Matching Items (6)

Rotating live mammalian cells free in media using spatial light modulator (SLM)-generated optical tweezers

Description

In the frenzy of next generation genetic sequencing and proteomics, single-cell level analysis has begun to find its place in the crux of personalized medicine and cancer research. Single live

In the frenzy of next generation genetic sequencing and proteomics, single-cell level analysis has begun to find its place in the crux of personalized medicine and cancer research. Single live cell 3D imaging technology is one of the most useful ways of providing spatial and morphological details inside living single cells. It provides a window to uncover the mysteries of protein structure and folding, as well as genetic expression over time, which will tremendously improve the state of the fields of biophysics and biomedical research. This thesis project specifically demonstrates a method for live single cell rotation required to image them in the single live cell CT imaging platform. The method of rotation proposed in this thesis uses dynamic optical traps generated by a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM) to exert torque on a single mammalian cell. Laser patterns carrying the holographic information of the traps are delivered from the SLM through a transformation telescope into the objective lens and onto its focal plane to produce the desired optical trap "image". The phase information in the laser patterns being delivered are continuously altered by the SLM such that the structure of the wavefront produces two foci at opposite edges of the cell of interest that each moves along the circumference of the cell in opposite axial directions. Momentum generated by the motion of the foci exerts a torque on the cell, causing it to rotate. The viability of this method was demonstrated experimentally. Software was written using LabVIEW to control the display panel of the SLM.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Towards a Hand-Held Multi-Biomarker Point-of-Care Diagnostic to Quantify Traumatic Brain Injury

Description

According to sources of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 1.7 million traumatic brain injury (TBI) cases occur annually in the United States. TBI results in 50 thousand

According to sources of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 1.7 million traumatic brain injury (TBI) cases occur annually in the United States. TBI results in 50 thousand deaths, nearly 300 thousand hospitalizations and 2.2 million emergency room visits causing a $76 billion economic burden in direct and indirect costs. Furthermore, it is estimated that over 5 million TBI survivors in the US are struggling with long-term disabilities. And yet, a point-of-care TBI diagnostic has not replaced the non-quantitative cognitive and physiological methods used today. Presently, pupil dilation and the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) are clinically used to diagnose TBI. However, GSC presents difficulties in detecting subtle patient changes, oftentimes leaving mild TBI undiagnosed. Given the long-term deficits associated with TBIs, a quantitative method that enables capturing of subtle and changing TBI pathologies is of great interest to the field.

The goal of this research is to work towards a test strip and meter point-of-care technology (similar to the glucose meter) that will quantify several TBI biomarkers in a drop of whole blood simultaneously. It is generally understood that measuring only one blood biomarker may not accurately diagnose TBI, thus this work lays the foundation to develop a multi-analyte approach to detect four promising TBI biomarkers: glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), neuron specific enolase (NSE), S-100β protein, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). To achieve this, each biomarker was individually assessed and modeled using sensitive and label-free electrochemical impedance techniques first in purified, then in blood solutions using standard electrochemical electrodes. Next, the biomarkers were individually characterized using novel mesoporous carbon electrode materials to facilitate detection in blood solutions and compared to the commercial standard Nafion coating. Finally, the feasibility of measuring these biomarkers in the same sample simultaneously was explored in purified and blood solutions. This work shows that a handheld TBI blood diagnostic is feasible if the electronics can be miniaturized and large quantity production of these sensors can be achieved.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Modulating chemokine receptor expression in neural stem cell transplants to promote migration after traumatic brain injury

Description

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health concern in the U.S., where approximately 1.7 million Americans sustain a TBI annually, an estimated 52,000 of which lead to death.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health concern in the U.S., where approximately 1.7 million Americans sustain a TBI annually, an estimated 52,000 of which lead to death. Almost half (43%) of all TBI patients report experiencing long-term cognitive and/or motor dysfunction. These long-term deficits are largely due to the expansive biochemical injury that underlies the mechanical injury traditionally associated with TBI. Despite this, there are currently no clinically available therapies that directly address these underlying pathologies. Preclinical studies have looked at stem cell transplantation as a means to mitigate the effects of the biochemical injury with moderate success; however, transplants suffer very low retention and engraftment rates (2-4%). Therefore, transplants need better tools to dynamically respond to the injury microenvironment.

One approach to develop new tools for stem cell transplants may be to look towards the endogenous repair response for inspiration. Specifically, activated cell types surrounding the injury secrete the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), which has been shown to play a critical role in recruiting endogenous neural progenitor/stem cells (NPSCs) to the site of injury. Therefore, it was hypothesized that improving NPSC response to SDF-1α may be a viable mechanism for improving NPSC transplant retention and migration into the surrounding host tissue. To this end, work presented here has 1. identified critical extracellular signals that mediate the NPSC response to SDF-1α, 2. incorporated these findings into the development of a transplantation platform that increases NPSC responsiveness to SDF-1α and 3. observed increased NPSC responsiveness to local exogenous SDF-1α signaling following transplantation within our novel system. Future work will include studies investigating NSPC response to endogenous, injury-induced SDF-1α and the application of this work to understanding differences between stem cell sources and their implications in cell therapies.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Acute Vagus Nerve Stimulation Spares Motor Map Topography and Reduces Infarct Size After Cortical Ischemia

Description

Stroke remains a leading cause of adult disability in the United States. In recent studies, chronic vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been proven to enhance functional recovery when paired

Stroke remains a leading cause of adult disability in the United States. In recent studies, chronic vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been proven to enhance functional recovery when paired with motor rehabilitation training after stroke. Other studies have also demonstrated that delivering VNS during the onset of a stroke may elicit some neuroprotective effects as observed in remaining neural tissue and motor function. While these studies have demonstrated the benefits of VNS as a treatment or therapy in combatting stroke damage, the mechanisms responsible for these effects are still not well understood or known. The aim of this research was to further investigate the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of acute VNS treatment of stroke by observing the effect of VNS when applied after the onset of stroke. Animals were randomly assigned to three groups: Stroke animals received cortical ischemia (ET-1 injection), VNS+Stroke animals received acute VNS starting within 48 hours after cortical ischemia and continuing once per day for three days, or Control animals which received neither the injury nor stimulation. Results showed that stroke animals receiving acute VNS had smaller lesion volumes and larger motor cortical maps than those in the Stroke group. The results suggest VNS may confer neuroprotective effects when delivered within the first 96 hours of stroke.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Dynamic changes in heart rate and cerebral blood flow during acute vagal nerve stimulation

Description

Vagal Nerve Stimulation (VNS) has been shown to be a promising therapeutic technique in treating many neurological diseases, including epilepsy, stroke, traumatic brain injury, and migraine headache. The mechanisms by

Vagal Nerve Stimulation (VNS) has been shown to be a promising therapeutic technique in treating many neurological diseases, including epilepsy, stroke, traumatic brain injury, and migraine headache. The mechanisms by which VNS acts, however, are not fully understood but may involve changes in cerebral blood flow. The vagus nerve plays a significant role in the regulation of heart rate and cerebral blood flow that are altered during VNS. Here, the effects of acute vagal nerve stimulation using varying stimulation parameters on both heart rate and cerebral blood flow were examined. Laser Speckle Contrast Analysis (LASCA) was used to analyze the cerebral blood flow of male Long–Evans rats. In the first experiment, results showed two distinct patterns of responses to 0.8mA of stimulation whereby animals either experienced a mild or severe decrease in heart rate. Further, animals that displayed mild heart rate decreases showed an increase in cerebral blood flow that persisted beyond VNS. Animals that displayed severe decreases showed a transient decrease in cerebral blood flow followed by an increase that was greater than that observed in mild animals but progressively decreased after VNS. The results suggest two distinct patterns of changes in both heart rate and blood flow that may be related to the intensity of VNS. To investigate the effects of lower levels of stimulation, an additional group of animals were stimulated at 0.4mA. The results showed moderate changes in heart rate but no significant changes in cerebral blood flow in these animals. The results demonstrate that VNS alters both heart rate and cerebral blood flow and that these effects are dependent on current intensity.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Investigating the efficacy of novel TrkB agonists to augment stroke recovery

Description

Stroke remains the leading cause of adult disability in developed countries. Most survivors live with residual motor impairments that severely diminish independence and quality of life. After stroke, the only

Stroke remains the leading cause of adult disability in developed countries. Most survivors live with residual motor impairments that severely diminish independence and quality of life. After stroke, the only accepted treatment for these patients is motor rehabilitation. However, the amount and kind of rehabilitation required to induce clinically significant improvements in motor function is rarely given due to the constraints of our current health care system. Research reported in this dissertation contributes towards developing adjuvant therapies that may augment the impact of motor rehabilitation and improve functional outcome. These studies have demonstrated reorganization of maps within motor cortex as a function of experience in both healthy and brain-injured animals by using intracortical microstimulation technique. Furthermore, synaptic plasticity has been identified as a key neural mechanism in directing motor map plasticity, evidenced by restoration of movement representations within the spared cortical tissue accompanied by increase in synapse number translating into motor improvement after stroke. There is increasing evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) modulates synaptic and morphological plasticity in the developing and mature nervous system. Unfortunately, BDNF itself is a poor candidate because of its short half-life, low penetration through the blood brain barrier, and activating multiple receptor units, p75 and TrkB on the neuronal membrane. In order to circumvent this problem efficacy of two recently developed novel TrkB agonists, LM22A-4 and 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, that actively penetrate the blood brain barrier and enhance functional recovery. Findings from these dissertation studies indicate that administration of these pharmacological compounds, accompanied by motor rehabilitation provide a powerful therapeutic tool for stroke recovery.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013