Matching Items (44)

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Developing a Broadband Amplifier for Analysis of DNA Structural and Molecular Characteristics

Description

The recent emergence of DNA-based diagnostics increases the demand for rapid DNA sequencing technologies. One method to achieve this is to pass DNA through a nanopore, recording the trans-membrane current

The recent emergence of DNA-based diagnostics increases the demand for rapid DNA sequencing technologies. One method to achieve this is to pass DNA through a nanopore, recording the trans-membrane current with a low-noise current amplifier. The project outlined in this report aims to demonstrate a design of a custom amplifier that offers a wider bandwidth than current designs while maintaining a low signal to noise ratio. The novel amplifier has been designed such that a multi-stage RF signal chain is integrated with an existing amplifier circuit to achieve DNA translocation. Both the existing amplifier circuit and the RF signal chain have produced outputs showing that the two amplifiers are functional and both low frequency signals and high frequency signals can be amplified with this comprehensive circuit design.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Buckling Phenomenon in Pre-Stretched PDMS Substrates

Description

The data and results presented in this paper are part of a continuing effort to innovate and pioneer the future of engineering. The purpose of the following is to demonstrate

The data and results presented in this paper are part of a continuing effort to innovate and pioneer the future of engineering. The purpose of the following is to demonstrate the mechanical buckling characteristics in stiff thin film and soft substrate systems, and the importance of controlling them. In today's engineering research, wrinkling in systems in beginning to be viewed as a means for engineering innovation rather than failure. This research is important to further progress the possible applications the technology proposes, such as flexible electronics and tunable adhesives. This work utilizes a cost efficient and relatively easy method for generating and analyzing buckled systems. Ultra violate oxidation at ambient temperatures is exploited to create a stiff thin surface on rubber like polydimethylsiloxane, and couple with strain induction wrinkles are generated. Wrinkle characteristics such as amplitude, wavelengths and wetting properties were investigated. In simple cases, trends were confirmed that increased oxidation relates to increased buckle wavelengths, and increase in strain corresponds to a decrease in wavelength. Hierarchical buckles were produced in one-dimensional systems treated with a multi-step method; these were the first to be generated in the ASU labs. Unique topographic changes were produced in two-dimensional systems treated with the same method. Honeycomb or dome like structures were noted to occur, important as they undergo a different energy-reliving configuration compared to traditional parallel buckles. The information provided characterizes many aspects of the buckle phenomena and will allow for further inquiry into specific functions utilizing the technology to continue advancements in engineering.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Needleless Electro-Spinner

Description

Electrospun nanofibers can be prepared from various kinds of inorganic substances by electro-spinning techniques. They have great potential in many applications including super capacitors, lithium ion batteries, filtration, catalyst and

Electrospun nanofibers can be prepared from various kinds of inorganic substances by electro-spinning techniques. They have great potential in many applications including super capacitors, lithium ion batteries, filtration, catalyst and enzyme carriers, and sensors [1]. The traditional way to produce electrospun nanofibers is needle based electro-spinning [1]. However, electrospun nanofibers have not been widely used in practice because of low nanofiber production rates. One way to largely increase the electro-spinning productivity is needleless electro-spinning. In 2005, Jirsak et al. patented a rotating roller fiber generator for the mass production of nanofibers [2]. Elmarco Corporation commercialized this technique to manufacture nanofiber equipment for the production of all sorts of organic and inorganic nanofibers, and named it "NanospiderTM". For this project, my goal is to build a needleless electro-spinner to produce nanofibers as the separator of lithium ion batteries. The model of this project is based on the design of rotating roller fiber generator, and is adapted from a project at North Dakota State University in 2011 [3].

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Date Created
  • 2012-12

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Stochastic learning in oxide binary synaptic device for neuromorphic computing

Description

Hardware implementation of neuromorphic computing is attractive as a computing paradigm beyond the conventional digital computing. In this work, we show that the SET (off-to-on) transition of metal oxide resistive

Hardware implementation of neuromorphic computing is attractive as a computing paradigm beyond the conventional digital computing. In this work, we show that the SET (off-to-on) transition of metal oxide resistive switching memory becomes probabilistic under a weak programming condition. The switching variability of the binary synaptic device implements a stochastic learning rule. Such stochastic SET transition was statistically measured and modeled for a simulation of a winner-take-all network for competitive learning. The simulation illustrates that with such stochastic learning, the orientation classification function of input patterns can be effectively realized. The system performance metrics were compared between the conventional approach using the analog synapse and the approach in this work that employs the binary synapse utilizing the stochastic learning. The feasibility of using binary synapse in the neurormorphic computing may relax the constraints to engineer continuous multilevel intermediate states and widens the material choice for the synaptic device design.

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Date Created
  • 2013-10-31

Kirigami-based stretchable lithium-ion batteries

Description

We have produced stretchable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) using the concept of kirigami, i.e., a combination of folding and cutting. The designated kirigami patterns have been discovered and implemented to achieve

We have produced stretchable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) using the concept of kirigami, i.e., a combination of folding and cutting. The designated kirigami patterns have been discovered and implemented to achieve great stretchability (over 150%) to LIBs that are produced by standardized battery manufacturing. It is shown that fracture due to cutting and folding is suppressed by plastic rolling, which provides kirigami LIBs excellent electrochemical and mechanical characteristics. The kirigami LIBs have demonstrated the capability to be integrated and power a smart watch, which may disruptively impact the field of wearable electronics by offering extra physical and functionality design spaces.

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  • 2015-06-11

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Origami based Mechanical Metamaterials

Description

We describe mechanical metamaterials created by folding flat sheets in the tradition of origami, the art of paper folding, and study them in terms of their basic geometric and stiffness

We describe mechanical metamaterials created by folding flat sheets in the tradition of origami, the art of paper folding, and study them in terms of their basic geometric and stiffness properties, as well as load bearing capability. A periodic Miura-ori pattern and a non-periodic Ron Resch pattern were studied. Unexceptional coexistence of positive and negative Poisson's ratio was reported for Miura-ori pattern, which are consistent with the interesting shear behavior and infinity bulk modulus of the same pattern. Unusually strong load bearing capability of the Ron Resch pattern was found and attributed to the unique way of folding. This work paves the way to the study of intriguing properties of origami structures as mechanical metamaterials.

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Date Created
  • 2014-08-07

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Aging predictive models and simulation methods for analog and mixed-signal circuits

Description

Negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) and channel hot carrier (CHC) are important reliability issues impacting analog circuit performance and lifetime. Compact reliability models and efficient simulation methods are essential for

Negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) and channel hot carrier (CHC) are important reliability issues impacting analog circuit performance and lifetime. Compact reliability models and efficient simulation methods are essential for circuit level reliability prediction. This work proposes a set of compact models of NBTI and CHC effects for analog and mixed-signal circuit, and a direct prediction method which is different from conventional simulation methods. This method is applied in circuit benchmarks and evaluated. This work helps with improving efficiency and accuracy of circuit aging prediction.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Temperature compensated, high common mode range, Cu-trace based current shunt monitors design and analysis

Description

Sensing and controlling current flow is a fundamental requirement for many electronic systems, including power management (DC-DC converters and LDOs), battery chargers, electric vehicles, solenoid positioning, motor control, and power

Sensing and controlling current flow is a fundamental requirement for many electronic systems, including power management (DC-DC converters and LDOs), battery chargers, electric vehicles, solenoid positioning, motor control, and power monitoring. Current Shunt Monitor (CSM) systems have various applications for precise current monitoring of those aforementioned applications. CSMs enable current measurement across an external sense resistor (RS) in series to current flow. Two different types of CSMs designed and characterized in this paper. First design used direct current reading method and the other design used indirect current reading method. Proposed CSM systems can sense power supply current ranging from 1mA to 200mA for the direct current reading topology and from 1mA to 500mA for the indirect current reading topology across a typical board Cu-trace resistance of 1 ohm with less than 10 µV input-referred offset, 0.3 µV/°C offset drift and 0.1% accuracy for both topologies. Proposed systems avoid using a costly zero-temperature coefficient (TC) sense resistor that is normally used in typical CSM systems. Instead, both of the designs used existing Cu-trace on the printed circuit board (PCB) in place of the costly resistor. The systems use chopper stabilization at the front-end amplifier signal path to suppress input-referred offset down to less than 10 µV. Switching current-mode (SI) FIR filtering technique is used at the instrumentation amplifier output to filter out the chopping ripple caused by input offset and flicker noise by averaging half of the phase 1 signal and the other half of the phase 2 signal. In addition, residual offset mainly caused by clock feed-through and charge injection of the chopper switches at the chopping frequency and its multiple frequencies notched out by the since response of the SI-FIR filter. A frequency domain Sigma Delta ADC which is used for the indirect current reading type design enables a digital interface to processor applications with minimally added circuitries to build a simple 1st order Sigma Delta ADC. The CSMs are fabricated on a 0.7µm CMOS process with 3 levels of metal, with maximum Vds tolerance of 8V and operates across a common mode range of 0 to 26V for the direct current reading type and of 0 to 30V for the indirect current reading type achieving less than 10nV/sqrtHz of flicker noise at 100 Hz for both approaches. By using a semi-digital SI-FIR filter, residual chopper offset is suppressed down to 0.5mVpp from a baseline of 8mVpp, which is equivalent to 25dB suppression.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Advancing microfluidic-based protein biosensor technology for use in clinical diagnostics

Description

Demand for biosensor research applications is growing steadily. According to a new report by Frost & Sullivan, the biosensor market is expected to reach $14.42 billion by 2016. Clinical diagnostic

Demand for biosensor research applications is growing steadily. According to a new report by Frost & Sullivan, the biosensor market is expected to reach $14.42 billion by 2016. Clinical diagnostic applications continue to be the largest market for biosensors, and this demand is likely to continue through 2016 and beyond. Biosensor technology for use in clinical diagnostics, however, requires translational research that moves bench science and theoretical knowledge toward marketable products. Despite the high volume of academic research to date, only a handful of biomedical devices have become viable commercial applications. Academic research must increase its focus on practical uses for biosensors. This dissertation is an example of this increased focus, and discusses work to advance microfluidic-based protein biosensor technologies for practical use in clinical diagnostics. Four areas of work are discussed: The first involved work to develop reusable/reconfigurable biosensors that are useful in applications like biochemical science and analytical chemistry that require detailed sensor calibration. This work resulted in a prototype sensor and an in-situ electrochemical surface regeneration technique that can be used to produce microfluidic-based reusable biosensors. The second area of work looked at non-specific adsorption (NSA) of biomolecules, which is a persistent challenge in conventional microfluidic biosensors. The results of this work produced design methods that reduce the NSA. The third area of work involved a novel microfluidic sensing platform that was designed to detect target biomarkers using competitive protein adsorption. This technique uses physical adsorption of proteins to a surface rather than complex and time-consuming immobilization procedures. This method enabled us to selectively detect a thyroid cancer biomarker, thyroglobulin, in a controlled-proteins cocktail and a cardiovascular biomarker, fibrinogen, in undiluted human serum. The fourth area of work involved expanding the technique to produce a unique protein identification method; Pattern-recognition. A sample mixture of proteins generates a distinctive composite pattern upon interaction with a sensing platform consisting of multiple surfaces whereby each surface consists of a distinct type of protein pre-adsorbed on the surface. The utility of the "pattern-recognition" sensing mechanism was then verified via recognition of a particular biomarker, C-reactive protein, in the cocktail sample mixture.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Post-optimization: necessity analysis for combinatorial arrays

Description

Finding the optimal solution to a problem with an enormous search space can be challenging. Unless a combinatorial construction technique is found that also guarantees the optimality of the resulting

Finding the optimal solution to a problem with an enormous search space can be challenging. Unless a combinatorial construction technique is found that also guarantees the optimality of the resulting solution, this could be an infeasible task. If such a technique is unavailable, different heuristic methods are generally used to improve the upper bound on the size of the optimal solution. This dissertation presents an alternative method which can be used to improve a solution to a problem rather than construct a solution from scratch. Necessity analysis, which is the key to this approach, is the process of analyzing the necessity of each element in a solution. The post-optimization algorithm presented here utilizes the result of the necessity analysis to improve the quality of the solution by eliminating unnecessary objects from the solution. While this technique could potentially be applied to different domains, this dissertation focuses on k-restriction problems, where a solution to the problem can be presented as an array. A scalable post-optimization algorithm for covering arrays is described, which starts from a valid solution and performs necessity analysis to iteratively improve the quality of the solution. It is shown that not only can this technique improve upon the previously best known results, it can also be added as a refinement step to any construction technique and in most cases further improvements are expected. The post-optimization algorithm is then modified to accommodate every k-restriction problem; and this generic algorithm can be used as a starting point to create a reasonable sized solution for any such problem. This generic algorithm is then further refined for hash family problems, by adding a conflict graph analysis to the necessity analysis phase. By recoloring the conflict graphs a new degree of flexibility is explored, which can further improve the quality of the solution.

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Date Created
  • 2011