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The Causes of the Municipal Solid Waste and the Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Waste Sector in the United States

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The United State generates the most waste among OECD countries, and there are adverse effects of the waste generation. One of the most serious adverse effects is greenhouse gas, especially

The United State generates the most waste among OECD countries, and there are adverse effects of the waste generation. One of the most serious adverse effects is greenhouse gas, especially CH4, which causes global warming. However, the amount of waste generation is not decreasing, and the United State recycling rate, which could reduce waste generation, is only 26%, which is lower than other OECD countries. Thus, waste generation and greenhouse gas emission should decrease, and in order for that to happen, identifying the causes should be made a priority. The research objective is to verify whether the Environmental Kuznets Curve relationship is supported for waste generation and GDP across the U.S. Moreover, it also confirmed that total waste generation and recycling waste influences carbon dioxide emissions from the waste sector. The annual-based U.S. data from 1990 to 2012 were used. The data were collected from various data sources, and the Granger causality test was applied for identifying the causal relationships. The results showed that there is no causality between GDP and waste generation, but total waste and recycling generation significantly cause positive and negative greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sector, respectively. This implies that the waste generation will not decrease even if GDP increases. And, if waste generation decreases or recycling rate increases, the greenhouse gas emission will decrease. Based on these results, it is expected that the waste generation and carbon dioxide emission from the waste sector can decrease more efficiently.

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  • 2016-05-20

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Sustainability assessment framework for infrastructure: application to buildings / by Jonghoon Kim

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In the United States, buildings account for 20–40% of the total energy consumption based on their operation and maintenance, which consume nearly 80% of their energy during their lifecycle. In

In the United States, buildings account for 20–40% of the total energy consumption based on their operation and maintenance, which consume nearly 80% of their energy during their lifecycle. In order to reduce building energy consumption and related problems (i.e. global warming, air pollution, and energy shortages), numerous building technology programs, codes, and standards have been developed such as net-zero energy buildings, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), and the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers 90.1. However, these programs, codes, and standards are typically utilized before or during the design and construction phases. Subsequently, it is difficult to track whether buildings could still reduce energy consumption post construction. This dissertation fills the gap in knowledge of analytical methods for building energy analysis studies for LEED buildings. It also focuses on the use of green space for reducing atmospheric temperature, which contributes the most to building energy consumption. The three primary objectives of this research are to: 1) find the relationship between building energy consumption, outside atmospheric temperature, and LEED Energy and Atmosphere credits (OEP); 2) examine the use of different green space layouts for reducing the atmospheric temperature of high-rise buildings; and 3) use data mining techniques (i.e. clustering, isolation, and anomaly detection) to identify data anomalies in the energy data set and evaluate LEED Energy and Atmosphere credits based on building energy patterns. The results found that buildings with lower OEP used the highest amount of energy. LEED OEP scores tended to increase the energy saving potential of buildings, thereby reducing the need for renovation and maintenance. The results also revealed that the shade and evaporation effects of green spaces around buildings were more effective for lowering the daytime atmospheric temperature in the range of 2°C to 6.5°C. Additionally, abnormal energy consumption patterns were found in LEED buildings that used anomaly detection methodology analysis. Overall, LEED systems should be evaluated for energy performance to ensure that buildings continue to save energy after construction.

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  • 2016