Matching Items (26)

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The Effect of Applying 2D Enhancement Algorithms on 3D Video Content

Description

Enhancement algorithms are typically applied to video content to increase their appeal to viewers. Such algorithms are readily available in the literature and are already widely applied in, for example, commercially available TVs. On the contrary, not much research has

Enhancement algorithms are typically applied to video content to increase their appeal to viewers. Such algorithms are readily available in the literature and are already widely applied in, for example, commercially available TVs. On the contrary, not much research has been done on enhancing stereoscopic 3D video content. In this paper, we present research focused on the effect of applying enhancement algorithms used for 2D content on 3D side-by-side content. We evaluate both offline enhancement of video content based on proprietary enhancement algorithms and real-time enhancement in the TVs. This is done using stereoscopic TVs with active shutter glasses, viewed both in their 2D and 3D viewing mode. The results of this research show that 2D enhancement algorithms are a viable first approach to enhance 3D content. In addition to video quality degradation due to the loss of spatial resolution as a consequence of the 3D video format, brightness reduction inherent to polarized or shutter glasses similarly degrades video quality. We illustrate the benefit of providing brightness enhancement for stereoscopic displays.

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2014-06-19

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A single-phase current source solar inverter with constant instantaneous power, improved reliability, and reduced-size DC-link filter

Description

This dissertation presents a novel current source converter topology that is primarily intended for single-phase photovoltaic (PV) applications. In comparison with the existing PV inverter technology, the salient features of the proposed topology are: a) the low frequency (double of

This dissertation presents a novel current source converter topology that is primarily intended for single-phase photovoltaic (PV) applications. In comparison with the existing PV inverter technology, the salient features of the proposed topology are: a) the low frequency (double of line frequency) ripple that is common to single-phase inverters is greatly reduced; b) the absence of low frequency ripple enables significantly reduced size pass components to achieve necessary DC-link stiffness and c) improved maximum power point tracking (MPPT) performance is readily achieved due to the tightened current ripple even with reduced-size passive components. The proposed topology does not utilize any electrolytic capacitors. Instead an inductor is used as the DC-link filter and reliable AC film capacitors are utilized for the filter and auxiliary capacitor. The proposed topology has a life expectancy on par with PV panels. The proposed modulation technique can be used for any current source inverter where an unbalanced three-phase operation is desires such as active filters and power controllers. The proposed topology is ready for the next phase of microgrid and power system controllers in that it accepts reactive power commands. This work presents the proposed topology and its working principle supported by with numerical verifications and hardware results. Conclusions and future work are also presented.

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Date Created
2013

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Perceptual-based locally adaptive noise and blur detection

Description

The quality of real-world visual content is typically impaired by many factors including image noise and blur. Detecting and analyzing these impairments are important steps for multiple computer vision tasks. This work focuses on perceptual-based locally adaptive noise and blur

The quality of real-world visual content is typically impaired by many factors including image noise and blur. Detecting and analyzing these impairments are important steps for multiple computer vision tasks. This work focuses on perceptual-based locally adaptive noise and blur detection and their application to image restoration.

In the context of noise detection, this work proposes perceptual-based full-reference and no-reference objective image quality metrics by integrating perceptually weighted local noise into a probability summation model. Results are reported on both the LIVE and TID2008 databases. The proposed metrics achieve consistently a good performance across noise types and across databases as compared to many of the best very recent quality metrics. The proposed metrics are able to predict with high accuracy the relative amount of perceived noise in images of different content.

In the context of blur detection, existing approaches are either computationally costly or cannot perform reliably when dealing with the spatially-varying nature of the defocus blur. In addition, many existing approaches do not take human perception into account. This work proposes a blur detection algorithm that is capable of detecting and quantifying the level of spatially-varying blur by integrating directional edge spread calculation, probability of blur detection and local probability summation. The proposed method generates a blur map indicating the relative amount of perceived local blurriness. In order to detect the flat
ear flat regions that do not contribute to perceivable blur, a perceptual model based on the Just Noticeable Difference (JND) is further integrated in the proposed blur detection algorithm to generate perceptually significant blur maps. We compare our proposed method with six other state-of-the-art blur detection methods. Experimental results show that the proposed method performs the best both visually and quantitatively.

This work further investigates the application of the proposed blur detection methods to image deblurring. Two selective perceptual-based image deblurring frameworks are proposed, to improve the image deblurring results and to reduce the restoration artifacts. In addition, an edge-enhanced super resolution algorithm is proposed, and is shown to achieve better reconstructed results for the edge regions.

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Date Created
2016

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Multidimensional DFT IP generators for FPGA platforms

Description

Multidimensional (MD) discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is a key kernel algorithm in many signal processing applications, such as radar imaging and medical imaging. Traditionally, a two-dimensional (2-D) DFT is computed using Row-Column (RC) decomposition, where one-dimensional (1-D) DFTs are computed

Multidimensional (MD) discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is a key kernel algorithm in many signal processing applications, such as radar imaging and medical imaging. Traditionally, a two-dimensional (2-D) DFT is computed using Row-Column (RC) decomposition, where one-dimensional (1-D) DFTs are computed along the rows followed by 1-D DFTs along the columns. However, architectures based on RC decomposition are not efficient for large input size data which have to be stored in external memories based Synchronous Dynamic RAM (SDRAM). In this dissertation, first an efficient architecture to implement 2-D DFT for large-sized input data is proposed. This architecture achieves very high throughput by exploiting the inherent parallelism due to a novel 2-D decomposition and by utilizing the row-wise burst access pattern of the SDRAM external memory. In addition, an automatic IP generator is provided for mapping this architecture onto a reconfigurable platform of Xilinx Virtex-5 devices. For a 2048x2048 input size, the proposed architecture is 1.96 times faster than RC decomposition based implementation under the same memory constraints, and also outperforms other existing implementations. While the proposed 2-D DFT IP can achieve high performance, its output is bit-reversed. For systems where the output is required to be in natural order, use of this DFT IP would result in timing overhead. To solve this problem, a new bandwidth-efficient MD DFT IP that is transpose-free and produces outputs in natural order is proposed. It is based on a novel decomposition algorithm that takes into account the output order, FPGA resources, and the characteristics of off-chip memory access. An IP generator is designed and integrated into an in-house FPGA development platform, AlgoFLEX, for easy verification and fast integration. The corresponding 2-D and 3-D DFT architectures are ported onto the BEE3 board and their performance measured and analyzed. The results shows that the architecture can maintain the maximum memory bandwidth throughout the whole procedure while avoiding matrix transpose operations used in most other MD DFT implementations. The proposed architecture has also been ported onto the Xilinx ML605 board. When clocked at 100 MHz, 2048x2048 images with complex single-precision can be processed in less than 27 ms. Finally, transpose-free imaging flows for range-Doppler algorithm (RDA) and chirp-scaling algorithm (CSA) in SAR imaging are proposed. The corresponding implementations take advantage of the memory access patterns designed for the MD DFT IP and have superior timing performance. The RDA and CSA flows are mapped onto a unified architecture which is implemented on an FPGA platform. When clocked at 100MHz, the RDA and CSA computations with data size 4096x4096 can be completed in 323ms and 162ms, respectively. This implementation outperforms existing SAR image accelerators based on FPGA and GPU.

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Date Created
2012

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Mobile health sensor for personal exposure assessment

Description

Air pollution is one of the biggest challenges people face today. It is closely related to people's health condition. The agencies set up standards to regulate the air pollution. However, many of the pollutants under the regulation level may still

Air pollution is one of the biggest challenges people face today. It is closely related to people's health condition. The agencies set up standards to regulate the air pollution. However, many of the pollutants under the regulation level may still result in adverse health effect. On the other hand, it is not clear the exact mechanism of air pollutants and its health effect. So it is difficult for the health centers to advise people how to prevent the air pollutant related diseases. It is of vital importance for both the agencies and the health centers to have a better understanding of the air pollution. Based on these needs, it is crucial to establish mobile health sensors for personal exposure assessment. Here, two sensing principles are illustrated: the tuning fork platform and the colorimetric platform. Mobile devices based on these principles have been built. The detections of ozone, NOX, carbon monoxide and formaldehyde have been shown. An integrated device of nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide is introduced. Fan is used for sample delivery instead pump and valves to reduce the size, cost and power consumption. Finally, the future work is discussed.

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Date Created
2012

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Power system mode estimation using associate hermite expansion

Description

Many methods have been proposed to estimate power system small signal stability, for either analysis or control, through identification of modal frequencies and their damping levels. Generally, estimation methods have been employed to assess small signal stability from collected field

Many methods have been proposed to estimate power system small signal stability, for either analysis or control, through identification of modal frequencies and their damping levels. Generally, estimation methods have been employed to assess small signal stability from collected field measurements. However, the challenge to using these methods in assessing field measurements is their ability to accurately estimate stability in the presence of noise. In this thesis a new method is developed which estimates the modal content of simulated and actual field measurements using orthogonal polynomials and the results are compared to other commonly used estimators. This new method estimates oscillatory performance by fitting an associate Hermite polynomial to time domain data and extrapolating its spectrum to identify small signal power system frequencies. Once the frequencies are identified, damping assessment is performed using a modified sliding window technique with the use of linear prediction (LP). Once the entire assessment is complete the measurements can be judged to be stable or unstable. Collectively, this new technique is known as the associate Hermite expansion (AHE) algorithm. Validation of the AHE method versus results from four other spectral estimators demonstrates the method's accuracy and modal estimation ability with and without the presence of noise. A Prony analysis, a Yule-Walker autoregressive algorithm, a second sliding window estimator and the Hilbert-Huang Transform method are used in comparative assessments in support of this thesis. Results from simulated and actual field measurements are used in the comparisons, as well as artificially generated simple signals. A search for actual field testing results performed by a utility was undertaken and a request was made to obtain the measurements of a brake insertion test. Comparison results show that the AHE method is accurate as compared to the other commonly used spectral estimators and its predictive capability exceeded the other estimators in the presence of Gaussian noise. As a result, the AHE method could be employed in areas including operations and planning analysis, post-mortem analysis, power system damping scheme design and other analysis areas.

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Date Created
2010

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Noise resilient image segmentation and classification methods with applications in biomedical and semiconductor images

Description

Thousands of high-resolution images are generated each day. Segmenting, classifying, and analyzing the contents of these images are the key steps in image understanding. This thesis focuses on image segmentation and classification and its applications in synthetic, texture, natural, biomedical,

Thousands of high-resolution images are generated each day. Segmenting, classifying, and analyzing the contents of these images are the key steps in image understanding. This thesis focuses on image segmentation and classification and its applications in synthetic, texture, natural, biomedical, and industrial images. A robust level-set-based multi-region and texture image segmentation approach is proposed in this thesis to tackle most of the challenges in the existing multi-region segmentation methods, including computational complexity and sensitivity to initialization. Medical image analysis helps in understanding biological processes and disease pathologies. In this thesis, two cell evolution analysis schemes are proposed for cell cluster extraction in order to analyze cell migration, cell proliferation, and cell dispersion in different cancer cell images. The proposed schemes accurately segment both the cell cluster area and the individual cells inside and outside the cell cluster area. The method is currently used by different cell biology labs to study the behavior of cancer cells, which helps in drug discovery. Defects can cause failure to motherboards, processors, and semiconductor units. An automatic defect detection and classification methodology is very desirable in many industrial applications. This helps in producing consistent results, facilitating the processing, speeding up the processing time, and reducing the cost. In this thesis, three defect detection and classification schemes are proposed to automatically detect and classify different defects related to semiconductor unit images. The first proposed defect detection scheme is used to detect and classify the solder balls in the processor sockets as either defective (Non-Wet) or non-defective. The method produces a 96% classification rate and saves 89% of the time used by the operator. The second proposed defect detection scheme is used for detecting and measuring voids inside solder balls of different boards and products. The third proposed defect detection scheme is used to detect different defects in the die area of semiconductor unit images such as cracks, scratches, foreign materials, fingerprints, and stains. The three proposed defect detection schemes give high accuracy and are inexpensive to implement compared to the existing high cost state-of-the-art machines.

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Date Created
2010

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Synthetic aperture radar image formation via sparse decomposition

Description

Spotlight mode synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging involves a tomo- graphic reconstruction from projections, necessitating acquisition of large amounts of data in order to form a moderately sized image. Since typical SAR sensors are hosted on mobile platforms, it is

Spotlight mode synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging involves a tomo- graphic reconstruction from projections, necessitating acquisition of large amounts of data in order to form a moderately sized image. Since typical SAR sensors are hosted on mobile platforms, it is common to have limitations on SAR data acquisi- tion, storage and communication that can lead to data corruption and a resulting degradation of image quality. It is convenient to consider corrupted samples as missing, creating a sparsely sampled aperture. A sparse aperture would also result from compressive sensing, which is a very attractive concept for data intensive sen- sors such as SAR. Recent developments in sparse decomposition algorithms can be applied to the problem of SAR image formation from a sparsely sampled aperture. Two modified sparse decomposition algorithms are developed, based on well known existing algorithms, modified to be practical in application on modest computa- tional resources. The two algorithms are demonstrated on real-world SAR images. Algorithm performance with respect to super-resolution, noise, coherent speckle and target/clutter decomposition is explored. These algorithms yield more accu- rate image reconstruction from sparsely sampled apertures than classical spectral estimators. At the current state of development, sparse image reconstruction using these two algorithms require about two orders of magnitude greater processing time than classical SAR image formation.

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Date Created
2011

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Fisheye camera calibration and applications

Description

Fisheye cameras are special cameras that have a much larger field of view compared to

conventional cameras. The large field of view comes at a price of non-linear distortions

introduced near the boundaries of the images captured by such cameras. Despite this

drawback,

Fisheye cameras are special cameras that have a much larger field of view compared to

conventional cameras. The large field of view comes at a price of non-linear distortions

introduced near the boundaries of the images captured by such cameras. Despite this

drawback, they are being used increasingly in many applications of computer vision,

robotics, reconnaissance, astrophotography, surveillance and automotive applications.

The images captured from such cameras can be corrected for their distortion if the

cameras are calibrated and the distortion function is determined. Calibration also allows

fisheye cameras to be used in tasks involving metric scene measurement, metric

scene reconstruction and other simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithms.

This thesis presents a calibration toolbox (FisheyeCDC Toolbox) that implements a collection of some of the most widely used techniques for calibration of fisheye cameras under one package. This enables an inexperienced user to calibrate his/her own camera without the need for a theoretical understanding about computer vision and camera calibration. This thesis also explores some of the applications of calibration such as distortion correction and 3D reconstruction.

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Date Created
2014

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Grassmannian learning for facial expression recognition from video

Description

In this thesis we consider the problem of facial expression recognition (FER) from video sequences. Our method is based on subspace representations and Grassmann manifold based learning. We use Local Binary Pattern (LBP) at the frame level for representing the

In this thesis we consider the problem of facial expression recognition (FER) from video sequences. Our method is based on subspace representations and Grassmann manifold based learning. We use Local Binary Pattern (LBP) at the frame level for representing the facial features. Next we develop a model to represent the video sequence in a lower dimensional expression subspace and also as a linear dynamical system using Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) model. As these subspaces lie on Grassmann space, we use Grassmann manifold based learning techniques such as kernel Fisher Discriminant Analysis with Grassmann kernels for classification. We consider six expressions namely, Angry (AN), Disgust (Di), Fear (Fe), Happy (Ha), Sadness (Sa) and Surprise (Su) for classification. We perform experiments on extended Cohn-Kanade (CK+) facial expression database to evaluate the expression recognition performance. Our method demonstrates good expression recognition performance outperforming other state of the art FER algorithms. We achieve an average recognition accuracy of 97.41% using a method based on expression subspace, kernel-FDA and Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifier. By using a simpler classifier, 1-Nearest Neighbor (1-NN) along with kernel-FDA, we achieve a recognition accuracy of 97.09%. We find that to process a group of 19 frames in a video sequence, LBP feature extraction requires majority of computation time (97 %) which is about 1.662 seconds on the Intel Core i3, dual core platform. However when only 3 frames (onset, middle and peak) of a video sequence are used, the computational complexity is reduced by about 83.75 % to 260 milliseconds at the expense of drop in the recognition accuracy to 92.88 %.

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Date Created
2014