Matching Items (8)

128332-Thumbnail Image.png

Absent without leave; a neuroenergetic theory of mind wandering

Description

Absent minded people are not under the control of task-relevant stimuli. According to the Neuroenergetics Theory of attention (NeT), this lack of control is often due to fatigue of the

Absent minded people are not under the control of task-relevant stimuli. According to the Neuroenergetics Theory of attention (NeT), this lack of control is often due to fatigue of the relevant processing units in the brain caused by insufficient resupply of the neuron's preferred fuel, lactate, from nearby astrocytes. A simple drift model of information processing accounts for response-time statistics in a paradigm often used to study inattention, the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART). It is suggested that errors and slowing in this fast-paced, response-engaging task may have little to due with inattention. Slower-paced and less response-demanding tasks give greater license for inattention—aka absent-mindedness, mind-wandering. The basic NeT is therefore extended with an ancillary model of attentional drift and recapture. This Markov model, called NEMA, assumes probability λ of lapses of attention from 1 s to the next, and probability α of drifting back to the attentional state. These parameters measure the strength of attraction back to the task (α), or away to competing mental states or action patterns (λ); their proportion determines the probability of the individual being inattentive at any point in time over the long run. Their values are affected by the fatigue of the brain units they traffic between. The deployment of the model is demonstrated with a data set involving paced responding.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-07-01

128637-Thumbnail Image.png

A decade of contributions to understanding and ameliorating attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder

Description

Background
It has been 10 years since Terje Sagvolden founded Behavioral and Brain Functions.
Body
After setting the context, this paper reviews some of the contributions of articles in the

Background
It has been 10 years since Terje Sagvolden founded Behavioral and Brain Functions.
Body
After setting the context, this paper reviews some of the contributions of articles in the journal to the literature on ADHD over that decade. Those articles provide a cross section of some of the most important ongoing themes in ADHD research.
Conclusion
Terje’s faith in the new journal was well founded. It has survived the first threat of new journals, crib death, because of the continuing quality and relevance of the articles it carries. It has a diversified portfolio of similar research in many other fields of related interest.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-04-06

129047-Thumbnail Image.png

Evidence for impulsivity in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat drawn from complementary response-withholding tasks

Description

Background
The inability to inhibit reinforced responses is a defining feature of ADHD associated with impulsivity. The Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) has been extolled as an animal model of ADHD,

Background
The inability to inhibit reinforced responses is a defining feature of ADHD associated with impulsivity. The Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) has been extolled as an animal model of ADHD, but there is no clear experimental evidence of inhibition deficits in SHR. Attempts to demonstrate these deficits may have suffered from methodological and analytical limitations.
Methods
We provide a rationale for using two complementary response-withholding tasks to doubly dissociate impulsivity from motivational and motor processes. In the lever-holding task (LHT), continual lever depression was required for a minimum interval. Under a differential reinforcement of low rates schedule (DRL), a minimum interval was required between lever presses. Both tasks were studied using SHR and two normotensive control strains, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Long Evans (LE), over an overlapping range of intervals (1 – 5 s for LHT and 5 – 60 s for DRL). Lever-holding and DRL performance was characterized as the output of a mixture of two processes, timing and iterative random responding; we call this account of response inhibition the Temporal Regulation (TR) model. In the context of TR, impulsivity was defined as a bias toward premature termination of the timed intervals.
Results
The TR model provided an accurate description of LHT and DRL performance. On the basis of TR parameter estimates, SHRs were more impulsive than LE rats across tasks and target times. WKY rats produced substantially shorter timed responses in the lever-holding task than in DRL, suggesting a motivational or motor deficit. The precision of timing by SHR, as measured by the variance of their timed intervals, was excellent, flouting expectations from ADHD research.
Conclusion
This research validates the TR model of response inhibition and supports SHR as an animal model of ADHD-related impulsivity. It indicates, however, that SHR's impulse-control deficit is not caused by imprecise timing. The use of ad hoc impulsivity metrics and of WKY as control strain for SHR impulsivity are called into question.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2008-02-08

129313-Thumbnail Image.png

THE ARITHMETIC OF DISCOUNTING

Description

Most current models of delay discounting multiply the nominal value of a good whose receipt is delayed, by a discount factor that is some function of that delay. This article

Most current models of delay discounting multiply the nominal value of a good whose receipt is delayed, by a discount factor that is some function of that delay. This article reviews the logic of a theory that discounts the utility of delayed goods by adding the utility of the good to the disutility of the delay. In limiting cases it approaches other familiar models, such as hyperbolic discounting. In nonlimit cases it makes different predictions, generally requiring, inter alia, a magnitude effect when the value of goods is varied. A different theory is proposed for conditioning experiments. In it utility is computed as the average reinforcing strength of the stimuli that signal the delay. Both theories are extended to experiments in which degree of preference is measured, rather than adjustment to iso-utility values.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-01-01

129468-Thumbnail Image.png

A THEORY OF BEHAVIORAL CONTRAST

Description

The reinforcers that maintain target instrumental responses also reinforce other responses that compete with them for expression. This competition, and its imbalance at points of transition between different schedules of

The reinforcers that maintain target instrumental responses also reinforce other responses that compete with them for expression. This competition, and its imbalance at points of transition between different schedules of reinforcement, causes behavioral contrast. The imbalance is caused by differences in the rates at which different responses come under the control of component stimuli. A model for this theory of behavioral contrast is constructed by expanding the coupling coefficient of MPR (Killeen, 1994). The coupling coefficient gives the degree of association of a reinforcer with the target response (as opposed to other competing responses). Competing responses, often identified as interim or adjunctive or superstitious behavior, are intrinsic to reinforcement schedules, especially interval schedules. In addition to that base-rate of competition, additional competing responses may spill over from the prior component, causing initial contrast; and they may be modulated by conditioned reinforcement or punishment from stimuli associated with subsequent component change, causing terminal contrast. A formalization of these hypotheses employed (a) a hysteresis model of off-target responses giving rise to initial contrast, and (b) a competing traces model of the suppression or enhancement of ongoing competitive responses by signals of following-schedule transition. The theory was applied to transient contrast, the following schedule effect, and the component duration effect.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-11-01

149837-Thumbnail Image.png

The effects of housing conditions and methylphenidate on two volitional inhibition tasks

Description

The failure to withhold inappropriate behavior is a central component of most impulse control disorders, including Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The present study examined the effects of housing environment

The failure to withhold inappropriate behavior is a central component of most impulse control disorders, including Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The present study examined the effects of housing environment and methylphenidate (a drug often prescribed for ADHD) on the performance of rats in two response inhibition tasks: differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL) and fixed minimum interval (FMI). Both tasks required rats to wait a fixed amount of time (6 s) before emitting a reinforced response. The capacity to withhold the target response (volitional inhibition) and timing precision were estimated on the basis of performance in each of the tasks. Paradoxically, rats housed in a mildly enriched environment that included a conspecific displayed less volitional inhibition in both tasks compared to rats housed in an isolated environment. Enriched housing, however, increased timing precision. Acute administration of methylphenidate partially reversed the effects of enriched housing. Implications of these results in the assessment and treatment of ADHD-related impulsivity are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

154110-Thumbnail Image.png

Regulating working memory In emotionally-laden contexts

Description

Individual differences in working memory capacity partly arise from variability in attention control, a process influenced by negative emotional content. Thus, individual differences in working memory capacity should be predictive

Individual differences in working memory capacity partly arise from variability in attention control, a process influenced by negative emotional content. Thus, individual differences in working memory capacity should be predictive of differences in the ability to regulate attention in emotional contexts. To address this hypothesis, a complex-span working memory task (symmetry span) was modified so that negative arousing images or neutral images subtended the background during the encoding phase. Across three experiments, negative arousing images impaired working memory encoding relative to neutral images, resulting in impoverished symmetry span scores. Additionally, in Experiment 3, both negative and arousing images captured attention and led to increased hit rates in a subsequent recognition task. Contrary to the primary hypothesis, individual differences in working memory capacity derived from three complex span tasks failed to moderate the effect of negative arousing images on working memory encoding across two large scale studies. Implications for theories of working memory and attention control in emotional contexts will be discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

153899-Thumbnail Image.png

The temporal organization of operant behavior: a response bout analysis

Description

Many behaviors are organized into bouts – brief periods of responding punctuated by pauses. This dissertation examines the operant bouts of the lever pressing rat. Chapter 1 provides a brief

Many behaviors are organized into bouts – brief periods of responding punctuated by pauses. This dissertation examines the operant bouts of the lever pressing rat. Chapter 1 provides a brief history of operant response bout analyses. Chapters 2, 3, 5, and 6 develop new probabilistic models to identify changes in response bout parameters. The parameters of those models are demonstrated to be uniquely sensitive to different experimental manipulations, such as food deprivation (Chapters 2 and 4), response requirements (Chapters 2, 4, and 5), and reinforcer availability (Chapters 2 and 3). Chapter 6 reveals the response bout parameters that underlie the operant hyperactivity of a common rodent model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Chapter 6 then ameliorates the SHR’s operant hyperactivity using training procedures developed from findings in Chapters 2 and 4. Collectively, this dissertation provides new tools for the assessment of response bouts and demonstrates their utility for discerning differences between experimental preparations and animal strains that may be otherwise indistinguishable with more primitive methods.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015