Matching Items (11)

128772-Thumbnail Image.png

Signal Detection on the Battlefield: Priming Self-Protection vs. Revenge-Mindedness Differentially Modulates the Detection of Enemies and Allies

Description

Detecting signs that someone is a member of a hostile outgroup can depend on very subtle cues. How do ecology-relevant motivational states affect such detections? This research investigated the detection

Detecting signs that someone is a member of a hostile outgroup can depend on very subtle cues. How do ecology-relevant motivational states affect such detections? This research investigated the detection of briefly-presented enemy (versus friend) insignias after participants were primed to be self-protective or revenge-minded. Despite being told to ignore the objectively nondiagnostic cues of ethnicity (Arab vs. Western/European), gender, and facial expressions of the targets, both priming manipulations enhanced biases to see Arab males as enemies. They also reduced the ability to detect ingroup enemies, even when these faces displayed angry expressions. These motivations had very different effects on accuracy, however, with self-protection enhancing overall accuracy and revenge-mindedness reducing it. These methods demonstrate the importance of considering how signal detection tasks that occur in motivationally-charged environments depart from results obtained in conventionally motivationally-inert laboratory settings.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011-09-01

134199-Thumbnail Image.png

​Dress​ ​for​ ​Success: ​ ​Cosplay​ ​and​ ​Relationship​ ​Dynamics​

Description

Across​ ​group​ ​studies,​ ​identifying​ ​as​ ​part​ ​of​ ​one​ ​group​ ​over​ ​the​ ​other​ ​is​ ​instrumental​ ​in determining​ ​the​ ​traits​ ​of​ ​an​ ​individual’s​ ​personality.​ ​Furthermore,​ ​when​ ​someone’s​ ​style​ ​of​ ​dress causes​ ​them​

Across​ ​group​ ​studies,​ ​identifying​ ​as​ ​part​ ​of​ ​one​ ​group​ ​over​ ​the​ ​other​ ​is​ ​instrumental​ ​in determining​ ​the​ ​traits​ ​of​ ​an​ ​individual’s​ ​personality.​ ​Furthermore,​ ​when​ ​someone’s​ ​style​ ​of​ ​dress causes​ ​them​ ​to​ ​fit​ ​into​ ​a​ ​group,​ ​their​ ​personality​ ​is​ ​likely​ ​to​ ​be​ ​dictated​ ​by​ ​what​ ​they​ ​are​ ​wearing and​ ​who​ ​they​ ​are​ ​with.​ ​Attendees​ ​of​ ​comic​ ​conventions​ ​have​ ​been​ ​part​ ​of​ ​a​ ​growing​ ​trend​ ​to dress​ ​up​ ​as​ ​their​ ​favorite​ ​characters​ ​from​ ​different​ ​anime,​ ​manga,​ ​television​ ​shows,​ ​books,​ ​video games,​ ​etc.,​ ​where​ ​they​ ​can​ ​meet​ ​like-minded​ ​people​ ​who​ ​share​ ​similar​ ​interests​ ​and​ ​hobbies. When​ ​combining​ ​changes​ ​of​ ​affect,​ ​and​ ​similarities​ ​of​ ​cultural​ ​and​ ​group​ ​identification,​ ​the likelihood​ ​to​ ​engage​ ​in​ ​a​ ​romantic​ ​relationship​ ​may​ ​become​ ​heightened.​ ​Using​ ​existing​ ​measures to​ ​examine​ ​commitment,​ ​sociosexual​ ​orientation​ ​and​ ​relationship​ ​satisfaction,​ ​1232​ ​convention attendees​ ​responded​ ​to​ ​measures​ ​addressing​ ​their​ ​current​ ​or​ ​most​ ​recent​ ​relationship.​ ​The respondents​ ​were​ ​split​ ​into​ ​4​ ​groups,​ ​individuals​ ​who​ ​are​ ​currently​ ​in​ ​a​ ​relationship​ ​and​ ​cosplay, individuals​ ​who​ ​are​ ​currently​ ​in​ ​a​ ​relationship​ ​and​ ​do​ ​not​ ​cosplay,​ ​individuals​ ​who​ ​are​ ​currently single​ ​and​ ​cosplay,​ ​and​ ​individuals​ ​who​ ​are​ ​currently​ ​in​ ​a​ ​relationship​ ​and​ ​do​ ​not​ ​cosplay. Results​ ​indicated​ ​non-significant​ ​results​ ​in​ ​the​ ​two​ ​groups​ ​that​ ​are​ ​not​ ​in​ ​relationships,​ ​as​ ​well​ ​as non-cosplaying​ ​attendees​ ​currently​ ​in​ ​a​ ​relationship,​ ​for​ ​all​ ​the​ ​measures,​ ​while​ ​there​ ​were​ ​weak, significant​ ​results​ ​for​ ​sociosexual​ ​orientation​ ​and​ ​relationship​ ​satisfaction​ ​for​ ​individuals​ ​who are​ ​in​ ​relationships​ ​and​ ​also​ ​cosplay.​ ​Limitations​ ​and​ ​future​ ​directions​ ​are​ ​discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

131777-Thumbnail Image.png

Leaders at Face-Value

Description

Besides acquiring group status via dominance or force, as in other animals, human beings can acquire status via prestige, which follows from other group members valuing one’s expert knowledge. Past

Besides acquiring group status via dominance or force, as in other animals, human beings can acquire status via prestige, which follows from other group members valuing one’s expert knowledge. Past research has shown a preference for prestigious leaders over dominant leaders. That is, people prefer leaders who are expert over those who are domineering. In this research, I explored whether the preference for prestige over dominance applies to preferences for actual political figures with facial features that appear dominant or prestigious. I also asked whether the same links between dominance, prestige, and voter preference would hold for both men and women. American participants (recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk) rated European politicians’ faces on traits associated with prestige and dominance and indicated their likelihood of voting for this person as a governor of their state. Findings suggest ratings of both prestige is a strong predictor of leadership preference than dominance. However, strong correlations between variables suggest prestige and dominance are two closely related concepts. In addition, participants indicated a marginal to significant preference for female leaders, depending on their perceived dominance and prestigiousness.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

133788-Thumbnail Image.png

Xenophilia: The preference for members of an outgroup

Description

This paper explores the idea of xenophilia and the circumstances under which it may occur. Xenophilia is the preference for an outgroup member over an ingroup member. This preference does

This paper explores the idea of xenophilia and the circumstances under which it may occur. Xenophilia is the preference for an outgroup member over an ingroup member. This preference does not have to be amicable, and in fact can be exploitative under certain circumstances. Previous research indicates that xenophobia is much more common, but a few researchers have found support for the existence of xenophilia. To experimentally test the circumstances under which xenophilia might occur, I conducted a survey-based experiment on Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. This consisted of directed visualizations that manipulated participant goal (self-protection vs. mate acquisition) and the resources offered by both a fictitious outgroup and the hometown ingroup, followed by measures of ingroup/outgroup preference. I hypothesized that when the resource offered by the group addressed the participants’ goal, they would prefer the group with the “matched” resource—even if it was the outgroup providing that resource. My hypothesis was not supported, as the univariate analysis of variance for preference for the outgroup was not significant, F (2, 423) = .723, p = .486. This may have occurred because the goal manipulations were not strong enough to counteract the strong natural preference for ingroup members.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

131343-Thumbnail Image.png

Sex Differences in Patterns of Criminal Ideation

Description

Research into criminal fantasies has thus far primarily focused on homicidal. Here, we broaden the study of criminal ideation by examining a wide range of violent and non-violent criminal

Research into criminal fantasies has thus far primarily focused on homicidal. Here, we broaden the study of criminal ideation by examining a wide range of violent and non-violent criminal fantasies. Specifically, we aimed to compare the magnitude of sex difference in actual crimes to sex differences in crime fantasies. Using a questionnaire design, participants were asked about the frequency and recency of multiple categories of criminal fantasies, including violent and non-violent crimes. Reports of crime fantasies from this questionnaire were compared to national rates of arrest and incident for these actual crimes. Results indicated that men not only commit crimes more frequently than women do, they also fantasize about crimes more frequently. At the same time, such sex differences in crime fantasies were smaller than sex differences in actual crimes. Future studies should continue to explore the purpose of crime fantasies and their relation to behavioral regulation mechanisms.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

148166-Thumbnail Image.png

Identification in Stigmatized Groups: Investigating the Role of Status Threat, Concealability, and Stereotype Endorsement

Description

This study tested the effect of status threat on ingroup identification and examined identity concealability and stereotype endorsement as moderators of the relationship. Participants included a visible identity group (Asian

This study tested the effect of status threat on ingroup identification and examined identity concealability and stereotype endorsement as moderators of the relationship. Participants included a visible identity group (Asian men) and a concealable identity group (gay men). Participants were randomized into either a status threat condition, in which they read a vignette that reminded them of a negative stereotype about the target group and discussed positive stereotypes of the group as well, or a control condition that discussed positive stereotypes only. Participants then responded to a measure of ingroup identification and a measure of stereotype endorsement. A significant main effect of status threat on ingroup identification was found, such that participants in the status threat condition showed lower ingroup identification. The interaction of condition and concealability was not significant. The interaction of condition and stereotype endorsement was marginally significant, such that the main effect shows up stronger for those lower on stereotype endorsement. The main effect is interpreted as a potential protective strategy for self-esteem. The stereotype threat interaction is interpreted as a difference in the way that those who do and do not endorse the stereotype view the legitimacy of the status threat.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

148497-Thumbnail Image.png

The Effect Of Discrete Positive Emotions On Attentional Focus and Creativity

Description

Both attentional focus and creativity have been shown to differ depending on the emotional state one is experiencing. We hypothesize that different positive emotions, in this case amusement, enthusiasm and

Both attentional focus and creativity have been shown to differ depending on the emotional state one is experiencing. We hypothesize that different positive emotions, in this case amusement, enthusiasm and awe, induce characteristically different breadths of attentional focus that are reflective of their respective evolutionary functions and levels of approach motivation. Ultimately we predict that high-approach motivations such as enthusiasm will result in attentional localization and an overall decrease in creativity, whereas low-approach motivations, such as amusement and awe, will result in attentional globalization and overall increased levels of creativity. In this study 105 participants read an emotion inducing story, followed by a globalization attentional focus test, the Alternate Uses Task test for creativity, and an emotion manipulation check. A 1-way ANOVA followed by several t-tests were completed to compare the effects of the different emotion conditions as a whole, and then individually against one another. The experiment was statistically underpowered, and as such there were no significant differences found either for overall emotional affects or those between emotions. However, the patterns suggested by the results of the analyses were not expected and creativity measures differed strongly from predicted results. Data collection is ongoing, and in the future problems with study underpowerment will likely be amended.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011-05

130887-Thumbnail Image.png

Are You My Father? Paternal Uncertainty and Genetic Testing

Description

Developments in commercial genetic testing have made it possible for people to find out a wealth of information that was previously difficult or impossible to obtain. Genetic testing is a

Developments in commercial genetic testing have made it possible for people to find out a wealth of information that was previously difficult or impossible to obtain. Genetic testing is a novel solution to the adaptive problem of paternal uncertainty. We hypothesized that participants in the control condition would have greater interest in their paternal genetic information than their maternal genetic information and that participants who were cued to their dissimilarities with their father would seek out genetic information regarding their paternal side of the family above all other conditions. Neither of the two tested hypotheses were supported by the data. Analyses of several variables suggest that the manipulation did work to enhance perceptions of similarity and dissimilarity to parents, that participants were paying attention, and that the dependent variables were sensitive. Some incidental findings suggest that feelings of similarity, rather than dissimilarity, to father are related to interest in learning about paternal genealogy.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-12

152450-Thumbnail Image.png

Distinguishing between the endowment effect and buyer's remorse in a dating scenario

Description

Previous research on experiences of the endowment effect and buyer's remorse has often failed to compare the two seemingly related phenomena. The current study attempts to provide a framework in

Previous research on experiences of the endowment effect and buyer's remorse has often failed to compare the two seemingly related phenomena. The current study attempts to provide a framework in which the two can be compared and to offer a possible suggestion as to when it may be beneficial to experience either the endowment effect or buyer's remorse, namely situations of resource scarcity versus abundance. The current study employed an online dating paradigm in which resource scarcity was operationalized as the sex ratio of users on the site. Two hundred and one participants were exposed to a favorable sex ratio, an unfavorable sex ratio, or a no information control condition and asked to bid on potential dates. Once matched with a potential date, participants were asked how willing they would be to give up their date and the minimum amount of points they would request to do so. These dependent variables served as indicators of experiences of the endowment effect or buyer's remorse. Results indicated that the sex ratio of the online dating site did not influence experiences of the endowment effect versus buyer's remorse. Potential mediators and moderators were also investigated although no significant effects were found. Possible reasons for the null results are discussed as well as future directions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

152169-Thumbnail Image.png

My baby daddy is a 10: mate value, sex ratio, and the endorsement of child support laws

Description

Life History Theory suggests that, in order to maximize reproductive fitness, individuals make trade-offs between allocating resources to mating and parenting. These trade-offs are influenced by an individual's sex, life

Life History Theory suggests that, in order to maximize reproductive fitness, individuals make trade-offs between allocating resources to mating and parenting. These trade-offs are influenced by an individual's sex, life history strategy, and environment. Here, I explored the usefulness of a Life History Theory framework for understanding endorsement of child support laws. This study experimentally manipulated sex ratio, and gathered information about participants' endorsement of child support, sexual restrictedness, and mate value. As predicted, women endorsed child support more than men, whereas men favored greater restriction of child support in the form of required paternity testing. However, in general, results do not support an effect of sex ratio, sexual restrictedness, or mate value on endorsement of child support. Results suggest sensitivity to exploitation in a male-biased sex ratio, reflected by an increase in men's endorsement of paternity testing requirements under a male-biased sex ratio prime. Women, on the other hand, report especially unfavorable beliefs toward paternity testing in a male-biased sex ratio. Although results of the current study are mixed, there remains much to be gained from applying an evolutionary perspective to understanding variability in endorsement of child support.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013