Matching Items (22)

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Fatigue Life Prediction Using Hybrid Prognosis for Structural Health Monitoring

Description

Because metallic aircraft components are subject to a variety of in-service loading conditions, predicting their fatigue life has become a critical challenge. To address the failure mode mitigation of aircraft components and at the same time reduce the life-cycle costs

Because metallic aircraft components are subject to a variety of in-service loading conditions, predicting their fatigue life has become a critical challenge. To address the failure mode mitigation of aircraft components and at the same time reduce the life-cycle costs of aerospace systems, a reliable prognostics framework is essential. In this paper, a hybrid prognosis model that accurately predicts the crack growth regime and the residual-useful-life estimate of aluminum components is developed. The methodology integrates physics-based modeling with a data-driven approach. Different types of loading conditions such as constant amplitude, random, and overload are investigated. The developed methodology is validated on an Al 2024-T351 lug joint under fatigue loading conditions. The results indicate that fusing the measured data and physics-based models improves the accuracy of prediction compared to a purely data-driven or physics-based approach.

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Date Created
2014-04-01

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Adaptive learning and unsupervised clustering of immune responses using microarray random sequence peptides

Description

Immunosignaturing is a medical test for assessing the health status of a patient by applying microarrays of random sequence peptides to determine the patient's immune fingerprint by associating antibodies from a biological sample to immune responses. The immunosignature measurements can

Immunosignaturing is a medical test for assessing the health status of a patient by applying microarrays of random sequence peptides to determine the patient's immune fingerprint by associating antibodies from a biological sample to immune responses. The immunosignature measurements can potentially provide pre-symptomatic diagnosis for infectious diseases or detection of biological threats. Currently, traditional bioinformatics tools, such as data mining classification algorithms, are used to process the large amount of peptide microarray data. However, these methods generally require training data and do not adapt to changing immune conditions or additional patient information. This work proposes advanced processing techniques to improve the classification and identification of single and multiple underlying immune response states embedded in immunosignatures, making it possible to detect both known and previously unknown diseases or biothreat agents. Novel adaptive learning methodologies for un- supervised and semi-supervised clustering integrated with immunosignature feature extraction approaches are proposed. The techniques are based on extracting novel stochastic features from microarray binding intensities and use Dirichlet process Gaussian mixture models to adaptively cluster the immunosignatures in the feature space. This learning-while-clustering approach allows continuous discovery of antibody activity by adaptively detecting new disease states, with limited a priori disease or patient information. A beta process factor analysis model to determine underlying patient immune responses is also proposed to further improve the adaptive clustering performance by formatting new relationships between patients and antibody activity. In order to extend the clustering methods for diagnosing multiple states in a patient, the adaptive hierarchical Dirichlet process is integrated with modified beta process factor analysis latent feature modeling to identify relationships between patients and infectious agents. The use of Bayesian nonparametric adaptive learning techniques allows for further clustering if additional patient data is received. Significant improvements in feature identification and immune response clustering are demonstrated using samples from patients with different diseases.

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Date Created
2013

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Adaptive methods within a sequential Bayesian approach for structural health monitoring

Description

Structural integrity is an important characteristic of performance for critical components used in applications such as aeronautics, materials, construction and transportation. When appraising the structural integrity of these components, evaluation methods must be accurate. In addition to possessing capability to

Structural integrity is an important characteristic of performance for critical components used in applications such as aeronautics, materials, construction and transportation. When appraising the structural integrity of these components, evaluation methods must be accurate. In addition to possessing capability to perform damage detection, the ability to monitor the level of damage over time can provide extremely useful information in assessing the operational worthiness of a structure and in determining whether the structure should be repaired or removed from service. In this work, a sequential Bayesian approach with active sensing is employed for monitoring crack growth within fatigue-loaded materials. The monitoring approach is based on predicting crack damage state dynamics and modeling crack length observations. Since fatigue loading of a structural component can change while in service, an interacting multiple model technique is employed to estimate probabilities of different loading modes and incorporate this information in the crack length estimation problem. For the observation model, features are obtained from regions of high signal energy in the time-frequency plane and modeled for each crack length damage condition. Although this observation model approach exhibits high classification accuracy, the resolution characteristics can change depending upon the extent of the damage. Therefore, several different transmission waveforms and receiver sensors are considered to create multiple modes for making observations of crack damage. Resolution characteristics of the different observation modes are assessed using a predicted mean squared error criterion and observations are obtained using the predicted, optimal observation modes based on these characteristics. Calculation of the predicted mean square error metric can be computationally intensive, especially if performed in real time, and an approximation method is proposed. With this approach, the real time computational burden is decreased significantly and the number of possible observation modes can be increased. Using sensor measurements from real experiments, the overall sequential Bayesian estimation approach, with the adaptive capability of varying the state dynamics and observation modes, is demonstrated for tracking crack damage.

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Date Created
2013

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Efficient Bayesian tracking of multiple sources of neural activity: algorithms and real-time FPGA implementation

Description

Electrical neural activity detection and tracking have many applications in medical research and brain computer interface technologies. In this thesis, we focus on the development of advanced signal processing algorithms to track neural activity and on the mapping of these

Electrical neural activity detection and tracking have many applications in medical research and brain computer interface technologies. In this thesis, we focus on the development of advanced signal processing algorithms to track neural activity and on the mapping of these algorithms onto hardware to enable real-time tracking. At the heart of these algorithms is particle filtering (PF), a sequential Monte Carlo technique used to estimate the unknown parameters of dynamic systems. First, we analyze the bottlenecks in existing PF algorithms, and we propose a new parallel PF (PPF) algorithm based on the independent Metropolis-Hastings (IMH) algorithm. We show that the proposed PPF-IMH algorithm improves the root mean-squared error (RMSE) estimation performance, and we demonstrate that a parallel implementation of the algorithm results in significant reduction in inter-processor communication. We apply our implementation on a Xilinx Virtex-5 field programmable gate array (FPGA) platform to demonstrate that, for a one-dimensional problem, the PPF-IMH architecture with four processing elements and 1,000 particles can process input samples at 170 kHz by using less than 5% FPGA resources. We also apply the proposed PPF-IMH to waveform-agile sensing to achieve real-time tracking of dynamic targets with high RMSE tracking performance. We next integrate the PPF-IMH algorithm to track the dynamic parameters in neural sensing when the number of neural dipole sources is known. We analyze the computational complexity of a PF based method and propose the use of multiple particle filtering (MPF) to reduce the complexity. We demonstrate the improved performance of MPF using numerical simulations with both synthetic and real data. We also propose an FPGA implementation of the MPF algorithm and show that the implementation supports real-time tracking. For the more realistic scenario of automatically estimating an unknown number of time-varying neural dipole sources, we propose a new approach based on the probability hypothesis density filtering (PHDF) algorithm. The PHDF is implemented using particle filtering (PF-PHDF), and it is applied in a closed-loop to first estimate the number of dipole sources and then their corresponding amplitude, location and orientation parameters. We demonstrate the improved tracking performance of the proposed PF-PHDF algorithm and map it onto a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA platform to show its real-time implementation potential. Finally, we propose the use of sensor scheduling and compressive sensing techniques to reduce the number of active sensors, and thus overall power consumption, of electroencephalography (EEG) systems. We propose an efficient sensor scheduling algorithm which adaptively configures EEG sensors at each measurement time interval to reduce the number of sensors needed for accurate tracking. We combine the sensor scheduling method with PF-PHDF and implement the system on an FPGA platform to achieve real-time tracking. We also investigate the sparsity of EEG signals and integrate compressive sensing with PF to estimate neural activity. Simulation results show that both sensor scheduling and compressive sensing based methods achieve comparable tracking performance with significantly reduced number of sensors.

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Date Created
2013

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Isometric and dynamic contraction muscle fatigue assessment using time-frequency methods

Description

The use of electromyography (EMG) signals to characterize muscle fatigue has been widely accepted. Initial work on characterizing muscle fatigue during isometric contractions demonstrated that its frequency decreases while its amplitude increases with the onset of fatigue. More recent work

The use of electromyography (EMG) signals to characterize muscle fatigue has been widely accepted. Initial work on characterizing muscle fatigue during isometric contractions demonstrated that its frequency decreases while its amplitude increases with the onset of fatigue. More recent work concentrated on developing techniques to characterize dynamic contractions for use in clinical and training applications. Studies demonstrated that as fatigue progresses, the EMG signal undergoes a shift in frequency, and different physiological mechanisms on the possible cause of the shift were considered. Time-frequency processing, using the Wigner distribution or spectrogram, is one of the techniques used to estimate the instantaneous mean frequency and instantaneous median frequency of the EMG signal using a variety of techniques. However, these time-frequency methods suffer either from cross-term interference when processing signals with multiple components or time-frequency resolution due to the use of windowing. This study proposes the use of the matching pursuit decomposition (MPD) with a Gaussian dictionary to process EMG signals produced during both isometric and dynamic contractions. In particular, the MPD obtains unique time-frequency features that represent the EMG signal time-frequency dependence without suffering from cross-terms or loss in time-frequency resolution. As the MPD does not depend on an analysis window like the spectrogram, it is more robust in applying the timefrequency features to identify the spectral time-variation of the EGM signal.

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Date Created
2012

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Non-linear system identification using compressed sensing

Description

This thesis describes an approach to system identification based on compressive sensing and demonstrates its efficacy on a challenging classical benchmark single-input, multiple output (SIMO) mechanical system consisting of an inverted pendulum on a cart. Due to its inherent non-linearity

This thesis describes an approach to system identification based on compressive sensing and demonstrates its efficacy on a challenging classical benchmark single-input, multiple output (SIMO) mechanical system consisting of an inverted pendulum on a cart. Due to its inherent non-linearity and unstable behavior, very few techniques currently exist that are capable of identifying this system. The challenge in identification also lies in the coupled behavior of the system and in the difficulty of obtaining the full-range dynamics. The differential equations describing the system dynamics are determined from measurements of the system's input-output behavior. These equations are assumed to consist of the superposition, with unknown weights, of a small number of terms drawn from a large library of nonlinear terms. Under this assumption, compressed sensing allows the constituent library elements and their corresponding weights to be identified by decomposing a time-series signal of the system's outputs into a sparse superposition of corresponding time-series signals produced by the library components. The most popular techniques for non-linear system identification entail the use of ANN's (Artificial Neural Networks), which require a large number of measurements of the input and output data at high sampling frequencies. The method developed in this project requires very few samples and the accuracy of reconstruction is extremely high. Furthermore, this method yields the Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) of the system explicitly. This is in contrast to some ANN approaches that produce only a trained network which might lose fidelity with change of initial conditions or if facing an input that wasn't used during its training. This technique is expected to be of value in system identification of complex dynamic systems encountered in diverse fields such as Biology, Computation, Statistics, Mechanics and Electrical Engineering.

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Date Created
2011

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Dynamic waveform design for track-before-detect algorithms in radar

Description

In this thesis, an adaptive waveform selection technique for dynamic target tracking under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions is investigated. The approach is integrated with a track-before-detect (TBD) algorithm and uses delay-Doppler matched filter (MF) outputs as raw measurements without

In this thesis, an adaptive waveform selection technique for dynamic target tracking under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions is investigated. The approach is integrated with a track-before-detect (TBD) algorithm and uses delay-Doppler matched filter (MF) outputs as raw measurements without setting any threshold for extracting delay-Doppler estimates. The particle filter (PF) Bayesian sequential estimation approach is used with the TBD algorithm (PF-TBD) to estimate the dynamic target state. A waveform-agile TBD technique is proposed that integrates the PF-TBD with a waveform selection technique. The new approach predicts the waveform to transmit at the next time step by minimizing the predicted mean-squared error (MSE). As a result, the radar parameters are adaptively and optimally selected for superior performance. Based on previous work, this thesis highlights the applicability of the predicted covariance matrix to the lower SNR waveform-agile tracking problem. The adaptive waveform selection algorithm's MSE performance was compared against fixed waveforms using Monte Carlo simulations. It was found that the adaptive approach performed at least as well as the best fixed waveform when focusing on estimating only position or only velocity. When these estimates were weighted by different amounts, then the adaptive performance exceeded all fixed waveforms. This improvement in performance demonstrates the utility of the predicted covariance in waveform design, at low SNR conditions that are poorly handled with more traditional tracking algorithms.

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Date Created
2011

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Scheduling neural sensors to estimate brain activity

Description

Research on developing new algorithms to improve information on brain functionality and structure is ongoing. Studying neural activity through dipole source localization with electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) sensor measurements can lead to diagnosis and treatment of a brain disorder

Research on developing new algorithms to improve information on brain functionality and structure is ongoing. Studying neural activity through dipole source localization with electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) sensor measurements can lead to diagnosis and treatment of a brain disorder and can also identify the area of the brain from where the disorder has originated. Designing advanced localization algorithms that can adapt to environmental changes is considered a significant shift from manual diagnosis which is based on the knowledge and observation of the doctor, to an adaptive and improved brain disorder diagnosis as these algorithms can track activities that might not be noticed by the human eye. An important consideration of these localization algorithms, however, is to try and minimize the overall power consumption in order to improve the study and treatment of brain disorders. This thesis considers the problem of estimating dynamic parameters of neural dipole sources while minimizing the system's overall power consumption; this is achieved by minimizing the number of EEG/MEG measurements sensors without a loss in estimation performance accuracy. As the EEG/MEG measurements models are related non-linearity to the dipole source locations and moments, these dynamic parameters can be estimated using sequential Monte Carlo methods such as particle filtering. Due to the large number of sensors required to record EEG/MEG Measurements for use in the particle filter, over long period recordings, a large amounts of power is required for storage and transmission. In order to reduce the overall power consumption, two methods are proposed. The first method used the predicted mean square estimation error as the performance metric under the constraint of a maximum power consumption. The performance metric of the second method uses the distance between the location of the sensors and the location estimate of the dipole source at the previous time step; this sensor scheduling scheme results in maximizing the overall signal-to-noise ratio. The performance of both methods is demonstrated using simulated data, and both methods show that they can provide good estimation results with significant reduction in the number of activated sensors at each time step.

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Date Created
2012

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Urban terrain multiple target tracking using the probability hypothesis density particle filter

Description

The tracking of multiple targets becomes more challenging in complex environments due to the additional degrees of nonlinearity in the measurement model. In urban terrain, for example, there are multiple reflection path measurements that need to be exploited since line-of-sight

The tracking of multiple targets becomes more challenging in complex environments due to the additional degrees of nonlinearity in the measurement model. In urban terrain, for example, there are multiple reflection path measurements that need to be exploited since line-of-sight observations are not always available. Multiple target tracking in urban terrain environments is traditionally implemented using sequential Monte Carlo filtering algorithms and data association techniques. However, data association techniques can be computationally intensive and require very strict conditions for efficient performance. This thesis investigates the probability hypothesis density (PHD) method for tracking multiple targets in urban environments. The PHD is based on the theory of random finite sets and it is implemented using the particle filter. Unlike data association methods, it can be used to estimate the number of targets as well as their corresponding tracks. A modified maximum-likelihood version of the PHD (MPHD) is proposed to automatically and adaptively estimate the measurement types available at each time step. Specifically, the MPHD allows measurement-to-nonlinearity associations such that the best matched measurement can be used at each time step, resulting in improved radar coverage and scene visibility. Numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the MPHD in improving tracking performance, both for tracking multiple targets and targets in clutter.

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Date Created
2011

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Estimation of cost-based channel occupancy in cognitive radio using sequential Monte Carlo methods

Description

Dynamic channel selection in cognitive radio consists of two main phases. The first phase is spectrum sensing, during which the channels that are occupied by the primary users are detected. The second phase is channel selection, during which the state

Dynamic channel selection in cognitive radio consists of two main phases. The first phase is spectrum sensing, during which the channels that are occupied by the primary users are detected. The second phase is channel selection, during which the state of the channel to be used by the secondary user is estimated. The existing cognitive radio channel selection literature assumes perfect spectrum sensing. However, this assumption becomes problematic as the noise in the channels increases, resulting in high probability of false alarm and high probability of missed detection. This thesis proposes a solution to this problem by incorporating the estimated state of channel occupancy into a selection cost function. The problem of optimal single-channel selection in cognitive radio is considered. A unique approach to the channel selection problem is proposed which consists of first using a particle filter to estimate the state of channel occupancy and then using the estimated state with a cost function to select a single channel for transmission. The selection cost function provides a means of assessing the various combinations of unoccupied channels in terms of desirability. By minimizing the expected selection cost function over all possible channel occupancy combinations, the optimal hypothesis which identifies the optimal single channel is obtained. Several variations of the proposed cost-based channel selection approach are discussed and simulated in a variety of environments, ranging from low to high number of primary user channels, low to high levels of signal-to-noise ratios, and low to high levels of primary user traffic.

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Date Created
2014