Matching Items (9)

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Targeting HIV-1 Env gp140 to LOX-1 Elicits Immune Responses in Rhesus Macaques

Description

Improved antigenicity against HIV-1 envelope (Env) protein is needed to elicit vaccine-induced protective immunity in humans. Here we describe the first tests in non-human primates (NHPs) of Env gp140 protein

Improved antigenicity against HIV-1 envelope (Env) protein is needed to elicit vaccine-induced protective immunity in humans. Here we describe the first tests in non-human primates (NHPs) of Env gp140 protein fused to a humanized anti-LOX-1 recombinant antibody for delivering Env directly to LOX-1-bearing antigen presenting cells, especially dendritic cells (DC). LOX-1, or 1ectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-1, is expressed on various antigen presenting cells and endothelial cells, and is involved in promoting humoral immune responses. The anti-LOX-1 Env gp140 fusion protein was tested for priming immune responses and boosting responses in animals primed with replication competent NYVAC-KC Env gp140 vaccinia virus. Anti-LOX-1 Env gp140 vaccination elicited robust cellular and humoral responses when used for either priming or boosting immunity. Co-administration with Poly ICLC, a TLR3 agonist, was superior to GLA, a TLR4 agonist. Both CD4[superscript +] and CD8[superscript +] Env-specific T cell responses were elicited by anti-LOX-1 Env gp140, but in particular the CD4[superscript +] T cells were multifunctional and directed to multiple epitopes. Serum IgG and IgA antibody responses induced by anti-LOX-1 Env gp140 against various gp140 domains were cross-reactive across HIV-1 clades; however, the sera neutralized only HIV-1 bearing sequences most similar to the clade C 96ZM651 Env gp140 carried by the anti-LOX-1 vehicle. These data, as well as the safety of this protein vaccine, justify further exploration of this DC-targeting vaccine approach for protective immunity against HIV-1.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-04-14

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A Designed “Nested” Dimer of Cyanovirin-N Increases Antiviral Activity

Description

Cyanovirin-N (CV-N) is an antiviral lectin with potent activity against enveloped viruses, including HIV. The mechanism of action involves high affinity binding to mannose-rich glycans that decorate the surface of

Cyanovirin-N (CV-N) is an antiviral lectin with potent activity against enveloped viruses, including HIV. The mechanism of action involves high affinity binding to mannose-rich glycans that decorate the surface of enveloped viruses. In the case of HIV, antiviral activity of CV-N is postulated to require multivalent interactions with envelope protein gp120, achieved through a pseudo-repeat of sequence that adopts two near-identical glycan-binding sites, and possibly involves a 3D-domain-swapped dimeric form of CV-N. Here, we present a covalent dimer of CV-N that increases the number of active glycan-binding sites, and we characterize its ability to recognize four glycans in solution. A CV-N variant was designed in which two native repeats were separated by the “nested” covalent insertion of two additional repeats of CV-N, resulting in four possible glycan-binding sites. The resulting Nested CV-N folds into a wild-type-like structure as assessed by circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy, and displays high thermal stability with a T[subscript m] of 59 °C, identical to WT. All four glycan-binding domains encompassed by the sequence are functional as demonstrated by isothermal titration calorimetry, which revealed two sets of binding events to dimannose with dissociation constants K[subscript d] of 25 μM and 900 μM, assigned to domains B and B’ and domains A and A’ respectively. Nested CV-N displays a slight increase in activity when compared to WT CV-N in both an anti-HIV cellular assay and a fusion assay. This construct conserves the original binding specifityies of domain A and B, thus indicating correct fold of the two CV-N repeats. Thus, rational design can be used to increase multivalency in antiviral lectins in a controlled manner.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-06-06

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Rats' Rights: Common Misconceptions About Domestic Rats

Description

I conducted a literature review of articles pertaining to the history and treatment of rats. After outlining all of the relevant connections, I argue that as a result of people's

I conducted a literature review of articles pertaining to the history and treatment of rats. After outlining all of the relevant connections, I argue that as a result of people's conceptions about rats, rats do not receive the same respect and protections afforded other animals, such as cats and dogs, in the laboratory and beyond. I present both negative and positive conceptions about rats and the realities of these conceptions. Finally, I talk about the changes that need to take place in laboratory research, why animals are still used in research today, and the alternatives that exist to animal models.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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The Ethical Use of Mice in Demonstrating Viral Cancer Treatment Using Vaccinia

Description

Laboratory animals represent an invaluable, yet controversial, resource in the field of biomedical research. Animal research has been behind many influential discoveries in the field of emerging therapeutics. They provide

Laboratory animals represent an invaluable, yet controversial, resource in the field of biomedical research. Animal research has been behind many influential discoveries in the field of emerging therapeutics. They provide the link between the theory of the lab bench and the functional application of medicine to influence human health. The use of animals in research is a consideration which must be heavily weighed, and the implementation must be carried out at a very high standard in order to retain research integrity and responsibility. We are in the process of conducting an experiment using laboratory mice to demonstrate cancer treatment using vaccinia (VACV) mutants as a possible oncolytic therapy for certain strains of melanoma. VACV is a double-stranded DNA poxvirus with a large and easily altered genome. This virus contains many genes dedicated to immune evasion, but has shown sensitivity to cell death by necroptosis in mouse studies (5). We have identified the absence of the kinase RIP3 which is vital in the necroptosis pathway as a potential target for oncolytic therapy using VACV mutants in specific strains of melanoma. Multiple groups of SCID Beige mice were inoculated with different melanoma cell lines and observed for tumor growth. Upon reaching 1 cm3 in volume, tumors were injected with either VACV- Δ83N, VACV- Δ54N, or PBS, and observed for regression. It was hypothesized that melanoma tumors that are RIP3-/- such as the MDA5 cell line will show regression, but melanoma tumors that are RIP3-positive and capable of necroptosis, such as the 2427 cell line, will resist viral replication and continue to proliferate. Our results so far tentatively support this hypothesis, but the data collection is ongoing. Strict and specific protocols with regard to the ethical and responsible use of mice have been implemented and upheld throughout the experiment. Animals are closely monitored, and if their quality of life becomes too poor to justify their continued use in the experiment, they are humanely euthanized, even at the expense of valuable data. The importance of commitment to a high ethical standard is pervasive throughout our work. Animals represent an invaluable contribution to research, and it is important to maintain high standards and transparency with regard to their use. Education and engagement in critical discussions about the use and care of animals in the laboratory contribute to the overall merit and legitimacy of biomedical research in the public and professional eye as a whole, and give legitimacy to the continued use of animals as models to advance science and health.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Investigating the Role of Vaccinia virus Immune Suppressing Protein B19 in Aiding Function of E3 in Pathogenesis

Description

Vaccinia virus (VV) is a prototype virus of the Orthopox viruses. The large dsDNA virus composed of 200kbp genome contains approximately 200 genes and replicates entirely in the cytosol. Since

Vaccinia virus (VV) is a prototype virus of the Orthopox viruses. The large dsDNA virus composed of 200kbp genome contains approximately 200 genes and replicates entirely in the cytosol. Since its use as a live vaccine against smallpox that leads to the successful eradication of smallpox, Vaccinia has been intensely studied as a vaccine vector since the large genome allows for the insertion of multiple genes. It is also studied as a molecular tool for gene therapy and gene functional study. Despite its success as a live vaccine, the vaccination causes some mild to serious bur rare adverse events in vaccinees such as generalized Vaccinia and encepharitis. Therefore, identification of virulence genes and removal of these genes to create a safer vaccine remain an important tasks. In this study, the author seeks to elucidate the possible relationship between immune evading proteins E3 and B19. VV did not allow double deletions of E3 and B19, indicating the existence of a relationship between the two genes.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Improved NYVAC-Based Vaccine Vectors

Description

While as yet there is no vaccine against HIV/AIDS, the results of the phase III Thai trial (RV144) have been encouraging and suggest that further improvements of the prime/boost vaccine

While as yet there is no vaccine against HIV/AIDS, the results of the phase III Thai trial (RV144) have been encouraging and suggest that further improvements of the prime/boost vaccine combination of a poxvirus and protein are needed. With this aim, in this investigation we have generated derivatives of the candidate vaccinia virus vaccine vector NYVAC with potentially improved functions. This has been achieved by the re-incorporation into the virus genome of two host range genes, K1L and C7L, in conjunction with the removal of the immunomodulatory viral molecule B19, an antagonist of type I interferon action. These novel virus vectors, referred to as NYVAC-C-KC and NYVAC-C-KC-ΔB19R, have acquired relevant biological characteristics, giving higher levels of antigen expression in infected cells, replication-competency in human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts, activation of selective host cell signal transduction pathways, and limited virus spread in tissues. Importantly, these replication-competent viruses have been demonstrated to maintain a highly attenuated phenotype.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011-11-09

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Improved Innate and Adaptive Immunostimulation by Genetically Modified HIV-1 Protein Expressing NYVAC Vectors

Description

Attenuated poxviruses are safe and capable of expressing foreign antigens. Poxviruses are applied in veterinary vaccination and explored as candidate vaccines for humans. However, poxviruses express multiple genes encoding proteins

Attenuated poxviruses are safe and capable of expressing foreign antigens. Poxviruses are applied in veterinary vaccination and explored as candidate vaccines for humans. However, poxviruses express multiple genes encoding proteins that interfere with components of the innate and adaptive immune response. This manuscript describes two strategies aimed to improve the immunogenicity of the highly attenuated, host-range restricted poxvirus NYVAC: deletion of the viral gene encoding type-I interferon-binding protein and development of attenuated replication-competent NYVAC. We evaluated these newly generated NYVAC mutants, encoding HIV-1 env, gag, pol and nef, for their ability to stimulate HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses in vitro from blood mononuclear cells of HIV-infected subjects. The new vectors were evaluated and compared to the parental NYVAC vector in dendritic cells (DCs), RNA expression arrays, HIV gag expression and cross-presentation assays in vitro. Deletion of type-I interferon-binding protein enhanced expression of interferon and interferon-induced genes in DCs, and increased maturation of infected DCs. Restoration of replication competence induced activation of pathways involving antigen processing and presentation. Also, replication-competent NYVAC showed increased Gag expression in infected cells, permitting enhanced cross-presentation to HIV-specific CD8 T cells and proliferation of HIV-specific memory CD8 T-cells in vitro. The recombinant NYVAC combining both modifications induced interferon-induced genes and genes involved in antigen processing and presentation, as well as increased Gag expression. This combined replication-competent NYVAC is a promising candidate for the next generation of HIV vaccines.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2011-02-15

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Effect of Hepatitis C Infection on HIV-Induced Apoptosis

Description

Background
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection was reported to negatively affect HIV disease and HIV infection has a deleterious effect on HCV-related liver disease. However, despite common occurrence of HCV/HIV

Background
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection was reported to negatively affect HIV disease and HIV infection has a deleterious effect on HCV-related liver disease. However, despite common occurrence of HCV/HIV coinfection little is known about the mechanisms of interactions between the two viruses.
Methods
We studied CD4+ and CD8+ T cell and CD19+ B cell apoptosis in 104 HIV-positive patients (56 were also HCV-positive) and in 22 HCV/HIV-coinfected patients treated for chronic hepatitis C with pegylated interferon and ribavirin. We also analyzed HCV/HIV coinfection in a Daudi B-cell line expressing CD4 and susceptible to both HCV and HIV infection. Apoptosis was measured by AnnexinV staining.
Results
HCV/HIV coinfected patients had lower CD4+ and CD8+ T cell apoptosis and higher CD19+ B cell apoptosis than those with HIV monoinfection. Furthermore, anti-HCV treatment of HCV/HIV coinfected patients was followed by an increase of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell apoptosis and a decrease of CD19+ B cell apoptosis. In the Daudi CD4+ cell line, presence of HCV infection facilitated HIV replication, however, decreased the rate of HIV-related cell death.
Conclusion
In HCV/HIV coinfected patients T-cells were found to be destroyed at a slower rate than in HIV monoinfected patients. These results suggest that HCV is a molecular-level determinant in HIV disease.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-10-01

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Pathogen Reduction in Human Plasma Using an Ultrashort Pulsed Laser

Description

Pathogen reduction is a viable approach to ensure the continued safety of the blood supply against emerging pathogens. However, the currently licensed pathogen reduction techniques are ineffective against non-enveloped viruses

Pathogen reduction is a viable approach to ensure the continued safety of the blood supply against emerging pathogens. However, the currently licensed pathogen reduction techniques are ineffective against non-enveloped viruses such as hepatitis A virus, and they introduce chemicals with concerns of side effects which prevent their widespread use. In this report, we demonstrate the inactivation of both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses in human plasma using a novel chemical-free method, a visible ultrashort pulsed laser. We found that laser treatment resulted in 2-log, 1-log, and 3-log reductions in human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis A virus, and murine cytomegalovirus in human plasma, respectively. Laser-treated plasma showed ≥70% retention for most coagulation factors tested. Furthermore, laser treatment did not alter the structure of a model coagulation factor, fibrinogen. Ultrashort pulsed lasers are a promising new method for chemical-free, broad-spectrum pathogen reduction in human plasma.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-11-05