Matching Items (17)

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The Exploration of Depression as a Mediating Mechanism between Trauma and Alcohol Problems

Description

Introduction: Depression is one of the most prevalent mental illnesses in the United States, and is characterized by feeling sad or empty most of the day, nearly every day (American

Introduction: Depression is one of the most prevalent mental illnesses in the United States, and is characterized by feeling sad or empty most of the day, nearly every day (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). The experience of childhood trauma is one of many factors that may lead to depression, while trauma can also yield other adverse life outcomes, such as alcohol-related consequences (Felitti et al., 2001; Neumann, 2017). One of the specific aims of this investigation was to examine the direct influences of childhood trauma on depression. We also examined selected direct and indirect influences of childhood trauma on drinking outcomes through the potential mediating mechanism of depression. We examined three distinct drinking outcomes, 1) impaired control over drinking (i.e. the inability to stop drinking when intended), 2) heavy episodic drinking (four or more drinks on one occasion for men, four or more for women), and 3) alcohol-related problems. Methods: A survey was administered to 940 (466 women, 474 men) university students. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the data. Potential two- and three-path mediated effects were examined with the bias corrected bootstrap technique in Mplus (MacKinnon, 2008). Results: Emotional abuse was found to be positively associated with depression. In contrast, having an emotionally supportive family was found to be negatively associated with depression. Congruent with the Self-Medication Hypothesis, depression was found to be positively associated with impaired control over drinking. Physical neglect was found to be positively associated with impaired control. Lastly, emotional abuse was found to be indirectly linked to increased heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related problems through depression and impaired control.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-12

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Gender Differences in Optimal Cut Scores on the Personality Assessment Inventory for Diagnosing Epileptic and Psychogenic Non-epileptic Seizures

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Abstract
Diagnosing psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) requires admission to an epilepsy monitoring unit, which is a lengthy and expensive process. Despite the cost of and time commitment to this

Abstract
Diagnosing psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) requires admission to an epilepsy monitoring unit, which is a lengthy and expensive process. Despite the cost of and time commitment to this inpatient evaluation, a definitive diagnosis at the end isn’t always guaranteed. Therefore, predictor variables such as demographic information and psychological testing scores can help improve the accuracy of diagnosing PNES or epilepsy at the end of a patient’s EMU admission. Locke et al. have demonstrated that the SOM scale and SOM-C subscale on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) are the best indicators for predicting PNES diagnosis, with an optimal cut score of T≥70 on both of these scales. The aim of the current study was to determine whether evaluating male and female performance separately on these relevant PAI scales improves the accuracy of diagnosing PNES. The results support the hypothesis, such that male optimal cut scores on the SOM and SOM C scales are T=80 and T=75, respectively, and female optimal cut scores on the SOM and SOM C scales are T=71 and T=72, respectively. Utilizing the results of this study can help clinicians diagnose patients with PNES or epilepsy at the end of EMU evaluation with more certainty.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Effects of Pain Intensity on Goal Schemas and Goal Pursuit: A Daily Diary Study

Description

Objective: Although the adverse effects of chronic pain on work productivity and daily life pursuits are clear, the within-person dynamics of pain, goal cognition, and engagement in work-related and lifestyle

Objective: Although the adverse effects of chronic pain on work productivity and daily life pursuits are clear, the within-person dynamics of pain, goal cognition, and engagement in work-related and lifestyle goals remain uncharted. This study investigated the impact of pain intensity (assessed on 3 occasions each day) and goal-related schematic thinking (ratings of importance, planning, and goal pursuit opportunities, assessed only in the morning) on afternoon and evening work and lifestyle goal pursuit. Methods: A community sample of working adults with chronic pain (N = 131) were screened and interviewed about their work and lifestyle goals and completed a 21-day telephonic diary. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to estimate within-person and between-person effects. Results: At the within-person level, morning pain intensity was inversely related to schematic cognition concerning work and lifestyle goals, whereas, at the between-person level, morning pain intensity varied positively with schematic thinking about work goals as well with afternoon lifestyle goal pursuit. At both the between- and within- analytic levels, morning goal schemas were positively associated with the pursuit of each type of goal in the afternoon and again in the evening. Moreover, positive carry-over effects of morning goal schemas on next day afternoon goal pursuit were observed. Conclusions: Whereas morning pain intensity exhibited inconsistent effects across analytic levels, morning goal-related schematic thinking consistently predicted goal pursuit across analytic levels, type of goal, and time of day. These findings have implications for treatment and prevention of pain’s potentially deleterious effects on workplace and lifestyle goals.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-09-01

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Testing whether alternative goals of multifinal means are considered helpful in working towards a primary dietary goal in college students

Description

Multiple health-related benefits have been associated with adherence to plant-based diets, including vegan, vegetarian, and pescatarian dietary patterns. Despite a consistent body of evidence on the importance of healthy diets,

Multiple health-related benefits have been associated with adherence to plant-based diets, including vegan, vegetarian, and pescatarian dietary patterns. Despite a consistent body of evidence on the importance of healthy diets, Americans continue to find difficulty in establishing and adhering to dietary goals that could elicit long-term health benefits. Recent research suggests an important role for goal-setting strategies in health behavior change attempts, with some success shown in dietary behavior change, specifically. The current study thus aimed to explore whether having multiple goals alongside one primary goal of following a vegetarian, vegan, or pescatarian diet would increase the achievability of that goal. Participants of this study were broken into two groups: currently following a plant-based diet (ADHERE) and striving to follow a plant-based diet (STRIVE). Researchers hypothesized that the number of health and/or diet related alternative goals set by participants would differ between the two groups, that the ADHERE group would report that their alternative goals were more helpful and less interfering in achieving their dietary goal than the STRIVE group, and that a higher rank of importance of the dietary goal would predict being in the ADHERE group. Results showed that the number of health and/or diet related alternative goals did not differ between groups. The ADHERE group and STRIVE group did not have significantly different helpfulness and interference reports. Although, in an exploratory analysis, it was shown that those participants who reported at least 2 health/diet related alternative goals found those goals to be significantly more helpful than those who reported 0 or 1 health/diet goal. Results showed that rank of dietary goal did not predict group assignment. Overall, the results from this study showed that the type of alternative goal was very important when pursuit of multiple goals was in effect. Type of alternative goal seemed to be a higher predictor of the perceived helpfulness of the alternative goals than previous achievement of goals.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Low Regulatory Flexibility as a Mechanism of the Link Between Rumination and Internalizing Symptoms and Substance Misuse in College Freshmen

Description

This study investigated low regulatory flexibility as a mechanism of the associations of rumination with affect, internalizing symptoms, and substance use and problems. 403 first-year college students completed an online

This study investigated low regulatory flexibility as a mechanism of the associations of rumination with affect, internalizing symptoms, and substance use and problems. 403 first-year college students completed an online baseline survey assessing rumination, regulatory flexibility, internalizing symptoms, alcohol use, cannabis use, alcohol problems, and cannabis problems. Roughly 2.67 months later, 261 of these participants completed a follow-up survey assessing internalizing symptoms and substance use and problems. Additionally, 71 of the 403 participants completed an experimental study. Thirty-three participants were randomly assigned to undergo a rumination induction, and 38 were assigned to a control condition. All lab participants underwent an interpersonal stress task during which regulatory flexibility was observed and completed pre-test and post-role-play measures of positive and negative affect. Experimental study results showed regulatory flexibility did not mediate effects of rumination induction on positive (indirect effect: standardized beta (β)=-0.01, unstandardized beta (b)=-0.12, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [-0.64, 0.41], p=.66) or negative affect (indirect effect: β=0.01, b=0.17, 95% CI [-0.29, 0.63], p=.48). Longitudinal study results showed regulatory flexibility did not mediate associations between baseline rumination and follow-up internalizing symptoms (indirect effect: b=0.01, 95% CI [-0.03, 0.05], p=.57), alcohol use (indirect effect: b=-0.03, 95% CI [-0.09, 0.04], p=.39), cannabis use (indirect effect: b=0.10, 95% CI [-0.06, 0.26], p=.21), alcohol problems (indirect effect: b=-0.05, 95% CI [-0.18, 0.07], p=.40), or cannabis problems (indirect effect: b=-0.10, 95% CI [-0.36, 0.16], p=.43). However, rumination predicted greater internalizing symptoms (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR)=1.26, b=0.23, 95% CI [0.08, 0.37], p=.003) and cannabis problems (IRR=1.73, b=0.55, 95% CI [0.23, 0.87], p=.001). Regulatory flexibility predicted fewer alcohol use days (IRR=0.76, b=-0.27, 95% CI [-0.49, -0.05], p=.015) and problems (IRR=0.58, b=-0.55, 95% CI [-0.95, -0.15], p=.007), and less cannabis use for women (IRR=0.59, b=-0.53, 95% CI [-0.92, -0.14], p=.007) and fewer cannabis problems for men (IRR=0.21, b=-1.55, 95% CI [-2.50, -0.60], p=.001). Lack of agreement about how best to measure regulatory flexibility makes it unclear whether null associations were due to measurement problems or actual null effects. Research on how best to measure this construct is a priority. Findings indicate rumination and regulatory flexibility may be promising intervention targets.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Relation between family strain and depressive symptoms in middle-aged adults: the moderating effect of self-compassion

Description

Interpersonal strain is linked with depressive symptoms in middle-aged adults. Self-compassion is an emerging resilience construct that may be advantageous in navigating relationship strain by helping individuals respond to emotions

Interpersonal strain is linked with depressive symptoms in middle-aged adults. Self-compassion is an emerging resilience construct that may be advantageous in navigating relationship strain by helping individuals respond to emotions in a kind and nonjudgmental way. Although theory and empirical evidence suggests that self-compassion is protective against the impact of stress on mental health outcomes, many studies have not investigated how self-compassion operates in the context of relationship strain. In addition, few studies have examined psychological or physiological mechanisms by which self-compassion protects against mental health outcomes, depression in particular. Thus, this study examined 1) the extent to which trait self-compassion buffers the relation between family strain and depressive symptoms, and 2) whether these buffering effects are mediated by hope and inflammatory processes (IL-6) in a sample of 762 middle-aged, community-dwelling adults. Results from structural equation models indicated that family strain was unrelated to depressive symptoms and the relation was not moderated by self-compassion. Hope, but not IL-6, mediated the relation between family strain and depressive symptoms and the indirect effect was not conditional on levels of self-compassion. Taken together, the findings suggest that family strain may lead individuals to experience less hope and subsequent increases in depressive symptoms, and further, that a self-compassionate attitude does not affect this relation. Implications for future self-compassion interventions are discussed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Bullying and Performance Anxiety in Classically Trained Singers

Description

A strong correlation exists between the effects of bullying on a singer and his or her performance anxiety. An exhaustive literature review and a survey of classical singers were used

A strong correlation exists between the effects of bullying on a singer and his or her performance anxiety. An exhaustive literature review and a survey of classical singers were used to assess this hypothesis. The survey was compiled using standard psychological and current performance anxiety questionnaires with additional questions created by the author. The data were analyzed using a Pearson Product-Moment Correlation, a regression analysis, and an Analysis of Variance.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Experimental Manipulation of Motivation and Self-Efficacy for Self-Control

Description

Self-control has been shown to be an important influence behind a variety of risk and protective behaviors, such as substance abuse. Although prior research points to the existence of multiple

Self-control has been shown to be an important influence behind a variety of risk and protective behaviors, such as substance abuse. Although prior research points to the existence of multiple dimensions of self-control, this concept is not consistently defined and frequently only studied as a conglomerate in clinical research. The current study sought to examine how two experimental manipulations of subcomponents of self-control (motivation and self-efficacy) affect real-world consumptive behavior after accounting for executive function. Additionally, the validity and reliability of a brief state survey measure of perceived self-control capacity, internal motivation, and external motivation was tested. The goal was to examine how basic scientific principles involved in self-control translate into clinically relevant behaviors, which may inform understanding of momentary lapses in self-control behavior, potentially leading to novel prevention and intervention efforts. 94 college students completed a 1-2 hour laboratory protocol during which they completed survey and laboratory-based tasks of self-control and related behaviors, executive function, and ad libitum alcohol consumption. Results showed that the self-efficacy manipulation successfully increased perceived self-control capacity, although this did not lead to a significant reduction in consumption. The motivation manipulation neither increased motivation nor reduced consumption in this sample. However, the brief state survey measure of self-control subcomponents demonstrated strong test-retest reliability and distinction from trait self-control, demonstrating its viability for use in future research. By elucidating the relationships between specific mechanisms of self-control, laboratory-based tasks and manipulations, and real-world consumptive behaviors, prevention and intervention efforts for problems such as alcohol abuse may be tailored to the needs of the individual and made more impactful and cost-effective.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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The role of envy in anti-semitism

Description

Anti-Semitism is a recurrent phenomenon in modern history, but has garnered relatively little focus among research psychologists compared to prejudice toward other groups. The present work frames anti-Semitism as a

Anti-Semitism is a recurrent phenomenon in modern history, but has garnered relatively little focus among research psychologists compared to prejudice toward other groups. The present work frames anti-Semitism as a strategy for managing the implications of Jews’ extraordinary achievements compared to other groups. Anti-Semitic beliefs are sorted into two types: stereotypes that undercut the merit of Jews’ achievements by attributing them to unfair advantages such as power behind the scenes; and stereotypes that offset Jews’ achievements by attaching unfavorable traits or defects to Jews, which are unrelated to the achievement domains, e.g. irritating personalities or genetically-specific health problems. The salience of Jews’ disproportionate achievements was hypothesized as driving greater endorsement of anti-Semitic stereotypes, and envy was hypothesized as mediating this effect. Individual differences in narcissistic self-esteem and moral intuitions around in-group loyalty and equity-based fairness were hypothesized as moderating the effect of Jewish achievement on anti-Semitic beliefs. The results showed greater endorsement of undercutting – but not offsetting – stereotypes after reading about Jewish achievements, compared to Jewish culture or general American achievement conditions. Envy did not significantly mediate this effect. The moral foundation of in-group loyalty predicted greater endorsement of anti-Semitic stereotypes in the Jewish Achievement condition, and lesser endorsement in the Jewish Culture condition. Fairness intuitions did not significantly predict stereotype endorsement. Limitations of the sample and next steps are discussed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Self-control motivation and capacity scale: a new measure of multiple facets of self-control

Description

Self-control has been shown to predict both health risk and health protective outcomes. Although top-down or “good” self-control is typically examined as a unidimensional construct, research on “poor” self-control suggests

Self-control has been shown to predict both health risk and health protective outcomes. Although top-down or “good” self-control is typically examined as a unidimensional construct, research on “poor” self-control suggests that multiple dimensions may be necessary to capture aspects of self-control. The current study sought to create a new brief survey measure of top-down self-control that differentiates between self-control capacity, internal motivation, and external motivation. Items were adapted from the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS; Tangney, Baumeister, & Boone, 2004) and were administered through two online surveys to 347 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory psychology courses at Arizona State University. The Self-Control Motivation and Capacity Survey (SCMCS) showed strong evidence of validity and reliability. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 3-factor structure of the scale consistent with the underlying theoretical model. The final 15-item measure demonstrated excellent model fit, chi-square = 89.722 p=.077, CFI = .989, RMSEA = .032, SRMR = .045. Despite several limitations including the cross-sectional nature of most analyses, self-control capacity, internal motivation, and external motivation uniquely related to various self-reported behavioral outcomes, and accounted for additional variance beyond that accounted for by the BSCS. Future studies are needed to establish the stability of multiple dimensions of self-control, and to develop state-like and domain-specific measures of self-control. While more research in this area is needed, the current study demonstrates the importance of studying multiple aspects of top-down self-control, and may ultimately facilitate the tailoring of interventions to the needs of individuals based on unique profiles of self-control capacity and motivation.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016