Matching Items (67)

Forecasting Changes in Urban Heat Island in the US Southwest

Description

Recent developments in computational software and public accessibility of gridded climatological data have enabled researchers to study Urban Heat Island (UHI) effects more systematically and at a higher spatial resolution.

Recent developments in computational software and public accessibility of gridded climatological data have enabled researchers to study Urban Heat Island (UHI) effects more systematically and at a higher spatial resolution. Previous studies have analyzed UHI and identified significant contributors at the regional level for cities, within the topology of urban canyons, and for different construction materials.

In UHIs, air is heated by the convective energy transfer from land surface materials and anthropogenic activities. Convection is dependent upon the temperature of the surface, temperature of the air, wind speed, and relative humidity. At the same time, air temperature is also influenced by greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere. Climatologists project a 1-5°C increase in near-surface air temperature over the next several decades, and 1-4°C specifically for Los Angeles and Maricopa during summertime due to GHG effects. With higher ambient air temperatures, we seek to understand how convection will change in cities and to what ends.

In this paper we develop a spatially explicit methodology for quantifying UHI by estimating the daily convection thermal energy transfer from land to air using publicly-available gridded climatological data, and we estimate how much additional energy will be retained due to lack of convective cooling in scenarios of higher ambient air temperature.

Contributors

141208-Thumbnail Image.png

Environmental Impacts of Reflective Materials: Is High Albedo a ‘Silver Bullet’ for Mitigating Urban Heat Island?

Description

Studies on urban heat island (UHI) have been more than a century after the phenomenon was first discovered in the early 1800s. UHI emerges as the source of many urban

Studies on urban heat island (UHI) have been more than a century after the phenomenon was first discovered in the early 1800s. UHI emerges as the source of many urban environmental problems and exacerbates the living environment in cities. Under the challenges of increasing urbanization and future climate changes, there is a pressing need for sustainable adaptation/mitigation strategies for UHI effects, one popular option being the use of reflective materials. While it is introduced as one effective method to reduce temperature and energy consumption in cities, its impacts on multi-dimensional environmental sustainability and large-scale non-local effect are inadequately explored. This paper provides a synthetic overview of potential environmental impacts of reflective materials at a variety of scales, ranging from energy load on a single building to regional hydroclimate. The review shows that mitigation potential of reflective materials depends on a portfolio of factors, including building characteristics, urban environment, meteorological and geographical conditions, to name a few. Precaution needs to be exercised by city planners and policy makers for large-scale deployment of reflective materials before their environmental impacts, especially on regional hydroclimates, are better understood. In general, it is recommended that optimal strategy for UHI needs to be determined on a city-by-city basis, rather than adopting a “one-solution-fits-all” strategy.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-06-11

135953-Thumbnail Image.png

Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Copper Slag Concrete

Description

In this investigation, copper slag was used as a coarse aggregate in four different mixes of concrete, consisting of 0%, 25%, 50%, and 100% copper slag by volume. Locally available

In this investigation, copper slag was used as a coarse aggregate in four different mixes of concrete, consisting of 0%, 25%, 50%, and 100% copper slag by volume. Locally available Salt river aggregate was used as a control, and mixes were tested for density, strength, thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, and thermal diffusivity. Density was shown to increase with increasing copper slag content, increasing an average of 2298 kg/m^3, 2522 kg/m^3, and 2652 kg/m^3 in the 25%, 50%, and 100% mixes. This represents a 15% increase in density from 0% to 100%. Compressive strength testing indicated that the presence of copper slag in concrete provides no definitive strength benefit over Salt River aggregate. This result was expected, as concrete's strength is primarily derived from the cement matrix and not the aggregate. Thermal conductivity showed a decreasing trend with increasing copper slag content. Th control mix had an average conductivity of 0.660 W/m*K, and the 25%, 50%, and 100% mixes had conductivities of 0.649 W/m*K, 0.647 W/m*K, and 0.519 W/m*K, respectively. This represents 21% drop in thermal conductivity over the control. This result was also expected, as materials formed at higher temperatures, like copper slag, tend to have lower thermal conductivities. Specific heat capacity testing yielded results that were statistically indeterminate, though unlike strength testing this arose from inaccurate assumptions made during testing. This also prevented accurate thermal diffusivity results, as diffusivity is a function of density, thermal conductivity, and specific heat capacity. However, given the trends of the first two parameters, it is plausible to say that diffusivity in copper slag concrete would be lower than that of the control ix. All of these results were plugged into ASU's Pavement Temperature Model to see what effect they had in mitigating the UHI effect.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012-05

Effect of Polymer Modification and Aging Level on Pull-Off Tensile Strength of Arizona Asphalt Binders By Esai Ponce Undergraduate Honors Thesis Submitted to

Description

Asphalt pavements deteriorate over time and are subjected to various distresses like rutting, fatigue cracking, stripping, raveling, etc. In this study, an experiment to indirectly assess aggregate stripping was completed

Asphalt pavements deteriorate over time and are subjected to various distresses like rutting, fatigue cracking, stripping, raveling, etc. In this study, an experiment to indirectly assess aggregate stripping was completed in order to evaluate the effect of type of binder, and aging on the binder-aggregate bond under dry conditioning. The asphalts used in the study are commonly used in the state of Arizona, which included both non-polymer modified and polymer modified asphalts. The phenomenon of stripping was simulated using the Bitumen Bond Strength Test (BBS) and evaluated for Arizona binders. The BBS test is a simple test that measures the "pull-off" tensile strength of the bond between asphalt and the aggregate. Polymer modified binders were found to have lower pull-off strength in comparison to the non-modified or neat binder which were found to possess greater pull-off strength, but lower elasticity, causing the failure to become brittle and spontaneous. However, when aged binder was used, the bond strength expectedly reduced for non-polymer modified asphalts but surprisingly increased for polymer modified asphalts. Both un-aged neat and polymer modified binders were observed to have a cohesive failure whereas only the aged polymer modified binders failed in cohesion. The aged non-polymer modified binders were seen to have an adhesive failure.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

136333-Thumbnail Image.png

Impact of Material Properties and Urban Geometry on Urban Heat Island Effect

Description

Utilizing an urban canopy model (UCM) developed by Zhihua Wang, Ph.D. for a research study conducted for the National Asphalt Pavement Association (NAPA), several scenarios were run in order to

Utilizing an urban canopy model (UCM) developed by Zhihua Wang, Ph.D. for a research study conducted for the National Asphalt Pavement Association (NAPA), several scenarios were run in order to determine the impact on the mitigation of the urban heat island (UHI) effect. These scenarios included various roof albedo, wall albedo, ground albedo, a combination of all three albedos, roof emissivity, wall emissivity, ground emissivity, a combination of all three emissivities, and normalized building height as independent variables. Dependent variables included canyon air temperature, effective ground temperature, effective roof temperature, effective wall temperature, and sensible heat flux. It was found that emissivity does play a part in reducing the different dependent variables; however, typically emissivity values are already within a preferred range that not much can be done with them. Normalized building height has a minor impact but the impact that it does have upon the different variables is lessened with lower values of the normalized building height. Increasing the wall albedo decreased the canyon air temperature and the effective wall temperature the most compared to the other variables when considering expenses. An increase in roof albedo reduced effective roof temperature and sensible heat flux the most when taking into consideration the cost of changing the albedo of the surface. Larger values of ground albedo helped to reduce the effective ground temperature more than the other variables considered when a budget is necessary.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

129256-Thumbnail Image.png

Environmental impacts of reflective materials: Is high albedo a 'silver bullet' for mitigating urban heat island?

Description

Studies on urban heat island (UHI) have been more than a century after the phenomenon was first discovered in the early 1800s. UHI emerges as the source of many urban

Studies on urban heat island (UHI) have been more than a century after the phenomenon was first discovered in the early 1800s. UHI emerges as the source of many urban environmental problems and exacerbates the living environment in cities. Under the challenges of increasing urbanization and future climate changes, there is a pressing need for sustainable adaptation/mitigation strategies for UHI effects, one popular option being the use of reflective materials. While it is introduced as an effective method to reduce temperature and energy consumption in cities, its impacts on environmental sustainability and large-scale non-local effect are inadequately explored. This paper provides a synthetic overview of potential environmental impacts of reflective materials at a variety of scales, ranging from energy load on a single building to regional hydroclimate. The review shows that mitigation potential of reflective materials depends on a set of factors, including building characteristics, urban environment, meteorological and geographical conditions, to name a few. Precaution needs to be exercised by city planners and policy makers for large-scale deployment of reflective materials before their environmental impacts, especially on regional hydroclimates, are better understood. In general, it is recommended that optimal strategy for UHI needs to be determined on a city-by-city basis, rather than adopting a “one-solution-fits-all” strategy.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-07-01

158629-Thumbnail Image.png

Surface Activation of Rubber to Enhance the Durability and Chemo-Mechanics of Asphalt

Description

It is common to use crumb rubber as modifier in bitumen. Good performance of crumb rubber in bitumen has been reported in terms of improving characteristics like higher skid resistance,

It is common to use crumb rubber as modifier in bitumen. Good performance of crumb rubber in bitumen has been reported in terms of improving characteristics like higher skid resistance, reducing noise, higher rutting resistance and longevity. However, due to the vulcanization, the polymeric crosslinked structure of crumb rubber suffers from inadequate dispersion and incompatibility in bitumen where storage stability becomes an issue. To solve this problem, partial surface devulcanization of the rubber via chemical and microbial surface activation was examined in this study showing both method can be effective to enhance rubber-bitumen interactions and subsequently storage stability of the rubberized bitumen. To ensure proper surface activation, it is important to thoroughly understand chemo-mechanics of bitumen containing rubber particles as well as underlying interaction mechanism at the molecular level. Therefore, this study integrates a multi-scale approach using density functional theory based computational modeling and laboratory experiments to provide an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms of interaction between surface activated rubber and bitumen. To do so, efficacy of various bio-modifiers was examined and compared it terms of both surface activation capability and durability of resulting rubberized bitumen. It was found that biomodifiers with various compositions can have either synergistic or antagonistic effect onchemo-mechanics of rubberized bitumen. The study was further extended to study the interplay of Polyphosphoric Acid (PPA) and these biomodified rubberized bitumens showing not all modifiers have high synergy with PPA in bitumens. Finally, durability of rubberized bitumen was studied in terms of its resistance to Ultraviolet (UV) aging. It was shown that there is a strong relation between composition of biomodified rubberized bitumen and its resistance to UV-aging.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

151676-Thumbnail Image.png

Development of the C* fracture test for asphalt concrete mixtures

Description

Laboratory assessment of crack resistance and propagation in asphalt concrete is a difficult task that challenges researchers and engineers. Several fracture mechanics based laboratory tests currently exist; however, these tests

Laboratory assessment of crack resistance and propagation in asphalt concrete is a difficult task that challenges researchers and engineers. Several fracture mechanics based laboratory tests currently exist; however, these tests and subsequent analysis methods rely on elastic behavior assumptions and do not consider the time-dependent nature of asphalt concrete. The C* Line Integral test has shown promise to capture crack resistance and propagation within asphalt concrete. In addition, the fracture mechanics based C* parameter considers the time-dependent creep behavior of the materials. However, previous research was limited and lacked standardized test procedure and detailed data analysis methods were not fully presented. This dissertation describes the development and refinement of the C* Fracture Test (CFT) based on concepts of the C* line integral test. The CFT is a promising test to assess crack propagation and fracture resistance especially in modified mixtures. A detailed CFT test protocol was developed based on a laboratory study of different specimen sizes and test conditions. CFT numerical simulations agreed with laboratory results and indicated that the maximum horizontal tensile stress (Mode I) occurs at the crack tip but diminishes at longer crack lengths when shear stress (Mode II) becomes present. Using CFT test results and the principles of time-temperature superposition, a crack growth rate master curve was successfully developed to describe crack growth over a range of test temperatures. This master curve can be applied to pavement design and analysis to describe crack propagation as a function of traffic conditions and pavement temperatures. Several plant mixtures were subjected to the CFT and results showed differences in resistance to crack propagation, especially when comparing an asphalt rubber mixture to a conventional one. Results indicated that crack propagation is ideally captured within a given range of dynamic modulus values. Crack growth rates and C* prediction models were successfully developed for all unmodified mixtures in the CFT database. These models can be used to predict creep crack propagation and the C* parameter when laboratory testing is not feasible. Finally, a conceptual approach to incorporate crack growth rate and the C* parameter into pavement design and analysis was presented.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

154129-Thumbnail Image.png

Pavement surfaces impact on local temperature and building cooling energy consumption

Description

Pavement surface temperature is calculated using a fundamental energy balance model developed previously. It can be studied using a one-dimensional mathematical model. The input to the model is changed, to

Pavement surface temperature is calculated using a fundamental energy balance model developed previously. It can be studied using a one-dimensional mathematical model. The input to the model is changed, to study the effect of different properties of pavement on its diurnal surface temperatures. It is observed that the pavement surface temperature has a microclimatic effect on the air temperature above it. A major increase in local air temperature is caused by heating of solid surfaces in that locality. A case study was done and correlations have been established to calculate the air temperature above a paved surface. Validation with in-situ pavement surface and air temperatures were made. Experimental measurement for the city of Phoenix shows the difference between the ambient air temperature of the city and the microclimatic air temperature above the pavement is approximately 10 degrees Fahrenheit. One mitigation strategy that has been explored is increasing the albedo of the paved surface. Although it will reduce the pavement surface temperature, leading to a reduction in air temperature close to the surface, the increased pavement albedo will also result in greater reflected solar radiation directed towards the building, thus increasing the building solar load. The first effect will imply a reduction in the building energy consumption, while the second effect will imply an increase in the building energy consumption. Simulation is done using the EnergyPlus tool, to find the microclimatic effect of pavement on the building energy performance. The results indicate the cooling energy savings of an office building for different types of pavements can be variable as much as 30%.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

156462-Thumbnail Image.png

Performance Evaluation of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement in Hot Mix Asphalt Modified with Organosilane

Description

Use of Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) in newly designed asphalt mixtures is becoming a common practice. Depending on the percentage of RAP, the stiffness of the hot mix asphalt (HMA)

Use of Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) in newly designed asphalt mixtures is becoming a common practice. Depending on the percentage of RAP, the stiffness of the hot mix asphalt (HMA) increases by incorporating RAP in mixes. In a climatic area such as the City of Phoenix, RAP properties are expected to be more oxidized and aged compared to other regions across the US. Therefore, there are concerns about the cracking behavior and long-term performance of asphalt mixes with high percentage of RAP. The use of Organosilane (OS) in this study was hypothesized to reduce the additional cracking potential and improve resistance to moisture damage of the asphalt mixtures when using RAP. OS has also the potential to improve the bond between the aggregate and asphalt binder. The use of OS also reduces the mixing and compaction temperatures required for asphalt mixtures, making it similar to a warm mix asphalt (WMA),

Six asphalt mixes were prepared with three RAP contents, 0%, 15% and 25%, with and without Organosilane. The mixing temperature was reduced by 10°C and the compaction temperature was reduced by 30°C. Mix designs were performed, and the volumetric properties were compared. The mixture laboratory performance was evaluated for all mixtures by conducting Dynamic Modulus, Flow Number and Tensile Strength Ratio tests.

The study findings showed that mixtures achieved better compaction at a reduced temperature of 30°C. Mixtures modified with Organosilane generally exhibited softer behavior at the extreme ends of lower and higher temperatures. The lower moduli are to reduce the potential for cracking. For the Flow Number test, the RAP mixtures with OS passed the minimum required at all traffic levels. Tensile Strength Ratio results increased with the increase in RAP percentage, and further increase was observed when OS was used. The OS reduced the sticking nature of the binder to the molds and equipment, which reduced the efforts in cleaning them.

Finally, the future use of RAP by the City of Phoenix would positively contributes to their sustainability aspiration and initiatives. The use of Organosilane may even facilitates higher percentage of RAP usage; it definitely improves the moisture resistance of asphalt mixtures, especially when lower mixing and compaction temperatures are desired or used.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018