Matching Items (22)

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The Emotional Responses of Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizure Patients During Four Relived Emotion Tasks

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Abstract Individuals with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) experience seizure-like behaviors, but without the physiological aspect of a typical epileptic seizure. PNES patients are hypothesized to have seizures to cope with past trauma or current adverse life events. Also, avoidance of

Abstract Individuals with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) experience seizure-like behaviors, but without the physiological aspect of a typical epileptic seizure. PNES patients are hypothesized to have seizures to cope with past trauma or current adverse life events. Also, avoidance of emotion may be implicated in the development and maintenance of this disorder, specifically with regard to emotional suppression. The current study examined different facets of PNES patients' emotional responses (self-report, physiological reactivity, and facial expressivity) using a relived emotion task. During this task, participants recalled specific memories related to four target emotions: neutral, angry, shame, and happy in a counterbalanced order for each participant. There was a total of 61 participants involved in the study: 11 PNES patients and two trauma-exposed comparison groups with either high (25) or low (25) levels of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Patients were hypothesized to have greater physiological reactivity and self-reported intensity, but less overall emotional expressivity, than comparison groups. We explored these hypotheses based on descriptive analyses, or an examination of group means. Contrary to our first hypothesis, PNES patients showed smaller decreases in physiological reactivity, compared to controls during all conditions. Furthermore, PNES patients showed less expressiveness than comparison groups during the happiness condition, but greater expressiveness during the neutral and negative emotion conditions. Lastly, our third hypothesis was supported, as PNES patients reported greater emotional intensity than comparison groups to the neutral, shame, and happiness conditions. However, because of the small sample size of PNES patients, the results should be interpreted with caution. This research may have implications for therapeutic settings because clinicians will better understand the emotional experiences and behaviors of PNES patients during treatment.

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2018-05

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Social Cognition in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Sex Differences and Aging Correlates

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Background: In the United States, approximately 50,000 teens with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) age into adulthood every year (Shattuck et al., 2012). A hallmark symptom of ASD includes pronounced difficulties in social interactions and verbal and nonverbal communication (Lai, Lombardo,

Background: In the United States, approximately 50,000 teens with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) age into adulthood every year (Shattuck et al., 2012). A hallmark symptom of ASD includes pronounced difficulties in social interactions and verbal and nonverbal communication (Lai, Lombardo, & Baron-Cohen, 2014). These social cognition difficulties consist of difficulties interpreting social cues, employing appropriate adaptive behavioral responses in various social contexts, as well as the ability to interpret emotions and mental states of others, known as theory of mind (TOM; Premack & Woodruff, 1978). In neurotypical (NT) adults, women perform better on social cognition tasks and difficulties become more prevalent with age, however little is known how sex differences and aging may impact social cognition in adults with ASD (Carstensen, Fung, & Charles 2003).

Objective: This research intended to characterize the influence of sex and age on social cognition in adults with ASD using an adult sample. We hypothesized Reading the Mind in the Eyes (RME) scores would be lower in adults with ASD, with a stronger relationship between decreasing performance aging effects compared to NTs. Additionally, we hypothesized deficits would be more severe in in males with ASD compared to females with ASD.

Methods: The RME task was administered to 181 adults to quantify ToM abilities. The participants consisted of 100 adults with ASD (69 males, 32 females; age range: 18-71, mean=39.45±1.613) and matched 81 NT adults (47 males, 34 females; age range: 18-70, mean=41.51±1.883). Multiple regression analyses examined interactions between diagnosis and age, diagnosis and sex, and diagnosis by age by sex. Exploratory within group analyses assessed 1) sex differences using ANCOVA, and 2) associations with age using Pearson correlation in SPSS.

Results: We found that NT adults performed better on the RME task than adults with ASD. Worse performance on the RME task correlated with greater age for the NT, but not ASD. Additionally, no influence of sex on RME scores was identified.

Discussion: These results are consistent with other studies indicate social cognition deficits in adults with ASD compared to NT adults. Additionally, we replicated findings that suggest ToM performance declines with age in NT adults. Fewer social relationships, smaller social networks, and reduced social engagement have been associated with aging in both NTs and individuals with ASD (Pratt & Norris, 1994). However, our cross-sectional sample suggests ToM abilities may not decline with age in adults with ASD as hypothesized. Longitudinal studies are needed to corroborate these findings. Further developments in this line of research may inform novel interventions tailored toward the growing population of adults with ASD. Ultimately, our research aims to improve quality of life across the lifespan for an already vulnerable population.

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2020-05

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PRISONERS OF OUR OWN DESIGN: EXPLORING THE NATURE-CIVILIZATION DICHOTOMY'S EMOTIONAL IMPACT ON PACIFIC CREST TRAIL THRU-HIKERS

Description

While many report positive changes after completing a long distance hike on the PCT, many who return experience a sense of depression or intense sadness. This sadness can be debilitating, but very little research has been done to explore possible

While many report positive changes after completing a long distance hike on the PCT, many who return experience a sense of depression or intense sadness. This sadness can be debilitating, but very little research has been done to explore possible causes and remedies. This thesis argues that volatile environmental conditions on the Pacific Crest Trail act in a similar way to that of entities such as fraternities and the military in that the effort required to be initiated must be justified with the value received. As such, thru-hikers increase the value of the trail for themselves along with the cultural values that the trail may hold. These cultural values are predominantly equality, liberty, and the concept of the sublime. However, as nature is understood to be the opposite of urban environments, urban environments take on qualities of inequality, oppression, and corruption in the eyes of the hiker. These qualities then cause a hiker distress upon returning from their six month journey in that they have to both exist in and participate with such a society.

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2017-05

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Processes Linking Cultural Ingroup Bonds and Mental Health: The Roles of Social Connection and Emotion Regulation

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Cultural and ethnic identities influence the relationships individuals seek out and how they feel and behave in these relationships, which can strongly affect mental and physical health through their impacts on emotions, physiology, and behavior. We proposed and tested a

Cultural and ethnic identities influence the relationships individuals seek out and how they feel and behave in these relationships, which can strongly affect mental and physical health through their impacts on emotions, physiology, and behavior. We proposed and tested a model in which ethnocultural identifications and ingroup affiliations were hypothesized explicitly to enhance social connectedness, which would in turn promote expectancy for effective regulation of negative emotions and reduce self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety. Our sample comprised women aged 18–30 currently attending college in the Southwestern US, who self-identified as Hispanic of Mexican descent (MAs; n = 82) or as non-Hispanic White/European American (EAs; n = 234) and who completed an online survey. In the full sample and in each subgroup, stronger ethnocultural group identity and greater comfort with mainstream American culture were associated with higher social connectedness, which in turn was associated with expectancy for more effective regulation of negative emotions, fewer depressive symptoms, and less anxiety. Unexpectedly, preference for ingroup affiliation predicted lower social connectedness in both groups. In addition to indirect effects through social connection, direct paths from mainstream comfort and preference for ingroup affiliation to emotion regulation expectancy were found for EAs. Models of our data underscore that social connection is a central mechanism through which ethnocultural identities—including with one's own group and the mainstream cultural group—relate to mental health, and that emotion regulation may be a key aspect of this linkage. We use the term ethnocultural social connection to make explicit a process that, we believe, has been implied in the ethnic identity literature for many years, and that may have consequential implications for mental health and conceptualizations of processes underlying mental disorders.

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2013-02-28

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Does Scent Influence Women's Ratings of Men's Attractiveness?

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This study investigated the potential influence of scent on women's mood and perceptions of men's attractiveness. Participants were 58 heterosexual female college students between the ages of 18-35 who were in decent health, did not smoke, and were not pregnant

This study investigated the potential influence of scent on women's mood and perceptions of men's attractiveness. Participants were 58 heterosexual female college students between the ages of 18-35 who were in decent health, did not smoke, and were not pregnant or nursing. They were asked to rate the physical attractiveness, datability, likability, sexual desirability, and perceived age of men in photographs. Photographs were taken from two online databases. During the ratings, the participants were exposed to either a pleasant scent with the putative human pheromone androstadienone or to the same pleasant scent without the pheromone (between subjects design). Analysis of covariance was used to compare effects of pheromone on ratings and pheromone on mood. Although there was a pheromone effect, it was not in the predicted direction. Participants gave higher ratings on datability when smelling the fragrance without the pheromone, suggesting the pheromone actually seemed to cause lower ratings of this quality. On the other hand, the scent with the pheromone may have reduced an increase in negative moods from pre- to post-task. Scent pleasantness was discovered to be an important predictor of both photo ratings and changes in mood during the photo rating session. Although the current study did not provide further evidence that androstadienone is associated with higher attractiveness ratings, it did support the idea that the pheromone may influence mood.

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2014-05

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Do Mood and Romantic Relationship Status Influence Attraction?

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Females' attractiveness ratings of male faces have often been attributed to the male faces' physical characteristics. Multiple studies have determined that male faces are perceived as more attractive when they show the following characteristics: masculine and feminine features, facial age,

Females' attractiveness ratings of male faces have often been attributed to the male faces' physical characteristics. Multiple studies have determined that male faces are perceived as more attractive when they show the following characteristics: masculine and feminine features, facial age, neotenous signs, symmetry, and averageness. However, certain traits of the rater, such as mood and romantic relationship status, also influence the perceived attractiveness of those faces. This study was designed to address whether female raters' mood and romantic relationship status were associated with their ratings of men in photographs. We recorded the romantic relationship status and current mood of 115 heterosexual females, who then rated ten male photographs on their: likeability, datability, physical attractiveness, sexual desirability, and perceived age of the face. Four separate one-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were carried out to test the differences in ratings (i.e., physical attractiveness, datability, likability, and sexual desirability) between single and partnered women. Also, among partnered participants, correlations were calculated between relationship happiness and photo ratings. Finally, correlations between attractiveness ratings and mood-related variables were calculated. Results suggested that the participants' mood was associated with the photo ratings. These findings are consistent with previous literature suggesting that mood can influence people's perception of others. We can then infer that physical traits are not the only defining factor of attractiveness.

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2014-05

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DEINSTITUTIONALIZATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON EMERGENCY MEDICINE

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Emergency departments (EDs) across the country have been forced to accommodate an ever-expanding population of mental health patients. This study surveyed physicians and social workers in order to determine the most commonly treated mental illnesses in the ED, common frustrations

Emergency departments (EDs) across the country have been forced to accommodate an ever-expanding population of mental health patients. This study surveyed physicians and social workers in order to determine the most commonly treated mental illnesses in the ED, common frustrations in the care of mental health patients, limitations in the provision of treatment, and possible changes and improvements to the treatment system for the future. Attitudes toward the deinstitutionalization movement of the 1960s also were assessed, as this movement is hypothesized to have contributed to the current strain on EDs with respect to treating mental health issues. In this thesis, the deinstirutionalization movement and possible implications for mental health treatment in EDs are reviewed' In addition, questionnaires were administered to a sample of 6 ED doctors and 2 ED social workers-. Survey responses suggest that more resources, including availability of ED staff psychiatrists and dedicated facilities for mental health patients' would offer improvements to the current system. With careful evaluation of the ability of the ED to meet the needs of mental health patients, alternative resources for more effective and successful treatment strategies may be developed that offer a compromise between institutionalization and the revolving door of the ED.

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2012-05

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Reports of Mood and Sexual Activity through the Menstrual Cycle in a Lesbian Sample

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Menstruation has been characterized as powerful, magical, and mysterious. Historically, it was believed menstrual blood could cure leprosy, warts, birthmarks, gout, goiter, hemorrhoids, epilepsy, worms, and headaches. Menstrual blood was used as a love charm and as a means to

Menstruation has been characterized as powerful, magical, and mysterious. Historically, it was believed menstrual blood could cure leprosy, warts, birthmarks, gout, goiter, hemorrhoids, epilepsy, worms, and headaches. Menstrual blood was used as a love charm and as a means to ward off river demons or evil spirits, and could be used to honor a god (DeLaney, Lupton, & Toth, 1988, pp.8-9). Contemporary studies reveal that women around the world continue to celebrate their power to create. The World Health Organization studied attitudes of women of all socioeconomic classes in 10 countries (Egypt, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Pakistan, Philippines, United Kingdom, United States, Yugoslavia, Mexico, Korea) and found that most women saw menstruation as a positive event (DeLaney et al., 1988, p. 14). In a similar study, Mexican-American women perceived menstruation positively, as a process that "cleans" the body (DeLaney et al., 1988, p. 14).

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2012-12

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Relationship Influence Through Personality

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This study was been influenced from the perspective of clinical psychology. The main research question was: What personality traits and/or characteristics (in this case emotional characteristics) can influence dating violence? Aspects such as gender, age, sexual orientation, and current relationshi

This study was been influenced from the perspective of clinical psychology. The main research question was: What personality traits and/or characteristics (in this case emotional characteristics) can influence dating violence? Aspects such as gender, age, sexual orientation, and current relationship status were considered. Given the evolving culture of relationship dominance, it has been difficult to detect when, and if, people can become potential victims of relationship violence.
Results of the dating violence assessments were reported as well as the results of a personality assessment. The comparisons between the three relationship assessments were inconclusive. This research should be taken as a guidance into the factors of dating violence by taking into consideration the characteristics and personalities of potential victims. It can also be seen as a snapshot of the current time period on the topic of relationship violence and its ideas and its prevalence.
The research conducted was at Arizona State University in three psychology classes. The results included participants relationships, abuse screening scores, and personality assessments. The True Colors personality test showed that the majority of the participants were associated with being emotion driven.

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2020-05

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An Examination of Chronic Pain and Opioid Use Among Veterans with and without Alcohol Use Disorder

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Chronic pain is devastating and highly prevalent among Veterans in the United States (Johnson, Levesque, Broderick, Bailey & Kerns, 2017). While there are various treatment options for chronic pain, opioids remain high in popularity. Although opioids are fast-acting and effective,

Chronic pain is devastating and highly prevalent among Veterans in the United States (Johnson, Levesque, Broderick, Bailey & Kerns, 2017). While there are various treatment options for chronic pain, opioids remain high in popularity. Although opioids are fast-acting and effective, potential consequences range from unpleasant side effects to dependence and fatal overdose (Baldini, Korff & Lin, 2012; Park et al., 2015; Kaur, 2007). The effects of opioid treatment can be further complicated by a history of alcohol abuse. Past alcohol abuse is a risk factor for opioid misuse (McCabe et al., 2008). One alternative to opioid medication is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Pain (CBT-CP). CBT-CP has shown small to moderate effects on chronic pain after the end of treatment (Naylor, Keefe, Brigidi, Naud & Helzer, 2008). The current study examined the effect of CBT-CP on opioid prescriptions, as well as the role of past alcohol abuse in CBT-CP efficacy, through an archival data analysis of Veterans Affairs patient charts. In order to determine the effect of CBT-CP on opioid prescriptions, an opioid change score was calculated from treatment start date to twelve months post-treatment. An analysis of 106 patient charts demonstrated no statistically significant difference in opioid prescriptions between Veterans who were referred and attended treatment (n = 24) and those who were referred but did not attend (n = 82). Veterans from both groups showed a reduction in prescribed opioids during a 12-month period. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant difference between Veterans with versus without a history of alcohol abuse in terms of the change in opioid prescriptions over a 12-month period (both groups showed reductions). This research suggests that opioid prescriptions may decrease over time among Veterans referred for CBT-CP, even among those who do not participate in the groups. More work is needed to understand the relationship between opioid prescriptions and actual opioid use over time among Veterans who do and do not choose to participate in CBT-CP. Continuing to address poly-substance use in chronic pain patients also is critical to ensure that Veterans suffering from chronic pain receive appropriate intervention.

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2019-05