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Lagrangian Coherent Structure Analysis of Terminal Winds: Three-Dimensionality, Intramodel Variations, and Flight Analyses

Description

We present a study of three-dimensional Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) near the Hong Kong International Airport and relate to previous developments of two-dimensional (2D) LCS analyses. The LCS are contrasted

We present a study of three-dimensional Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) near the Hong Kong International Airport and relate to previous developments of two-dimensional (2D) LCS analyses. The LCS are contrasted among three independent models and against 2D coherent Doppler light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data. Addition of the velocity information perpendicular to the LIDAR scanning cone helps solidify flow structures inferred from previous studies; contrast among models reveals the intramodel variability; and comparison with flight data evaluates the performance among models in terms of Lagrangian analyses. We find that, while the three models and the LIDAR do recover similar features of the windshear experienced by a landing aircraft (along the landing trajectory), their Lagrangian signatures over the entire domain are quite different—a portion of each numerical model captures certain features resembling those LCS extracted from independent 2D LIDAR analyses based on observations.

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Date Created
  • 2014-11-30

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Pattern identification and analysis in urban flows

Description

Two urban flows are analyzed, one concerned with pollutant transport in a Phoenix, Arizona neighborhood and the other with windshear detection at the Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA).

Lagrangian measures, identified

Two urban flows are analyzed, one concerned with pollutant transport in a Phoenix, Arizona neighborhood and the other with windshear detection at the Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA).

Lagrangian measures, identified with finite-time Lyapunov exponents, are first used to characterize transport patterns of inertial pollutant particles. Motivated by actual events the focus is on flows in realistic urban geometry. Both deterministic and stochastic transport patterns are identified, as inertial Lagrangian coherent structures. For the deterministic case, the organizing structures are well defined and are extracted at different hours of a day to reveal the variability of coherent patterns. For the stochastic case, a random displacement model for fluid particles is formulated, and used to derive the governing equations for inertial particles to examine the change in organizing structures due to ``zeroth-order'' random noise. It is found that, (1) the Langevin equation for inertial particles can be reduced to a random displacement model; (2) using random noise based on inhomogeneous turbulence, whose diffusivity is derived from $k$-$\epsilon$ models, major coherent structures survive to organize local flow patterns and weaker structures are smoothed out due to random motion.

A study of three-dimensional Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) near HKIA is then presented and related to previous developments of two-dimensional (2D) LCS analyses in detecting windshear experienced by landing aircraft. The LCS are contrasted among three independent models and against 2D coherent Doppler light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data. Addition of the velocity information perpendicular to the lidar scanning cone helps solidify flow structures inferred from previous studies; contrast among models reveals the intramodel variability; and comparison with flight data evaluates the performance among models in terms of Lagrangian analyses. It is found that, while the three models and the LIDAR do recover similar features of the windshear experienced by a landing aircraft (along the landing trajectory), their Lagrangian signatures over the entire domain are quite different - a portion of each numerical model captures certain features resembling those LCS extracted from independent 2D LIDAR analyses based on observations. Overall, it was found that the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model provides the best agreement with the LIDAR data.

Finally, the three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) data assimilation scheme in WRF is used to incorporate the LIDAR line of sight velocity observations into the WRF model forecast at HKIA. Using two different days as test cases, it is found that the LIDAR data can be successfully and consistently assimilated into WRF. Using the updated model forecast LCS are extracted along the LIDAR scanning cone and compare to onboard flight data. It is found that the LCS generated from the updated WRF forecasts are generally better correlated with the windshear experienced by landing aircraft as compared to the LIDAR extracted LCS alone, which suggests that such a data assimilation scheme could be used for the prediction of windshear events.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018