Matching Items (38)

Usage of a Texas Instruments Smart SensorTag for Personal Applications: Fall Detection and Prevention to Enhance Elderly Living

Description

Every engineer is responsible for completing a capstone project as a culmination of accredited university learning to demonstrate technical knowledge and enhance interpersonal skills, like teamwork, communication, time management, and

Every engineer is responsible for completing a capstone project as a culmination of accredited university learning to demonstrate technical knowledge and enhance interpersonal skills, like teamwork, communication, time management, and problem solving. This project, with three or four engineers working together in a group, emphasizes not only the importance of technical skills acquired through laboratory procedures and coursework, but the significance of soft skills as one transitions from a university to a professional workplace; it also enhances the understanding of an engineer's obligation to ethically improve society by harnessing technical knowledge to bring about change. The CC2541 Smart SensorTag is a device manufactured by Texas Instruments that focuses on the use of wireless sensors to create low energy applications, or apps; it is equipped with Bluetooth Smart, which enables it to communicate wirelessly with similar devices like smart phones and computers, assisting greatly in app development. The device contains six built-in sensors, which can be utilized to track and log personal data in real-time; these sensors include a gyroscope, accelerometer, humidifier, thermometer, barometer, and magnetometer. By combining the data obtained through the sensors with the ability to communicate wirelessly, the SensorTag can be used to develop apps in multiple fields, including fitness, recreation, health, safety, and more. Team SensorTag chose to focus on health and safety issues to complete its capstone project, creating applications intended for use by senior citizens who live alone or in assisted care homes. Using the SensorTag's ability to track multiple local variables, the team worked to collect data that verified the accuracy and quality of the sensors through repeated experimental trials. Once the sensors were tested, the team developed applications accessible via smart phones or computers to trigger an alarm and send an alert via vibration, e-mail, or Tweet if the SensorTag detects a fall. The fall detection service utilizes the accelerometer and gyroscope sensors with the hope that such a system will prevent severe injuries among the elderly, allow them to function more independently, and improve their quality of life, which is the obligation of engineers to better through their work.

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  • 2015-12

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High Efficiency Electronics for Space Applications

Description

The Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MESFET) has high potential to enter analog and RF applications due to their high breakdown voltage and switching frequency characteristics. These MESFET devices could

The Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MESFET) has high potential to enter analog and RF applications due to their high breakdown voltage and switching frequency characteristics. These MESFET devices could allow for high voltage analog circuits to be integrated with low voltage digital circuits on a single chip in an extremely cost effective way. Higher integration leads to electronics with increased functionality and a smaller finished product. The MESFETs are designed in-house by the research group led by Dr. Trevor Thornton. The layouts are then sent to multi-project wafer (MPW) integrated circuit foundry companies, such as the Metal Oxide Semiconductor Implementation Service (MOSIS) to be fabricated. Once returned, the electrical characteristics of the devices are measured. The MESFET has been implemented in various applications by the research group, including the low dropout linear regulator (LDO) and RF power amplifier. An advantage of the MESFET is that it can function in extreme environments such as space, allowing for complex electrical systems to continue functioning properly where traditional transistors would fail.

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  • 2015-05

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Formation of biomimetic membranes on inorganic supports of different surface morphology and macroscopic geometry

Description

Biological membranes are critical to cell sustainability by selectively permeating polar molecules into the intracellular space and providing protection to the interior organelles. Biomimetic membranes (model cell membranes) are often

Biological membranes are critical to cell sustainability by selectively permeating polar molecules into the intracellular space and providing protection to the interior organelles. Biomimetic membranes (model cell membranes) are often used to fundamentally study the lipid bilayer backbone structure of the biological membrane. Lipid bilayer membranes are often supported using inorganic materials in an effort to improve membrane stability and for application to novel biosensing platforms. Published literature has shown that a variety of dense inorganic materials with various surface properties have been investigated for the study of biomimetic membranes. However, literature does not adequately address the effect of porous materials or supports with varying macroscopic geometries on lipid bilayer membrane behavior. The objective of this dissertation is to present a fundamental study on the synthesis of lipid bilayer membranes supported by novel inorganic supports in an effort to expand the number of available supports for biosensing technology. There are two fundamental areas covered including: (1) synthesis of lipid bilayer membranes on porous inorganic materials and (2) synthesis and characterization of cylindrically supported lipid bilayer membranes. The lipid bilayer membrane formation behavior on various porous supports was studied via direct mass adsorption using a quartz crystal microbalance. Experimental results demonstrate significantly different membrane formation behaviors on the porous inorganic supports. A lipid bilayer membrane structure was formed only on SiO2 based surfaces (dense SiO2 and silicalite, basic conditions) and gamma-alumina (acidic conditions). Vesicle monolayer adsorption was observed on gamma-alumina (basic conditions), and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) of varying roughness. Parameters such as buffer pH, surface chemistry and surface roughness were found to have a significant impact on the vesicle adsorption kinetics. Experimental and modeling work was conducted to study formation and characterization of cylindrically supported lipid bilayer membranes. A novel sensing technique (long-period fiber grating refractometry) was utilized to measure the formation mechanism of lipid bilayer membranes on an optical fiber. It was found that the membrane formation kinetics on the fiber was similar to its planar SiO2 counterpart. Fluorescence measurements verified membrane transport behavior and found that characterization artifacts affected the measured transport behavior.

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  • 2011

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Evaluation and characterization of Silicon MESFETs in low dropout regulators

Description

The partially-depleted (PD) silicon Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MESFET) is becoming more and more attractive for analog and RF applications due to its high breakdown voltage. Compared to conventional

The partially-depleted (PD) silicon Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MESFET) is becoming more and more attractive for analog and RF applications due to its high breakdown voltage. Compared to conventional CMOS high voltage transistors, the silicon MESFET can be fabricated in commercial standard Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) CMOS foundries without any change to the process. The transition frequency of the device is demonstrated to be 45GHz, which makes the MESFET suitable for applications in high power RF power amplifier designs. Also, high breakdown voltage and low turn-on resistance make it the ideal choice for switches in the switching regulator designs. One of the anticipated applications of the MESFET is for the pass device for a low dropout linear regulator. Conventional NMOS and PMOS linear regulators suffer from high dropout voltage, low bandwidth and poor stability issues. In contrast, the N-MESFET pass transistor can provide an ultra-low dropout voltage and high bandwidth without the need for an external compensation capacitor to ensure stability. In this thesis, the design theory and problems of the conventional linear regulators are discussed. N-MESFET low dropout regulators are evaluated and characterized. The error amplifier used a folded cascode architecture with gain boosting. The source follower topology is utilized as the buffer to sink the gate leakage current from the MESFET. A shunt-feedback transistor is added to reduce the output impedance and provide the current adaptively. Measurement results show that the dropout voltage is less than 150 mV for a 1A load current at 1.8V output. Radiation measurements were done for discrete MESFET and fully integrated LDO regulators, which demonstrate their radiation tolerance ability for aerospace applications.

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Date Created
  • 2013

Simulation models for programmable metallization cells

Description

Advances in software and applications continue to demand advances in memory. The ideal memory would be non-volatile and have maximal capacity, speed, retention time, endurance, and radiation hardness while also

Advances in software and applications continue to demand advances in memory. The ideal memory would be non-volatile and have maximal capacity, speed, retention time, endurance, and radiation hardness while also having minimal physical size, energy usage, and cost. The programmable metallization cell (PMC) is an emerging memory technology that is likely to surpass flash memory in all the listed ideal memory characteristics. A comprehensive physics-based model is needed to fully understand PMC operation and aid in design optimization. With the intent of advancing the PMC modeling effort, this thesis presents two simulation models for the PMC. The first model is a finite element model based on Silvaco Atlas finite element analysis software. Limitations of the software are identified that make this model inconsistent with the operating mechanism of the PMC. The second model is a physics-based numerical model developed for the PMC. This model is successful in matching data measured from a chalcogenide glass PMC designed and manufactured at ASU. Matched operating characteristics observable in the current and resistance vs. voltage data include the OFF/ON resistances and write/erase and electrodeposition voltage thresholds. Multilevel programming is also explained and demonstrated with the numerical model. The numerical model has already proven useful by revealing some information presented about the operation and characteristics of the PMC.

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  • 2013

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A fast settling oversampled digital sliding-mode controller for DC-DC buck converters

Description

Sliding-Mode Control (SMC) has several benefits over traditional Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID) control in terms of fast transient response, robustness to parameter and component variations, and low sensitivity to loop disturbances. An

Sliding-Mode Control (SMC) has several benefits over traditional Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID) control in terms of fast transient response, robustness to parameter and component variations, and low sensitivity to loop disturbances. An All-Digital Sliding-Mode (ADSM) controlled DC-DC converter, utilizing single-bit oversampled frequency domain digitizers is proposed. In the proposed approach, feedback and reference digitizing Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADC) are based on a single-bit, first order Sigma-Delta frequency to digital converter, running at 32MHz over-sampling rate. The ADSM regulator achieves 1% settling time in less than 5uSec for a load variation of 600mA. The sliding-mode controller utilizes a high-bandwidth hysteretic differentiator and an integrator to perform the sliding control law in digital domain. The proposed approach overcomes the steady state error (or DC offset), and limits the switching frequency range, which are the two common problems associated with sliding-mode controllers. The IC is designed and fabricated on a 0.35um CMOS process occupying an active area of 2.72mm-squared. Measured peak efficiency is 83%.

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  • 2013

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Energy efficient RF transmitter design using enhanced breakdown voltage SOI-CMOS compatible MESFETs

Description

The high cut-off frequency of deep sub-micron CMOS technologies has enabled the integration of radio frequency (RF) transceivers with digital circuits. However, the challenging point is the integration of RF

The high cut-off frequency of deep sub-micron CMOS technologies has enabled the integration of radio frequency (RF) transceivers with digital circuits. However, the challenging point is the integration of RF power amplifiers, mainly due to the low breakdown voltage of CMOS transistors. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal semiconductor field effect transistors (MESFETs) have been introduced to remedy the limited headroom concern in CMOS technologies. The MESFETs presented in this thesis have been fabricated on different SOI-CMOS processes without making any change to the standard fabrication steps and offer 2-30 times higher breakdown voltage than the MOSFETs on the same process. This thesis explains the design steps of high efficiency and wideband RF transmitters using the proposed SOI-CMOS compatible MESFETs. This task involves DC and RF characterization of MESFET devices, along with providing a compact Spice model for simulation purposes. This thesis presents the design of several SOI-MESFET RF power amplifiers operating at 433, 900 and 1800 MHz with ~40% bandwidth. Measurement results show a peak power added efficiency (PAE) of 55% and a peak output power of 22.5 dBm. The RF-PAs were designed to operate in Class-AB mode to minimize the linearity degradation. Class-AB power amplifiers lead to poor power added efficiency, especially when fed with signals with high peak to average power ratio (PAPR) such as wideband code division multiple access (W-CDMA). Polar transmitters have been introduced to improve the efficiency of RF-PAs at backed-off powers. A MESFET based envelope tracking (ET) polar transmitter was designed and measured. A low drop-out voltage regulator (LDO) was used as the supply modulator of this polar transmitter. MESFETs are depletion mode devices; therefore, they can be configured in a source follower configuration to have better stability and higher bandwidth that MOSFET based LDOs. Measurement results show 350 MHz bandwidth while driving a 10 pF capacitive load. A novel polar transmitter is introduced in this thesis to alleviate some of the limitations associated with polar transmitters. The proposed architecture uses the backgate terminal of a partially depleted transistor on SOI process, which relaxes the bandwidth and efficiency requirements of the envelope amplifier in a polar transmitter. The measurement results of the proposed transmitter demonstrate more than three times PAE improvement at 6-dB backed-off output power, compared to the traditional RF transmitters.

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  • 2012

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Design of NMOS and CMOS thin film transistors and application to electronic textiles

Description

The field of flexible displays and electronics gained a big momentum within the recent years due to their ruggedness, thinness, and flexibility as well as low cost large area manufacturability.

The field of flexible displays and electronics gained a big momentum within the recent years due to their ruggedness, thinness, and flexibility as well as low cost large area manufacturability. Amorphous silicon has been the dominant material used in the thin film transistor industry which could only utilize it as N type thin film transistors (TFT). Amorphous silicon is an unstable material for low temperature manufacturing process and having only one kind of transistor means high power consumption for circuit operations. This thesis covers the three major researches done on flexible TFTs and flexible electronic circuits. First the characterization of both amorphous silicon TFTs and newly emerging mixed oxide TFTs were performed and the stability of these two materials is compared. During the research, both TFTs were stress tested under various biasing conditions and the threshold voltage was extracted to observe the shift in the threshold which shows the degradation of the material. Secondly, the design of the first flexible CMOS TFTs and CMOS gates were covered. The circuits were built using both inorganic and organic components (for nMOS and pMOS transistors respectively) and functionality tests were performed on basic gates like inverter, NAND and NOR gates and the working results are documented. Thirdly, a novel large area sensor structure is demonstrated under the Electronic Textile project section. This project is based on the concept that all the flexible electronics are flexible in only one direction and can not be used for conforming irregular shaped objects or create an electronic cloth for various applications like display or sensing. A laser detector sensor array is designed for proof of concept and is laid in strips that can be cut after manufacturing and weaved to each other to create a real flexible electronic textile. The circuit designed uses a unique architecture that pushes the data in a single line and reads the data from the same line and compares the signal to the original state to determine a sensor excitation. This architecture enables 2 dimensional addressing through an external controller while eliminating the need for 2 dimensional active matrix style electrical connections between the fibers.

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  • 2012

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Radiation sensing using chalcogenide glass materials

Description

The dissolution of metal layers such as silver into chalcogenide glass layers such as germanium selenide changes the resistivity of the metal and chalcogenide films by a great extent. It

The dissolution of metal layers such as silver into chalcogenide glass layers such as germanium selenide changes the resistivity of the metal and chalcogenide films by a great extent. It is known that the incorporation of the metal can be achieved by ultra violet light exposure or thermal processes. In this work, the use of metal dissolution by exposure to gamma radiation has been explored for radiation sensor applications. Test structures were designed and a process flow was developed for prototype sensor fabrication. The test structures were designed such that sensitivity to radiation could be studied. The focus is on the effect of gamma rays as well as ultra violet light on silver dissolution in germanium selenide (Ge30Se70) chalcogenide glass. Ultra violet radiation testing was used prior to gamma exposure to assess the basic mechanism. The test structures were electrically characterized prior to and post irradiation to assess resistance change due to metal dissolution. A change in resistance was observed post irradiation and was found to be dependent on the radiation dose. The structures were also characterized using atomic force microscopy and roughness measurements were made prior to and post irradiation. A change in roughness of the silver films on Ge30Se70 was observed following exposure. This indicated the loss of continuity of the film which causes the increase in silver film resistance following irradiation. Recovery of initial resistance in the structures was also observed after the radiation stress was removed. This recovery was explained with photo-stimulated deposition of silver from the chalcogenide at room temperature confirmed with the re-appearance of silver dendrites on the chalcogenide surface. The results demonstrate that it is possible to use the metal dissolution effect in radiation sensing applications.

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  • 2012

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Particle-Based Modeling of Reliability for Millimeter-Wave GaN Devices for Power Amplifier Applications

Description

In this work, an advanced simulation study of reliability in millimeter-wave (mm-wave) GaN Devices for power amplifier (PA) applications is performed by means of a particle-based full band Cellular Monte

In this work, an advanced simulation study of reliability in millimeter-wave (mm-wave) GaN Devices for power amplifier (PA) applications is performed by means of a particle-based full band Cellular Monte Carlo device simulator (CMC). The goal of the study is to obtain a systematic characterization of the performance of GaN devices operating in DC, small signal AC and large-signal radio-frequency (RF) conditions emphasizing on the microscopic properties that correlate to degradation of device performance such as generation of hot carriers, presence of material defects and self-heating effects. First, a review of concepts concerning GaN technology, devices, reliability mechanisms and PA design is presented in chapter 2. Then, in chapter 3 a study of non-idealities of AlGaN/GaN heterojunction diodes is performed, demonstrating that mole fraction variations and the presence of unintentional Schottky contacts are the main limiting factor for high current drive of the devices under study. Chapter 4 consists in a study of hot electron generation in GaN HEMTs, in terms of the accurate simulation of the electron energy distribution function (EDF) obtained under DC and RF operation, taking into account frequency and temperature variations. The calculated EDFs suggest that Class AB PAs operating at low frequency (10 GHz) are more robust to hot carrier effects than when operating under DC or high frequency RF (up to 40 GHz). Also, operation under Class A yields higher EDFs than Class AB indicating lower reliability. This study is followed in chapter 5 by the proposal of a novel π-Shaped gate contact for GaN HEMTs which effectively reduces the hot electron generation while preserving device performance. Finally, in chapter 6 the electro-thermal characterization of GaN-on-Si HEMTs is performed by means of an expanded CMC framework, where charge and heat transport are self-consistently coupled. After the electro-thermal model is validated to experimental data, the assessment of self-heating under lateral scaling is considered.

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  • 2018