Matching Items (6)

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Frameshift antigens for cancer vaccine development

Description

Immunotherapy has been revitalized with the advent of immune checkpoint blockade

treatments, and neo-antigens are the targets of immune system in cancer patients who

respond to the treatments. The cancer vaccine field

Immunotherapy has been revitalized with the advent of immune checkpoint blockade

treatments, and neo-antigens are the targets of immune system in cancer patients who

respond to the treatments. The cancer vaccine field is focused on using neo-antigens from

unique point mutations of genomic sequence in the cancer patient for making

personalized cancer vaccines. However, we choose a different path to find frameshift

neo-antigens at the mRNA level and develop broadly effective cancer vaccines based on

frameshift antigens.

In this dissertation, I have summarized and characterized all the potential frameshift

antigens from microsatellite regions in human, dog and mouse. A list of frameshift

antigens was validated by PCR in tumor samples and the mutation rate was calculated for

one candidate – SEC62. I develop a method to screen the antibody response against

frameshift antigens in human and dog cancer patients by using frameshift peptide arrays.

Frameshift antigens selected by positive antibody response in cancer patients or by MHC

predictions show protection in different mouse tumor models. A dog version of the

cancer vaccine based on frameshift antigens was developed and tested in a small safety

trial. The results demonstrate that the vaccine is safe and it can induce strong B and T cell

immune responses. Further, I built the human exon junction frameshift database which

includes all possible frameshift antigens from mis-splicing events in exon junctions, and I

develop a method to find potential frameshift antigens from large cancer

immunosignature dataset with these databases. In addition, I test the idea of ‘early cancer

diagnosis, early treatment’ in a transgenic mouse cancer model. The results show that

ii

early treatment gives significantly better protection than late treatment and the correct

time point for treatment is crucial to give the best clinical benefit. A model for early

treatment is developed with these results.

Frameshift neo-antigens from microsatellite regions and mis-splicing events are

abundant at mRNA level and they are better antigens than neo-antigens from point

mutations in the genomic sequences of cancer patients in terms of high immunogenicity,

low probability to cause autoimmune diseases and low cost to develop a broadly effective

vaccine. This dissertation demonstrates the feasibility of using frameshift antigens for

cancer vaccine development.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Early detection and treatment of breast cancer by random peptide array in neuN transgenic mouse model

Description

Breast cancer is the most common cancer and currently the second leading cause of death among women in the United States. Patients’ five-year relative survival rate decreases from 99% to

Breast cancer is the most common cancer and currently the second leading cause of death among women in the United States. Patients’ five-year relative survival rate decreases from 99% to 25% when breast cancer is diagnosed late. Immune checkpoint blockage has shown to be a promising therapy to improve patients’ outcome in many other cancers. However, due to the lack of early diagnosis, the treatment is normally given in the later stages. An early diagnosis system for breast cancer could potentially revolutionize current treatment strategies, improve patients’ outcomes and even eradicate the disease. The current breast cancer diagnostic methods cannot meet this demand. A simple, effective, noninvasive and inexpensive early diagnostic technology is needed. Immunosignature technology leverages the power of the immune system to find cancer early. Antibodies targeting tumor antigens in the blood are probed on a high-throughput random peptide array and generate a specific binding pattern called the immunosignature.

In this dissertation, I propose a scenario for using immunosignature technology to detect breast cancer early and to implement an early treatment strategy by using the PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitor. I develop a methodology to describe the early diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in a FVB/N neuN breast cancer mouse model. By comparing FVB/N neuN transgenic mice and age-matched wild type controls, I have found and validated specific immunosignatures at multiple time points before tumors are palpable. Immunosignatures change along with tumor development. Using a late-stage immunosignature to predict early samples, or vice versa, cannot achieve high prediction performance. By using the immunosignature of early breast cancer, I show that at the time of diagnosis, early treatment with the checkpoint blockade, anti-PD-L1, inhibits tumor growth in FVB/N neuN transgenic mouse model. The mRNA analysis of the PD-L1 level in mice mammary glands suggests that it is more effective to have treatment early.

Novel discoveries are changing understanding of breast cancer and improving strategies in clinical treatment. Researchers and healthcare professionals are actively working in the early diagnosis and early treatment fields. This dissertation provides a step along the road for better diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Investigation of tumor frame shift antigens for prophylactic cancer vaccine, cancer detection and tumorigenicity

Description

Cancer is one of the most serious global diseases. We have focused on cancer immunoprevention. My thesis projects include developing a prophylactic primary and metastatic cancer vaccines, early cancer detection

Cancer is one of the most serious global diseases. We have focused on cancer immunoprevention. My thesis projects include developing a prophylactic primary and metastatic cancer vaccines, early cancer detection and investigation of genes involved in tumor development. These studies were focused on frame-shift (FS) antigens. The FS antigens are generated by genomic mutations or abnormal RNA processing, which cause a portion of a normal protein to be translated out of frame. The concept of the prophylactic cancer vaccine is to develop a general cancer vaccine that could prevent healthy people from developing different types of cancer. We have discovered a set of cancer specific FS antigens. One of the FS candidates, structural maintenance of chromosomes protein 1A (SMC1A) FS, could start to accumulate at early stages of tumor and be specifically exposed to the immune system by tumor cells. Prophylactic immunization with SMC1A-FS could significantly inhibit primary tumor development in different murine tumor models and also has the potential to inhibit tumor metastasis. The SMC1A-FS transcript was detected in the plasma of the 4T1/BALB/c mouse tumor model. The tumor size was correlated with the transcript ratio of the SMC1A-FS verses the WT in plasma, which could be measured by regular RT-PCR. This unique cancer biomarker has a practical potential for a large population cancer screen, as well as clinical tumor monitoring. With a set of mimotope peptides, antibodies against SMC1A-FS peptide were detected in different cancer patients, including breast cancer, pancreas cancer and lung cancer with a 53.8%, 56.5% and 12.5% positive rate respectively. This suggested that the FS antibody could be a biomarker for early cancer detection. The characterization of SMC1A suggested that: First, the deficiency of the SMC1A is common in different tumors and able to promote tumor initiation and development; second, the FS truncated protein may have nucleolus function in normal cells. Mis-control of this protein may promote tumor development. In summary, we developed a systematic general cancer prevention strategy through the variety immunological and molecular methods. The results gathered suggest the SMC1A-FS may be useful for the detection and prevention of cancer.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Analysis of immunosignaturing case studies

Description

Immunosignaturing is a technology that allows the humoral immune response to be observed through the binding of antibodies to random sequence peptides. The immunosignaturing microarray is based on complex mixtures

Immunosignaturing is a technology that allows the humoral immune response to be observed through the binding of antibodies to random sequence peptides. The immunosignaturing microarray is based on complex mixtures of antibodies binding to arrays of random sequence peptides in a multiplexed fashion. There are computational and statistical challenges to the analysis of immunosignaturing data. The overall aim of my dissertation is to develop novel computational and statistical methods for immunosignaturing data to access its potential for diagnostics and drug discovery. Firstly, I discovered that a classification algorithm Naive Bayes which leverages the biological independence of the probes on our array in such a way as to gather more information outperforms other classification algorithms due to speed and accuracy. Secondly, using this classifier, I then tested the specificity and sensitivity of immunosignaturing platform for its ability to resolve four different diseases (pancreatic cancer, pancreatitis, type 2 diabetes and panIN) that target the same organ (pancreas). These diseases were separated with >90% specificity from controls and from each other. Thirdly, I observed that the immunosignature of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular complications are unique, consistent, and reproducible and can be separated by 100% accuracy from controls. But when these two complications arise in the same person, the resultant immunosignature is quite different in that of individuals with only one disease. I developed a method to trace back from informative random peptides in disease signatures to the potential antigen(s). Hence, I built a decipher system to trace random peptides in type 1 diabetes immunosignature to known antigens. Immunosignaturing, unlike the ELISA, has the ability to not only detect the presence of response but also absence of response during a disease. I observed, not only higher but also lower peptides intensities can be mapped to antigens in type 1 diabetes. To study immunosignaturing potential for population diagnostics, I studied effect of age, gender and geographical location on immunosignaturing data. For its potential to be a health monitoring technology, I proposed a single metric Coefficient of Variation that has shown potential to change significantly when a person enters a disease state.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Specific amino acid substitutions improve the activity and specificity of an antimicrobial peptide & serodiagnosis by immunosignature: a multiplexing tool for monitoring the humoral immune response to dengue

Description

Random peptide microarrays are a powerful tool for both the treatment and diagnostics of infectious diseases. On the treatment side, selected random peptides on the microarray have either binding or

Random peptide microarrays are a powerful tool for both the treatment and diagnostics of infectious diseases. On the treatment side, selected random peptides on the microarray have either binding or lytic potency against certain pathogens cells, thus they can be synthesized into new antimicrobial agents, denoted as synbodies (synthetic antibodies). On the diagnostic side, serum containing specific infection-related antibodies create unique and distinct "pathogen-immunosignatures" on the random peptide microarray distinct from the healthy control serum, and this different mode of binding can be used as a more precise measurement than traditional ELISA tests. My thesis project is separated into these two parts: the first part falls into the treatment side and the second one focuses on the diagnostic side. My first chapter shows that a substitution amino acid peptide library helps to improve the activity of a recently reported synthetic antimicrobial peptide selected by the random peptide microarray. By substituting one or two amino acids of the original lead peptide, the new substitutes show changed hemolytic effects against mouse red blood cells and changed potency against two pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Two new substitutes are then combined together to form the synbody, which shows a significantly antimicrobial potency against Staphylococcus aureus (<0.5uM). In the second chapter, I explore the possibility of using the 10K Ver.2 random peptide microarray to monitor the humoral immune response of dengue. Over 2.5 billion people (40% of the world's population) live in dengue transmitting areas. However, currently there is no efficient dengue treatment or vaccine. Here, with limited dengue patient serum samples, we show that the immunosignature has the potential to not only distinguish the dengue infection from non-infected people, but also the primary dengue infection from the secondary dengue infections, dengue infection from West Nile Virus (WNV) infection, and even between different dengue serotypes. By further bioinformatic analysis, we demonstrate that the significant peptides selected to distinguish dengue infected and normal samples may indicate the epitopes responsible for the immune response.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Mass spectrometry: reverse process for synbody discovery & validation of peptide microarray data : a story of landing lights

Description

A synbody is a newly developed protein binding peptide which can be rapidly produced by chemical methods. The advantages of the synbody producing process make it a potential human proteome

A synbody is a newly developed protein binding peptide which can be rapidly produced by chemical methods. The advantages of the synbody producing process make it a potential human proteome binding reagent. Most of the synbodies are designed to bind to specific proteins. The peptides incorporated in a synbody are discovered with peptide microarray technology. Nevertheless, the targets for unknown synbodies can also be discovered by searching through a protein mixture. The first part of this thesis mainly focuses on the process of target searching, which was performed with immunoprecipitation assays and mass spectrometry analysis. Proteins are pulled down from the cell lysate by certain synbodies, and then these proteins are identified using mass spectrometry. After excluding non-specific bindings, the interaction between a synbody and its real target(s) can be verified with affinity measurements. As a specific example, the binding between 1-4-KCap synbody and actin was discovered. This result proved the feasibility of the mass spectrometry based method and also suggested that a high throughput synbody discovery platform for the human proteome could be developed. Besides the application of synbody development, the peptide microarray technology can also be used for immunosignatures. The composition of all types of antibodies existing in one's blood is related to an individual's health condition. A method, called immunosignaturing, has been developed for early disease diagnosis based on this principle. CIM10K microarray slides work as a platform for blood antibody detection in immunosignaturing. During the analysis of an immunosignature, the data from these slides needs to be validated by using landing light peptides. The second part of this thesis focuses on the validation of the data. A biotinylated peptide was used as a landing light on the new CIM10K slides. The data was collected in several rounds of tests and indicated that the variation among landing lights was significantly reduced by using the newly prepared biotinylated peptide compared with old peptide mixture. Several suggestions for further landing light improvement are proposed based on the results.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011