Matching Items (6)

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Using Dendritic Heat Maps to Simultaneously Display Genotype Divergence with Phenotype Divergence

Description

The advancement of techniques to visualize and analyze large-scale sequencing datasets is an area of active research and is rooted in traditional techniques such as heat maps and dendrograms. We

The advancement of techniques to visualize and analyze large-scale sequencing datasets is an area of active research and is rooted in traditional techniques such as heat maps and dendrograms. We introduce dendritic heat maps that display heat map results over aligned DNA sequence clusters for a range of clustering cutoffs. Dendritic heat maps aid in visualizing the effects of group differences on clustering hierarchy and relative abundance of sampled sequences. Here, we artificially generate two separate datasets with simplified mutation and population growth procedures with GC content group separation to use as example phenotypes. In this work, we use the term phenotype to represent any feature by which groups can be separated. These sequences were clustered in a fractional identity range of 0.75 to 1.0 using agglomerative minimum-, maximum-, and average-linkage algorithms, as well as a divisive centroid-based algorithm. We demonstrate that dendritic heat maps give freedom to scrutinize specific clustering levels across a range of cutoffs, track changes in phenotype inequity across multiple levels of sequence clustering specificity, and easily visualize how deeply rooted changes in phenotype inequity are in a dataset. As genotypes diverge in sample populations, clusters are shown to break apart into smaller clusters at higher identity cutoff levels, similar to a dendrogram. Phenotype divergence, which is shown as a heat map of relative abundance bin response, may or may not follow genotype divergences. This joined view highlights the relationship between genotype and phenotype divergence for treatment groups. We discuss the minimum-, maximum-, average-, and centroid-linkage algorithm approaches to building dendritic heat maps and make a case for the divisive “top-down” centroid-based clustering methodology as being the best option visualize the effects of changing factors on clustering hierarchy and relative abundance.

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Date Created
  • 2016-08-18

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Neuropathological Responses to Chronic NMDA in Rats Are Worsened by Dietary n-3 PUFA Deprivation but Are Not Ameliorated by Fish Oil Supplementation

Description

Background
Dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation may be beneficial for chronic brain illnesses, but the issue is not agreed on. We examined effects of dietary n-3 PUFA

Background
Dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation may be beneficial for chronic brain illnesses, but the issue is not agreed on. We examined effects of dietary n-3 PUFA deprivation or supplementation, compared with an n-3 PUFA adequate diet (containing alpha-linolenic acid [18:3 n-3] but not docosahexaenoic acid [DHA, 22:6n-3]), on brain markers of lipid metabolism and excitotoxicity, in rats treated chronically with NMDA or saline.
Methods
Male rats after weaning were maintained on one of three diets for 15 weeks. After 12 weeks, each diet group was injected i.p. daily with saline (1 ml/kg) or a subconvulsive dose of NMDA (25 mg/kg) for 3 additional weeks. Then, brain fatty acid concentrations and various markers of excitotoxicity and fatty acid metabolism were measured.
Results
Compared to the diet-adequate group, brain DHA concentration was reduced, while n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-6) concentration was increased in the n-3 deficient group; arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) concentration was unchanged. These concentrations were unaffected by fish oil supplementation. Chronic NMDA increased brain cPLA[subscript 2] activity in each of the three groups, but n-3 PUFA deprivation or fish oil did not change cPLA[subscript 2] activity or protein compared with the adequate group. sPLA[subscript 2] expression was unchanged in the three conditions, whereas iPLA[subscript 2] expression was reduced by deprivation but not changed by supplementation. BDNF protein was reduced by NMDA in N-3 PUFA deficient rats, but protein levels of IL-1β, NGF, and GFAP did not differ between groups.
Conclusions
N-3 PUFA deprivation significantly worsened several pathological NMDA-induced changes produced in diet adequate rats, whereas n-3 PUFA supplementation did not affect NMDA induced changes. Supplementation may not be critical for this measured neuropathology once the diet has an adequate n-3 PUFA content.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05-04

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Draft Genome Sequence of Microvirga sp. Strain BSC39, Isolated from Biological Soil Crust of Moab, Utah

Description

Microvirga sp. BSC39 was isolated from a biological soil crust near Moab, Utah. The strain appears to be capable of chemotaxis and exopolysaccharide synthesis for biofilm adhesion. The BSC39 genome

Microvirga sp. BSC39 was isolated from a biological soil crust near Moab, Utah. The strain appears to be capable of chemotaxis and exopolysaccharide synthesis for biofilm adhesion. The BSC39 genome contains iron siderophore uptake and hydrolysis enzymes; however, it lacks siderophore synthesis pathways, suggesting the uptake of siderophores produced by neighboring microbes.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-11-13

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Draft Genome Sequence of Massilia sp. Strain BSC265, Isolated from Biological Soil Crust of Moab, Utah

Description

Massilia sp. BSC265 was isolated from a biological soil crust near Moab, Utah. The strain appears to be capable of chemotaxis and exopolysaccharide synthesis for biofilm adhesion. The BSC265 genome

Massilia sp. BSC265 was isolated from a biological soil crust near Moab, Utah. The strain appears to be capable of chemotaxis and exopolysaccharide synthesis for biofilm adhesion. The BSC265 genome contains a complete dissimilatory nitrate reduction pathway as well as a TCA cycle, making it a facultative anaerobe.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-11-13

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Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus sp. Strain BSC154, Isolated from Biological Soil Crust of Moab, Utah

Description

Bacillus sp. BSC154 was isolated from a biological soil crust near Moab, Utah. The strain appears to be capable of chemotaxis and biofilm production. The BSC154 genome contains iron siderophore

Bacillus sp. BSC154 was isolated from a biological soil crust near Moab, Utah. The strain appears to be capable of chemotaxis and biofilm production. The BSC154 genome contains iron siderophore production, nitrate reduction, mixed acid-butanediol fermentation, and assimilatory and dissimilatory sulfate metabolism pathways.

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Date Created
  • 2014-11-13

Revealing microbial responses to environmental dynamics: developing methods for analysis and visualization of complex sequence datasets

Description

The greatest barrier to understanding how life interacts with its environment is the complexity in which biology operates. In this work, I present experimental designs, analysis methods, and visualization techniques

The greatest barrier to understanding how life interacts with its environment is the complexity in which biology operates. In this work, I present experimental designs, analysis methods, and visualization techniques to overcome the challenges of deciphering complex biological datasets. First, I examine an iron limitation transcriptome of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 using a new methodology. Until now, iron limitation in experiments of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 gene expression has been achieved through media chelation. Notably, chelation also reduces the bioavailability of other metals, whereas naturally occurring low iron settings likely result from a lack of iron influx and not as a result of chelation. The overall metabolic trends of previous studies are well-characterized but within those trends is significant variability in single gene expression responses. I compare previous transcriptomics analyses with our protocol that limits the addition of bioavailable iron to growth media to identify consistent gene expression signals resulting from iron limitation. Second, I describe a novel method of improving the reliability of centroid-linkage clustering results. The size and complexity of modern sequencing datasets often prohibit constructing distance matrices, which prevents the use of many common clustering algorithms. Centroid-linkage circumvents the need for a distance matrix, but has the adverse effect of producing input-order dependent results. In this chapter, I describe a method of cluster edge counting across iterated centroid-linkage results and reconstructing aggregate clusters from a ranked edge list without a distance matrix and input-order dependence. Finally, I introduce dendritic heat maps, a new figure type that visualizes heat map responses through expanding and contracting sequence clustering specificities. Heat maps are useful for comparing data across a range of possible states. However, data binning is sensitive to clustering cutoffs which are often arbitrarily introduced by researchers and can substantially change the heat map response of any single data point. With an understanding of how the architectural elements of dendrograms and heat maps affect data visualization, I have integrated their salient features to create a figure type aimed at viewing multiple levels of clustering cutoffs, allowing researchers to better understand the effects of environment on metabolism or phylogenetic lineages.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017