advances in transportation technology and robotics have, throughout history, pointed to the eventual development of fully autonomous vehicles; however, it is only within the last 10 years that innovation has met determination to leapfrog AV development to its current state. As this technology has developed, society has begun to realize its extensive social implications, both positive and negative, from extending mobility to the impaired to reducing the need to fill jobs in the transportation industry. With progress comes new challenges and as planners strive to get ahead of the pace of AV innovation, it is becoming increasingly apparent that questions of data security, privacy, regulation, and liability must be quickly addressed. Some also question the economic feasibility of AV and suggest that, unless new economic models are developed around the transportation industry, there is a significant risk of increased societal strain as a result of digital and economic inequality. As a consequence, industry, academia, and policy have all emerged to direct, manage, and govern this new and exciting space. Autonomous vehicles promise to move the world into a new era of almost limitless potential but only if society, industry, and policy are capable of moving with it.

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2019-05

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Market and Feasibility Study for Novel Processing of Aluminum Alloy for Applications in 3D Printing

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One of the more difficult portions of our capstone project has been identifying a potential market for our Clay Metal—whether there even is a potential market. To that end, I plan to use the strategies discussed in MSE482 to complete

One of the more difficult portions of our capstone project has been identifying a potential market for our Clay Metal—whether there even is a potential market. To that end, I plan to use the strategies discussed in MSE482 to complete a feasibility study and market analysis for our two clay metal systems to determine if our alloys are viable as a product in any market and to determine what steps we might need to take to bring our material to that market. While we have done some preliminary research similar to a feasibility study, a more comprehensive understanding of our problem and its existing solutions will help us optimize our design with respect to desirable properties and cost. There are various metrics used to identify what materials properties are most desirable for consumers; the exact metric we use will become clearer when I have identified our demographic.

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2017-05

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Environmental Impact of Graphene's Adoption into Everyday Life

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Graphene has the ability to advance many common fields, including: membranes, composites and coatings, energy, and electronics. For membranes, graphene will be used as a filter for desalination plants which will reduce the cost of desalination and greatly increase water

Graphene has the ability to advance many common fields, including: membranes, composites and coatings, energy, and electronics. For membranes, graphene will be used as a filter for desalination plants which will reduce the cost of desalination and greatly increase water security in developing countries. For composites and coatings, graphene's strength, flexibility, and lightweight will be instrumental in producing the next generation of athletic wear and sports equipment. Graphene's use in energy comes from its theorized ability to charge a phone battery in seconds or an electric car in minutes. Finally, for electronics, graphene will be used to create faster transistors, flexible electronics, and fully integrated wearable technology.

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Date Created
2018-05

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Measuring Engineering Faculty Views About Benefits and Costs of Using Student-Centered Strategies

Description

Dispositions of 286 engineering faculty members were assessed to determine views about three student-centered classroom strategies and how frequently faculty used those strategies. The student-centered classroom strategies examined were: using formative feedback to adjust instruction, integrating real-world applications, and promoting

Dispositions of 286 engineering faculty members were assessed to determine views about three student-centered classroom strategies and how frequently faculty used those strategies. The student-centered classroom strategies examined were: using formative feedback to adjust instruction, integrating real-world applications, and promoting student-to-student discussions during formal class time. The Value, Expectancy, and Cost of Testing Educational Reforms Survey (VECTERS), based on expectancy theory, was designed, tested, and validated for this purpose. Results indicate using strategies, such as formative feedback, are significantly tied to perceived benefits and expectation of success. Using student-centered strategies is inversely related to the perceived cost of implementation – with more frequent users perceiving lower cost of time and materials.

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2017-03-29

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Optimization of a Modified TiO2 Photocatalyst to Improve Converstion of CO2 into Methane with a Short Essay on the Economic and Environmental Impact of NextPotential's X-Doped Photocatalyst

Description

The financial feasibility of NextPotential's X-doped photocatalyst is uncertain, the outcome depends on how much the material cost becomes reduced due to mass production techniques. If carbon taxes continue on the current trend the photocatalyst is highly likely to become

The financial feasibility of NextPotential's X-doped photocatalyst is uncertain, the outcome depends on how much the material cost becomes reduced due to mass production techniques. If carbon taxes continue on the current trend the photocatalyst is highly likely to become financially feasible. Without carbon taxes, it is still likely the photocatalyst will achieve economical feasibility. The land area required by the photocatalyst is a feasible size. The minimal environmental downsides are that more land will be used and water will be used, but both of these are minimal compared to the benefit of eliminating carbon emissions.

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2015-05

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An Effective Characterization Methodology for Sub-micron Copper Oxides and Oxide-preventing Surface Finishes with a Short Essay on the Role of SEM in the Continuing Miniaturization of Integrated Circuits

Description

The transition to lead-free solder in the electronics industry has benefited the environment in many ways. However, with new materials systems comes new materials issues. During the processing of copper pads, a protective surface treatment is needed to prevent the

The transition to lead-free solder in the electronics industry has benefited the environment in many ways. However, with new materials systems comes new materials issues. During the processing of copper pads, a protective surface treatment is needed to prevent the copper from oxidizing. Characterizing the copper oxidation underneath the surface treatment is challenging but necessary for product reliability and failure analysis. Currently, FIB-SEM, which is time-consuming and expensive, is what is used to understand and analyze the surface treatment-copper oxide(s)-copper system. This project's goals were to determine a characterization methodology that cuts both characterization time and cost in half for characterizing copper oxidation beneath a surface treatment and to determine which protective surface treatment is the best as defined by multiple criterion such as cost, sustainability, and reliability. Two protective surface treatments, organic solderability preservative (OSP) and chromium zincate, were investigated, and multiple characterization techniques were researched. Six techniques were tested, and three were deemed promising. Through our studies, it was determined that the best surface treatment was organic solderability preservative (OSP) and the ideal characterization methodology would be using FIB-SEM to calibrate a QCM model, along with using SERA to confirm the QCM model results. The methodology we propose would result in a 91% reduction in characterization cost and a 92% reduction in characterization time. Future work includes further calibration of the QCM model using more FIB/SEM data points and eventually creating a model for oxide layer thickness as a function of exposure time and processing temperature using QCM as the primary data source. An additional short essay on the role of SEM on the continuing miniaturization of integrated circuits is included at the end. This paper explores the intertwined histories of the scanning electron microscope and the integrated circuit, highlighting how advances in SEM influence integrated circuit advances.

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2015-05

Fatigue Mechanisms of Typical Polymers and Silicone based Elastomers

Description

The goal of the paper was to examine the fatigue mechanisms of polymers and silicone based elastomers. The mechanisms of fatigue due to crazing: the alignment of polymer chains to the stress axis, and shear banding: the localized orientation of

The goal of the paper was to examine the fatigue mechanisms of polymers and silicone based elastomers. The mechanisms of fatigue due to crazing: the alignment of polymer chains to the stress axis, and shear banding: the localized orientation of the polymer by the shear stresses from two planes, were discussed in depth in this paper. Crazing only occurs in tensile stress, is initiated on the surface of the material, and only occurs in brittle polymers. Crazing also accounts for a 40-60% decrease in density, causing localized weakening of the material and a concentration in stress. This is due to a decrease in effective cross sectional area. The mechanism behind discontinuous growth bands was also discussed to be the cause of cyclic crazing. Shear banding only occurs in ductile polymers and can result in the failure of polymers via necking. Furthermore, the high fatigue resistance of silicone elastomers was discussed in this paper. This conclusion was made because of the lack of fatigue mechanisms (crazing, discontinuous growth bands, and shears banding) in the observed elastomer's microstructure after the samples had undergone fatigue tests. This was done through an analysis of room temperature vulcanized silicone adhesives, a heat-curing silicone elastomer, and a self-curing transparent silicone rubber. Fatigue of room temperature vulcanized silicon was observed, however this was reasoned to be the failure of the adhesion of the elastomer to the steel substrate instead of the microstructure itself. Additionally, the significance of fatigue in real world applications was discussed using SouthWest Airlines Flight 812 as an example.

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Date Created
2016-05

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Commentary and Critique on Lesson Plans Utilizing 3D Printing Technology in K-12 Education.

Description

Analysis of 4 lesson plans for primary education in which 3D printers are used either to build components or are directly used by students. Provides critique on how proper investment and utilization of this new technology can enrich education and

Analysis of 4 lesson plans for primary education in which 3D printers are used either to build components or are directly used by students. Provides critique on how proper investment and utilization of this new technology can enrich education and misuse can waste time, money, and even reduce the quality of education.

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Date Created
2014-05

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Assessment of Student Responses to Various Resources Offered in Biomedical Engineering and Materials Science Courses

Description

To supplement lectures, various resources are available to students; however, little research has been done to look systematically at which resources studies find most useful and the frequency at which they are used. We have conducted a preliminary study looking

To supplement lectures, various resources are available to students; however, little research has been done to look systematically at which resources studies find most useful and the frequency at which they are used. We have conducted a preliminary study looking at various resources available in an introductory material science course over four semesters using a custom survey called the Student Resource Value Survey (SRVS). More specifically, the SRVS was administered before each test to determine which resources students use to do well on exams. Additionally, over the course of the semester, which resources students used changed. For instance, study resources for exams including the use of homework problems decreased from 81% to 50%, the utilization of teaching assistant for exam studying increased from 25% to 80%, the use of in class Muddiest Points for exam study increased form 28% to 70%, old exams and quizzes only slightly increased for exam study ranging from 78% to 87%, and the use of drop-in tutoring services provided to students at no charge decreased from 25% to 17%. The data suggest that students thought highly of peer interactions by using those resources more than tutoring centers. To date, no research has been completed looking at courses at the department level or a different discipline. To this end, we adapted the SRVS administered in material science to investigate resource use in thirteen biomedical engineering (BME) courses. Here, we assess the following research question: "From a variety of resources, which do biomedical engineering students feel addresses difficult concept areas, prepares them for examinations, and helps in computer-aided design (CAD) and programming the most and with what frequency?" The resources considered include teaching assistants, classroom notes, prior exams, homework problems, Muddiest Points, office hours, tutoring centers, group study, and the course textbook. Results varied across the four topical areas: exam study, difficult concept areas, CAD software, and math-based programming. When preparing for exams and struggling with a learning concept, the most used and useful resources were: 1) homework problems, 2) class notes and 3) group studying. When working on math-based programming (Matlab and Mathcad) as well as computer-aided design, the most used and useful resources were: 1) group studying, 2) engineering tutoring center, and 3) undergraduate teaching assistants. Concerning learning concepts and exams in the BME department, homework problems and class notes were considered some of the highest-ranking resources for both frequency and usefulness. When comparing to the pilot study in MSE, both BME and MSE students tend to highly favor peer mentors and old exams as a means of studying for exams at the end of the semester1. Because the MSE course only considered exams, we cannot make any comparisons to BME data concerning programming and CAD. This analysis has highlighted potential resources that are universally beneficial, such as the use of peer work, i.e. group studying, engineering tutoring center, and teaching assistants; however, we see differences by both discipline and topical area thereby highlighting the need to determine important resources on a class-by-class basis as well.

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Date Created
2016-05

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Effective Student Understanding: Using Video Interventions to Increase Engineering Student Concept Comprehension

Description

The focus of education in the classroom traditionally is one of fact memorization and recall. The teaching process of linear knowledge progression is not always in tune with the way that the human brain actually processes, conceptualizes, and comprehends concepts

The focus of education in the classroom traditionally is one of fact memorization and recall. The teaching process of linear knowledge progression is not always in tune with the way that the human brain actually processes, conceptualizes, and comprehends concepts and information. In an introductory engineering class, focused on materials engineering and its related concepts, a system of lecture interventions has been put in place to increase concept comprehension by supplementing lecture units with various activities, from additional worksheets, explicit concept discussions, and most recently, YouTube videos showcasing specific concepts and situations. In an attempt to correct the lack of actual concept comprehension, these interventions seek to interact with the human mind in a way that capitalizes on its ability to process and interpret non-linear knowledge and information.

Using a concept test given prior to the lecture unit, and after, the difference in scores is used to recognize if the concepts presented have actually been comprehended. Used specifically in a lecture unit on solubility and solutions, the concept test tested student’s knowledge of supersaturated, saturated, and unsaturated solutions. With a visual identification and a written explanation, the student’s ability to identify and explain the three solutions was tested.

In order to determine the cause of the change in score from pre- to post-test, an analysis of the change in scores and the effects of question type and solution type was conducted. The significant results are as follows:
 The change in score from pre- to post-test was found to be significant, with the only difference between the two tests being the lecture unit and intervention
 From pre- to post-test, solution type had a significant effect on the score, with the unsaturated solution being the most easily recognized and explained solution type
 Students that felt that the YouTube videos greatly increased their concept comprehension, on average, performed better than their counterparts and also saw a greater increase their score from pre- to post-test

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2014-05