Matching Items (53)

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Design of Rocket Engine Nozzle Ejectors

Description

This work describes the numerical process developed for use of rocket engine nozzle ejectors. Ejector nozzles, while applied to jet engines extensively, have not been applied to rockets, and have

This work describes the numerical process developed for use of rocket engine nozzle ejectors. Ejector nozzles, while applied to jet engines extensively, have not been applied to rockets, and have great potential to improve the performance of endoatmospheric rocket propulsion systems. Utilizing the low pressure, high velocity flow in the plume, this secondary structure entrains a secondary mass flow to increase the mass flow of the propulsion system. Rocket engine nozzle ejectors must be designed with the high supersonic conditions associated with rocket engines. These designs rely on the numerical process described in this paper.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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PID Control Techniques for the Autonomous Quadrotor and a Frequency Approach to Analyzing and Identifying Dynamic Models

Description

This study aims to showcase the results of a quadrotor model and the mathematical techniques used to arrive at the proposed design. Multicopters have made an explosive appearance in recent

This study aims to showcase the results of a quadrotor model and the mathematical techniques used to arrive at the proposed design. Multicopters have made an explosive appearance in recent years by the controls engineering community because of their unique flight performance capabilities and potential for autonomy. The ultimate goal of this research is to design a robust control system that guides and tracks the quadrotor's trajectory, while responding to outside disturbances and obstacles that will realistically be encountered during flight. The first step is to accurately identify the physical system and attempt to replicate its behavior with a simulation that mimics the system's dynamics. This becomes quite a complex problem in itself because many realistic systems do not abide by simple, linear mathematical models, but rather nonlinear equations that are difficult to predict and are often numerically unstable. This paper explores the equations and assumptions used to create a model that attempts to match roll and pitch data collected from multiple test flights. This is done primarily in the frequency domain to match natural frequency locations, which can then be manipulated judiciously by altering certain parameters.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Analysis of Regulations on the Landing and Take-off of Commercial Aircraft

Description

The thesis is an investigation on current regulations of commercial aircraft landing and take-off procedures and an analysis of potential weaknesses within the regulatory system for commercial aerospace. To determine

The thesis is an investigation on current regulations of commercial aircraft landing and take-off procedures and an analysis of potential weaknesses within the regulatory system for commercial aerospace. To determine such flaws, an area of worse-case scenarios with regard to the aforementioned flight operations was researched. The events selected to best-depict these scenarios where incidents of aircraft overrunning the runway, referred to as runway excursions. A case-study conducted of 44 federal investigations of runway excursions produced data indicating four influential factors within these incidents: weather, pilot error, instrument malfunction, and runway condition. Upon examination, all but pilot error appeared to have federal enforcement to diminish the occurrence of future incidents. This is a direct result of the broad possibilities that make up this factor. The study then searched for a consistent fault within the incidents with the results indicating an indirect relationship of thrust reversers, a technique utilized by pilots to provide additional braking, to these excursions. In cases of thrust reverser failure, pilots' over-reliance on the system lead to time being lost from the confusion produced by the malfunction, ultimately resulting in several different runway excursions. The legal implication with the situation is that current regulations are ambiguous on the subject of thrust reversers and thus do not properly model the usage of the technique. Thus, to observe the scope of danger this ambiguity presents to the industry, the relationship of the technique to commercial aerospace needed to be determined. Interviews were set-up with former commercial pilots to gather data related to the flight crew perspective. This data indicated that thrust reversers were actively utilized by pilots within the industry for landing operations. The problem with the current regulations was revealed that the lack of details on thrust reverser reflected a failure of regulations to model current industry flight operations. To improve safety within the industry, new data related to thrust reverser deployment must be developed and enforced to determine appropriate windows to utilize the technique, thus decreasing time lost in confusion that results from thrust reversers malfunction. Future work would be based on producing simulations to determine said data as well as proposing the policy suggestions produced by this thesis.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Wada basins of attraction in diffeomorphic maps

Description

Dividing the plane in half leaves every border point of one region a border point of both regions. Can we divide up the plane into three or more regions such

Dividing the plane in half leaves every border point of one region a border point of both regions. Can we divide up the plane into three or more regions such that any point on the boundary of at least one region is on the border of all the regions? In fact, it is possible to design a dynamical system for which the basins of attractions have this Wada property. In certain circumstances, both the Hénon map, a simple system, and the forced damped pendulum, a physical model, produce Wada basins.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Analyzing Ant Emigrations to Understand Division of Labor

Description

In large part, the great success of eusocial insects is due to efficient division of labor (Duarte et al. 2011; Dornhaus 2008). Within ant colonies, the process of dividing labor

In large part, the great success of eusocial insects is due to efficient division of labor (Duarte et al. 2011; Dornhaus 2008). Within ant colonies, the process of dividing labor is not clearly defined, but it may be key to understanding the productivity and success of these colonies. This study analyzed data from an experiment that was conducted with the goal of examining how finely division of labor is organized in ant colonies. The experiment considered the actions of all ants from three Temnothorax rugatulus colonies. The colonies were each carefully recorded during five distinct emigrations per colony. The experiment produced such a large quantity of data that it was challenging to analyze the results, a major obstacle for many studies of collective behavior. Therefore, I designed a computer program that successfully sorted all of the data and prepared it for an initial statistical analysis that was performed in R. The preliminary results suggest that while most of the ants perform little to no work, there is an overall pattern of elitism; it seems that division of labor in ants is not more finely divided than previously shown. Future studies should provide further analysis of the data and will be useful in forming a more complete understanding of the division of labor within the emigrations of Temnothorax rugatulus colonies.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012-12

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Simple Method for Estimating Shaft-Power Gas Turbine Off-Design Point Performance

Description

This thesis is concerned with off-design performance of gas turbines using the program GasTurb12. The thesis provides basic background research into gas turbine performance and an extensive discussion about off-design

This thesis is concerned with off-design performance of gas turbines using the program GasTurb12. The thesis provides basic background research into gas turbine performance and an extensive discussion about off-design performance. The program GasTurb12 is used to perform design point calculations to verify the program against known textbook results and to perform a detailed off-design analysis based on a formulated problem statement. The results in GasTurb12 showed good correlation with the textbook results and the detailed off-design analysis provides valuable information about gas turbine design. An implementation strategy has been suggested to not only research further uses of GasTurb12, but also to incorporate it into undergraduate curriculum. It is recommended to further evaluate the capabilities of GasTurb12 to verify the program with real gas turbine systems.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

Endemic: The Agent

Description

Computer simulations are gaining recognition as educational tools, but in general there is still a line dividing a simulation from a game. Yet as many recent and successful video games

Computer simulations are gaining recognition as educational tools, but in general there is still a line dividing a simulation from a game. Yet as many recent and successful video games heavily involve simulations (SimCity comes to mind), there is not only the growing question of whether games can be used for educational purposes, but also of how a game might qualify as educational. Endemic: The Agent is a project that tries to bridge the gap between educational simulations and educational games. This paper outlines the creation of the project and the characteristics that make it an educational tool, a simulation, and a game.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Wake Survey of Bluff Bodies in Flow

Description

The aerodynamics of golf club heads effect the forces on the club head throughout the swing. The bluff body geometry and passive flow control elements make the aerodynamics of

The aerodynamics of golf club heads effect the forces on the club head throughout the swing. The bluff body geometry and passive flow control elements make the aerodynamics of golf club heads far more complex. The theory behind the geometry of the bluff body aerodynamics relies on the state of the boundary layer and its interaction with the golf club head. Laminar and turbulent boundary layer flow result in drag, but in varying degrees. Separation, or attachment, of the boundary layer in these laminar and turbulent boundary layer flows is part of the cause of the induced drag. Skin friction and pressure drag are the two forms of surface forces which vary according to the state of the boundary layer. To review the state of the boundary layer flow and provide validation data for the corresponding, the golf club head was tested in a wind tunnel. Drag readings from the experiment showed the lowest drag occurred while the club face was perpendicular to the flow from the range of 50 miles per hour to 90 miles per hour. Additionally, the decrease in drag varied greatly depending on the orientation of golf club head. The decrease in the coefficient for the club perpendicular to the flow was approximately 3.99*〖10〗^(-6) C_d/Re while the decrease for the club at 110° was 1.07*〖10〗^(-6) C_d/Re. The general trend of the slopes indicated the pressure drag resulted in major variations while the drag due to skin friction remained relatively constant.
For the testing of the golf club head, two probes were developed to measure the turbulent intensity in the flow. The probes, based on Rossow’s (1993) three probe system, compared the dynamic pressure of the flow with the stream-wise dynamic pressure in the flow. The resultant measurements could then produce the ratio of the cross-stream fluctuations in velocity to the time-averaged velocity. The turbulence intensity calculations would provide insight on the turbulence in the boundary layer flow and wake.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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How Surface Roughness Contributes to the Overall Drag of Certain Spherical Objects

Description

This thesis focused on verifying previous literature and research that has been conducted on different spherical objects. Mainly, verifying literature that examines both how surface roughness contributes to the overall

This thesis focused on verifying previous literature and research that has been conducted on different spherical objects. Mainly, verifying literature that examines both how surface roughness contributes to the overall drag and how wake turbulence is affected by different surface roughness. The goal of this project is to be able to capture data that shows that the flow transition from laminar to turbulent occurs at lower Reynolds numbers for a rough spherical object rather than a perfectly smooth sphere. In order to achieve this goal, both force balance testing and hot-wire testing were conducted in the Aero-lab complex in USE170. The force balance was mounted and used in the larger wind tunnel while the hot-wire probe was mounted and used in the smaller wind tunnel. Both of the wind tunnels utilized LABVIEW software in order to collect and convert the qualitative values provided by the testing probes and equipment. The two main types of testing equipment that were used in this project were the force balance and the hot-wire probe. The overall results from the experiment were inconclusive based on the limitations of both the testing probes and the testing facility itself. Overall, the experiment yielded very limited results due to these limitations.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Planing and The Effect of Bicycle Frame Stiffness on Rider Performance

Description

It is a common assumption in the bicycle industry that stiffer frames generally perform better than flexible frames, because they transfer power more efficiently and absorb less energy from the

It is a common assumption in the bicycle industry that stiffer frames generally perform better than flexible frames, because they transfer power more efficiently and absorb less energy from the rider's pedal stroke in the form of spring potential energy. However, in the last few years, Jan Heine of Bicycle Quarterly has developed an alternative theory, which he calls "planing", whereby a flexible frame can improve rider performance by not resisting the leg muscles as much, preventing premature muscle fatigue and allowing the rider to actually produce more consistent power, an effect which overwhelms any difference in power transfer between the different stiffness levels of frames. I performed several tests in which I measured the power input to the bicycle through the crankset and power output through a power-measuring trainer in the place of the rear hub. Heart rate data was collected along with most of these tests. Four bicycles were used with three distinct levels of stiffness. After performing several ANOVA tests to determine the effect of stiffness on the parameters of average power output during a sprint, maximum power output during a sprint, maximum heart rate during a sprint, difference between power-in and power-out during both sprints and longer efforts, and power quotient during a sprint, I found no effects of frame stiffness on any of these factors except power quotient. The finding for power quotient suggests a positive relationship between quotient and stiffness, which directly refutes the Planing Theory for the test riders and levels of stiffness represented in this test. Also, no statistically significant effect of stiffness on the difference between power-in and power-out was found, refuting the Power Transfer Theory for the riders and levels of stiffness represented in this test.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12