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Differentiation of Staphylococcus epidermidis strains using DC gradient insulator dielectrophoresis

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Bacteria play a vital role in the world ecosystem, more importantly human health and disease. The capability to differentiate and identify these microorganisms serves as an important research objective. In

Bacteria play a vital role in the world ecosystem, more importantly human health and disease. The capability to differentiate and identify these microorganisms serves as an important research objective. In past years, separations-based approaches have served as a way to observe and identify bacteria based on their characteristics. Gradient insulator dielectrophoresis (g-iDEP) provides benefits in identifying serotypes of a single species with precise separation. Separation of Staphylococcus epidermidis in a single g-iDEP microchannel is conducted exploiting their electrophoretic and electrokinetic properties. The cells were captured and concentrated at gates with interacting forces within the microchannel to clearly distinguish between the two strains. These results provide support for g-iDEP serving as a separating method and, furthermore, future clinical applications.

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  • 2015-05

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Biophysical separation of Staphylococcus epidermidis strains based on antibiotic resistance

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Electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic approaches to separations can provide unique capabilities. In the past, capillary and microchip-based approaches to electrophoresis have demonstrated extremely high-resolution separations. More recently, dielectrophoretic systems have shown

Electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic approaches to separations can provide unique capabilities. In the past, capillary and microchip-based approaches to electrophoresis have demonstrated extremely high-resolution separations. More recently, dielectrophoretic systems have shown excellent results for the separation of bioparticles. Here we demonstrate resolution of a difficult pair of targets: gentamicin resistant and susceptible strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis. This separation has significant potential implications for healthcare. This establishes a foundation for biophysical separations as a direct diagnostic tool, potentially improving nearly every figure of merit for diagnostics and antibiotic stewardship. The separations are performed on a modified gradient insulator-based dielectrophoresis (g-iDEP) system and demonstrate that the presence of antibiotic resistance enzymes (or secondary effects) produces a sufficient degree of electrophysical difference to allow separation. The differentiating factor is the ratio of electrophoretic to dielectrophoretic mobilities. This factor is 4.6 ± 0.6 × 109 V m−2 for the resistant strain, versus 9.2 ± 0.4 × 109 V m−2 for the susceptible strain. Using g-iDEP separation, this difference produces clear and easily discerned differentiation of the two strains.

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Date Created
  • 2015-06-09

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Development of the resolution theory for gradient insulator-based dielectrophoresis

Description

New and important separations capabilities are being enabled by utilizing other electric field-induced forces besides electrophoresis, among these is dielectrophoresis. Recent works have used experimentally simple insulator-based systems that induce

New and important separations capabilities are being enabled by utilizing other electric field-induced forces besides electrophoresis, among these is dielectrophoresis. Recent works have used experimentally simple insulator-based systems that induce field gradients creating dielectrophoretic force in useful formats. Among these, juxtaposing forces can generate gradient-based steady-state separations schemes globally similar to isoelectric focusing. The system of interest is termed gradient insulator-based dielectrophoresis and can create extremely high resolution steady-state separations for particles four nanometers to ten micrometers in diameter, including nearly all important bioparticles (large proteins, protein aggregates, polynucleotides viruses, organelles, cells, bacteria, etc.). A theoretical underpinning is developed here to understand the relationship between experimental parameters and resolution and to identify the best expected resolution possible. According to the results, differences in particles (and bioparticles) as small as one part in 10[superscript 4] for diameter (subnanometer resolution for a one micrometer particle), one part in 10[superscript 8] for dielectrophoretic parameters (dielectrophoretic mobility, Clausius–Mossotti factor), and one part in 10[superscript 5] for electrophoretic mobility can be resolved. These figures of merit are generally better than any competing technique, in some cases by orders of magnitude. This performance is enabled by very strong focusing forces associated with localized gradients.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05-01