Assessing the Evolutionary Divergence Between Four Multiple Myeloma Patient Tumors and Their Established Cell Lines
Current studies in Multiple Myeloma suggest that patient tumors and cell lines cluster separately based on gene expression profiles. Hyperdiploid patients are also extremely underrepresented in established human myeloma cell lines (HMCLs). This suggests that the average HMCL model system does not accurately represent the average myeloma patient. To investigate this question we performed a combined CNA and SNV evolutionary comparison between four myeloma tumors and their established HMCLs (JMW-1, VP-6, KAS-6/1-KAS-6/2 and KP-6). We identified copy number changes shared between the tumors and their cell lines (mean of 74 events - 59%), those unique to patients (mean of 21.25 events - 17%), and those only in the cell lines (mean of 30.75 events \u2014 24%). A relapse sample from the JMW-1 patient showed 58% similarity to the primary diagnostic tumor. These data suggest that, on the level of copy number abnormalities, HMCLs show equal levels of evolutionary divergence as that observed within patients. By exome sequencing, patient tumors were 71% similar to their representative HMCLs, with ~12.5% and ~16.5% of SNVs unique to the tumors and HMCLs respectively. The HMCLs studied appear highly representative of the patient from which they were derived, with most differences associated with an enrichment of sub-populations present in the primary tumor. Additionally, our analysis of the KP-6 aCGH data showed that the patient's hyperdiploid karyotype was maintained in its respective HMCL. This discovery confirms the establishment and validation of a novel and potentially clinically relevant hyperdiploid HMCL that could provide a major advance in our ability to understand the pathogenesis and progression of this prominent patient population.