Matching Items (22)

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Fatigue Life Prediction Using Hybrid Prognosis for Structural Health Monitoring

Description

Because metallic aircraft components are subject to a variety of in-service loading conditions, predicting their fatigue life has become a critical challenge. To address the failure mode mitigation of aircraft

Because metallic aircraft components are subject to a variety of in-service loading conditions, predicting their fatigue life has become a critical challenge. To address the failure mode mitigation of aircraft components and at the same time reduce the life-cycle costs of aerospace systems, a reliable prognostics framework is essential. In this paper, a hybrid prognosis model that accurately predicts the crack growth regime and the residual-useful-life estimate of aluminum components is developed. The methodology integrates physics-based modeling with a data-driven approach. Different types of loading conditions such as constant amplitude, random, and overload are investigated. The developed methodology is validated on an Al 2024-T351 lug joint under fatigue loading conditions. The results indicate that fusing the measured data and physics-based models improves the accuracy of prediction compared to a purely data-driven or physics-based approach.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-04-01

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Biology-based matched signal processing and physics-based modeling for improved detection

Description

Peptide microarrays have been used in molecular biology to profile immune responses and develop diagnostic tools. When the microarrays are printed with random peptide sequences, they can be used

Peptide microarrays have been used in molecular biology to profile immune responses and develop diagnostic tools. When the microarrays are printed with random peptide sequences, they can be used to identify antigen antibody binding patterns or immunosignatures. In this thesis, an advanced signal processing method is proposed to estimate epitope antigen subsequences as well as identify mimotope antigen subsequences that mimic the structure of epitopes from random-sequence peptide microarrays. The method first maps peptide sequences to linear expansions of highly-localized one-dimensional (1-D) time-varying signals and uses a time-frequency processing technique to detect recurring patterns in subsequences. This technique is matched to the aforementioned mapping scheme, and it allows for an inherent analysis on how substitutions in the subsequences can affect antibody binding strength. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by estimating epitopes and identifying potential mimotopes for eight monoclonal antibody samples.

The proposed mapping is generalized to express information on a protein's sequence location, structure and function onto a highly localized three-dimensional (3-D) Gaussian waveform. In particular, as analysis of protein homology has shown that incorporating different kinds of information into an alignment process can yield more robust alignment results, a pairwise protein structure alignment method is proposed based on a joint similarity measure of multiple mapped protein attributes. The 3-D mapping allocates protein properties into distinct regions in the time-frequency plane in order to simplify the alignment process by including all relevant information into a single, highly customizable waveform. Simulations demonstrate the improved performance of the joint alignment approach to infer relationships between proteins, and they provide information on mutations that cause changes to both the sequence and structure of a protein.

In addition to the biology-based signal processing methods, a statistical method is considered that uses a physics-based model to improve processing performance. In particular, an externally developed physics-based model for sea clutter is examined when detecting a low radar cross-section target in heavy sea clutter. This novel model includes a process that generates random dynamic sea clutter based on the governing physics of water gravity and capillary waves and a finite-difference time-domain electromagnetics simulation process based on Maxwell's equations propagating the radar signal. A subspace clutter suppression detector is applied to remove dominant clutter eigenmodes, and its improved performance over matched filtering is demonstrated using simulations.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Adaptive learning and unsupervised clustering of immune responses using microarray random sequence peptides

Description

Immunosignaturing is a medical test for assessing the health status of a patient by applying microarrays of random sequence peptides to determine the patient's immune fingerprint by associating antibodies from

Immunosignaturing is a medical test for assessing the health status of a patient by applying microarrays of random sequence peptides to determine the patient's immune fingerprint by associating antibodies from a biological sample to immune responses. The immunosignature measurements can potentially provide pre-symptomatic diagnosis for infectious diseases or detection of biological threats. Currently, traditional bioinformatics tools, such as data mining classification algorithms, are used to process the large amount of peptide microarray data. However, these methods generally require training data and do not adapt to changing immune conditions or additional patient information. This work proposes advanced processing techniques to improve the classification and identification of single and multiple underlying immune response states embedded in immunosignatures, making it possible to detect both known and previously unknown diseases or biothreat agents. Novel adaptive learning methodologies for un- supervised and semi-supervised clustering integrated with immunosignature feature extraction approaches are proposed. The techniques are based on extracting novel stochastic features from microarray binding intensities and use Dirichlet process Gaussian mixture models to adaptively cluster the immunosignatures in the feature space. This learning-while-clustering approach allows continuous discovery of antibody activity by adaptively detecting new disease states, with limited a priori disease or patient information. A beta process factor analysis model to determine underlying patient immune responses is also proposed to further improve the adaptive clustering performance by formatting new relationships between patients and antibody activity. In order to extend the clustering methods for diagnosing multiple states in a patient, the adaptive hierarchical Dirichlet process is integrated with modified beta process factor analysis latent feature modeling to identify relationships between patients and infectious agents. The use of Bayesian nonparametric adaptive learning techniques allows for further clustering if additional patient data is received. Significant improvements in feature identification and immune response clustering are demonstrated using samples from patients with different diseases.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Adaptive parameter estimation, modeling and patient-specific classification of electrocardiogram signals

Description

Adaptive processing and classification of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals are important in eliminating the strenuous process of manually annotating ECG recordings for clinical use. Such algorithms require robust models whose parameters

Adaptive processing and classification of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals are important in eliminating the strenuous process of manually annotating ECG recordings for clinical use. Such algorithms require robust models whose parameters can adequately describe the ECG signals. Although different dynamic statistical models describing ECG signals currently exist, they depend considerably on a priori information and user-specified model parameters. Also, ECG beat morphologies, which vary greatly across patients and disease states, cannot be uniquely characterized by a single model. In this work, sequential Bayesian based methods are used to appropriately model and adaptively select the corresponding model parameters of ECG signals. An adaptive framework based on a sequential Bayesian tracking method is proposed to adaptively select the cardiac parameters that minimize the estimation error, thus precluding the need for pre-processing. Simulations using real ECG data from the online Physionet database demonstrate the improvement in performance of the proposed algorithm in accurately estimating critical heart disease parameters. In addition, two new approaches to ECG modeling are presented using the interacting multiple model and the sequential Markov chain Monte Carlo technique with adaptive model selection. Both these methods can adaptively choose between different models for various ECG beat morphologies without requiring prior ECG information, as demonstrated by using real ECG signals. A supervised Bayesian maximum-likelihood (ML) based classifier uses the estimated model parameters to classify different types of cardiac arrhythmias. However, the non-availability of sufficient amounts of representative training data and the large inter-patient variability pose a challenge to the existing supervised learning algorithms, resulting in a poor classification performance. In addition, recently developed unsupervised learning methods require a priori knowledge on the number of diseases to cluster the ECG data, which often evolves over time. In order to address these issues, an adaptive learning ECG classification method that uses Dirichlet process Gaussian mixture models is proposed. This approach does not place any restriction on the number of disease classes, nor does it require any training data. This algorithm is adapted to be patient-specific by labeling or identifying the generated mixtures using the Bayesian ML method, assuming the availability of labeled training data.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Isometric and dynamic contraction muscle fatigue assessment using time-frequency methods

Description

The use of electromyography (EMG) signals to characterize muscle fatigue has been widely accepted. Initial work on characterizing muscle fatigue during isometric contractions demonstrated that its frequency decreases while its

The use of electromyography (EMG) signals to characterize muscle fatigue has been widely accepted. Initial work on characterizing muscle fatigue during isometric contractions demonstrated that its frequency decreases while its amplitude increases with the onset of fatigue. More recent work concentrated on developing techniques to characterize dynamic contractions for use in clinical and training applications. Studies demonstrated that as fatigue progresses, the EMG signal undergoes a shift in frequency, and different physiological mechanisms on the possible cause of the shift were considered. Time-frequency processing, using the Wigner distribution or spectrogram, is one of the techniques used to estimate the instantaneous mean frequency and instantaneous median frequency of the EMG signal using a variety of techniques. However, these time-frequency methods suffer either from cross-term interference when processing signals with multiple components or time-frequency resolution due to the use of windowing. This study proposes the use of the matching pursuit decomposition (MPD) with a Gaussian dictionary to process EMG signals produced during both isometric and dynamic contractions. In particular, the MPD obtains unique time-frequency features that represent the EMG signal time-frequency dependence without suffering from cross-terms or loss in time-frequency resolution. As the MPD does not depend on an analysis window like the spectrogram, it is more robust in applying the timefrequency features to identify the spectral time-variation of the EGM signal.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Dynamic waveform design for track-before-detect algorithms in radar

Description

In this thesis, an adaptive waveform selection technique for dynamic target tracking under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions is investigated. The approach is integrated with a track-before-detect (TBD) algorithm and

In this thesis, an adaptive waveform selection technique for dynamic target tracking under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions is investigated. The approach is integrated with a track-before-detect (TBD) algorithm and uses delay-Doppler matched filter (MF) outputs as raw measurements without setting any threshold for extracting delay-Doppler estimates. The particle filter (PF) Bayesian sequential estimation approach is used with the TBD algorithm (PF-TBD) to estimate the dynamic target state. A waveform-agile TBD technique is proposed that integrates the PF-TBD with a waveform selection technique. The new approach predicts the waveform to transmit at the next time step by minimizing the predicted mean-squared error (MSE). As a result, the radar parameters are adaptively and optimally selected for superior performance. Based on previous work, this thesis highlights the applicability of the predicted covariance matrix to the lower SNR waveform-agile tracking problem. The adaptive waveform selection algorithm's MSE performance was compared against fixed waveforms using Monte Carlo simulations. It was found that the adaptive approach performed at least as well as the best fixed waveform when focusing on estimating only position or only velocity. When these estimates were weighted by different amounts, then the adaptive performance exceeded all fixed waveforms. This improvement in performance demonstrates the utility of the predicted covariance in waveform design, at low SNR conditions that are poorly handled with more traditional tracking algorithms.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Multiple radar target tracking in environments with high noise and clutter

Description

Tracking a time-varying number of targets is a challenging

dynamic state estimation problem whose complexity is intensified

under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) or high clutter conditions.

This is important, for

Tracking a time-varying number of targets is a challenging

dynamic state estimation problem whose complexity is intensified

under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) or high clutter conditions.

This is important, for example, when tracking

multiple, closely spaced targets moving in the same direction such as a

convoy of low observable vehicles moving through a forest or multiple

targets moving in a crisscross pattern. The SNR in

these applications is usually low as the reflected signals from

the targets are weak or the noise level is very high.

An effective approach for detecting and tracking a single target

under low SNR conditions is the track-before-detect filter (TBDF)

that uses unthresholded measurements. However, the TBDF has only been used to

track a small fixed number of targets at low SNR.

This work proposes a new multiple target TBDF approach to track a

dynamically varying number of targets under the recursive Bayesian framework.

For a given maximum number of

targets, the state estimates are obtained by estimating the joint

multiple target posterior probability density function under all possible

target

existence combinations. The estimation of the corresponding target existence

combination probabilities and the target existence probabilities are also

derived. A feasible sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) based implementation

algorithm is proposed. The approximation accuracy of the SMC

method with a reduced number of particles is improved by an efficient

proposal density function that partitions the multiple target space into a

single target space.

The proposed multiple target TBDF method is extended to track targets in sea

clutter using highly time-varying radar measurements. A generalized

likelihood function for closely spaced multiple targets in compound Gaussian

sea clutter is derived together with the maximum likelihood estimate of

the model parameters using an iterative fixed point algorithm.

The TBDF performance is improved by proposing a computationally feasible

method to estimate the space-time covariance matrix of rapidly-varying sea

clutter. The method applies the Kronecker product approximation to the

covariance matrix and uses particle filtering to solve the resulting dynamic

state space model formulation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Model-driven time-varying signal analysis and its application to speech processing

Description

This work examines two main areas in model-based time-varying signal processing with emphasis in speech processing applications. The first area concentrates on improving speech intelligibility and on increasing the proposed

This work examines two main areas in model-based time-varying signal processing with emphasis in speech processing applications. The first area concentrates on improving speech intelligibility and on increasing the proposed methodologies application for clinical practice in speech-language pathology. The second area concentrates on signal expansions matched to physical-based models but without requiring independent basis functions; the significance of this work is demonstrated with speech vowels.

A fully automated Vowel Space Area (VSA) computation method is proposed that can be applied to any type of speech. It is shown that the VSA provides an efficient and reliable measure and is correlated to speech intelligibility. A clinical tool that incorporates the automated VSA was proposed for evaluation and treatment to be used by speech language pathologists. Two exploratory studies are performed using two databases by analyzing mean formant trajectories in healthy speech for a wide range of speakers, dialects, and coarticulation contexts. It is shown that phonemes crowded in formant space can often have distinct trajectories, possibly due to accurate perception.

A theory for analyzing time-varying signals models with amplitude modulation and frequency modulation is developed. Examples are provided that demonstrate other possible signal model decompositions with independent basis functions and corresponding physical interpretations. The Hilbert transform (HT) and the use of the analytic form of a signal are motivated, and a proof is provided to show that a signal can still preserve desirable mathematical properties without the use of the HT. A visualization of the Hilbert spectrum is proposed to aid in the interpretation. A signal demodulation is proposed and used to develop a modified Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) algorithm.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Transmit waveform design for coexisting radar and communications systems

Description

In recent years, there has been an increased interest in sharing available bandwidth to avoid spectrum congestion. With an ever-increasing number wireless users, it is critical to develop signal

In recent years, there has been an increased interest in sharing available bandwidth to avoid spectrum congestion. With an ever-increasing number wireless users, it is critical to develop signal processing based spectrum sharing algorithms to achieve cooperative use of the allocated spectrum among multiple systems in order to reduce interference between systems. This work studies the radar and communications systems coexistence problem using two main approaches. The first approach develops methodologies to increase radar target tracking performance under low signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) conditions due to the coexistence of strong communications interference. The second approach jointly optimizes the performance of both systems by co-designing a common transmit waveform.

When concentrating on improving radar tracking performance, a pulsed radar that is tracking a single target coexisting with high powered communications interference is considered. Although the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) on the covariance of an unbiased estimator of deterministic parameters provides a bound on the estimation mean squared error (MSE), there exists an SINR threshold at which estimator covariance rapidly deviates from the CRLB. After demonstrating that different radar waveforms experience different estimation SINR thresholds using the Barankin bound (BB), a new radar waveform design method is proposed based on predicting the waveform-dependent BB SINR threshold under low SINR operating conditions.

A novel method of predicting the SINR threshold value for maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is proposed. A relationship is shown to exist between the formulation of the BB kernel and the probability of selecting sidelobes for the MLE. This relationship is demonstrated as an accurate means of threshold prediction for the radar target parameter estimation of frequency, time-delay and angle-of-arrival.

For the co-design radar and communications system problem, the use of a common transmit waveform for a pulse-Doppler radar and a multiuser communications system is proposed. The signaling scheme for each system is selected from a class of waveforms with nonlinear phase function by optimizing the waveform parameters to minimize interference between the two systems and interference among communications users. Using multi-objective optimization, a trade-off in system performance is demonstrated when selecting waveforms that minimize both system interference and tracking MSE.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Multiple detection and tracking in complex time-varying environments

Description

This work considers the problem of multiple detection and tracking in two complex time-varying environments, urban terrain and underwater. Tracking multiple radar targets in urban environments is rst investigated by

This work considers the problem of multiple detection and tracking in two complex time-varying environments, urban terrain and underwater. Tracking multiple radar targets in urban environments is rst investigated by exploiting multipath signal returns, wideband underwater acoustic (UWA) communications channels are estimated using adaptive learning methods, and multiple UWA communications users are detected by designing the transmit signal to match the environment. For the urban environment, a multi-target tracking algorithm is proposed that integrates multipath-to-measurement association and the probability hypothesis density method implemented using particle filtering. The algorithm is designed to track an unknown time-varying number of targets by extracting information from multiple measurements due to multipath returns in the urban terrain. The path likelihood probability is calculated by considering associations between measurements and multipath returns, and an adaptive clustering algorithm is used to estimate the number of target and their corresponding parameters. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated for different multiple target scenarios and evaluated using the optimal subpattern assignment metric. The underwater environment provides a very challenging communication channel due to its highly time-varying nature, resulting in large distortions due to multipath and Doppler-scaling, and frequency-dependent path loss. A model-based wideband UWA channel estimation algorithm is first proposed to estimate the channel support and the wideband spreading function coefficients. A nonlinear frequency modulated signaling scheme is proposed that is matched to the wideband characteristics of the underwater environment. Constraints on the signal parameters are derived to optimally reduce multiple access interference and the UWA channel effects. The signaling scheme is compared to a code division multiple access (CDMA) scheme to demonstrate its improved bit error rate performance. The overall multi-user communication system performance is finally analyzed by first estimating the UWA channel and then designing the signaling scheme for multiple communications users.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014