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Novel Organometallic Complex Mitigates Liver Injury caused by a 10-Week High Fat Diet in Adolescent Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common form of chronic liver disease in the United States. Diets high in saturated fats are known to promote obesity and hepatic steatosis. The consumption of a high fat diet (HFD) can increase

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common form of chronic liver disease in the United States. Diets high in saturated fats are known to promote obesity and hepatic steatosis. The consumption of a high fat diet (HFD) can increase the risk factors associated with insulin resistance, which can lead to the onset of diabetes and obesity. A prior study of a soil-derived organometallic complex (OMC) showed that supplementation reduces glucose and body mass in diabetic mice. The goal of this study was to test the efficacy of a similar OMC compound on the mitigation of hepatic steatosis induced from a HFD. Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=42) were divided into the following diet groups: standard rodent chow or 60% kcal from fat high fat diet (mainly lard) for 10-weeks. Rats were further divided into OMC treatment groups with OMC added to their drinking water: 0 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml or 3.0mg/ml OMC. At 10 weeks, study animals were euthanized with sodium pentobarbital (200 mg/kg, i.p.) and cardiac plasma as well as liver samples were collected and stored at -80° C until further analyses. Plasma ALT and AST as well as liver triglyceride and free glycerol concentrations were measured using commercially available kits. To assess cellular injury, aspartate transaminase (AST; released mainly from injured cardiac and liver cells) and alanine transaminase (ALT; released mainly from injured liver cells) were examined. Rats fed HFD had elevated plasma ALT activity, which was prevented by treatment with the high dose of OMC (p<0.05). No changes in plasma AST activity were detected. Examination of liver triglyceride and free glycerol concentrations showed increased fat accumulation in the liver of rats consuming HFD (Two-Way ANOVA, p<0.001). OMC did not prevent this increase. These findings suggest that, although OMC does not prevent the accumulation of lipids in the liver of rats fed HFD, it does mitigate liver injury resulting from excess dietary intake of saturated fats.

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2019-05

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The Effects of Time Restricted Feeding on Mood

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Intermittent Fasting (IF) is defined as a cyclical eating pattern where an individual will fast for a specific increment of time, followed by caloric intake periods. Fasting is a crucial part of our ancestors’ adaptation to the stresses of famine

Intermittent Fasting (IF) is defined as a cyclical eating pattern where an individual will fast for a specific increment of time, followed by caloric intake periods. Fasting is a crucial part of our ancestors’ adaptation to the stresses of famine in order to maintain mental acuity and physical abilities during food deprivation. IF influences physiological changes such as: triggers protective metabolic pathways, increases metabolic flexibility and resilience, promotes DNA repair and autophagy, increases microbiome diversity and restores the natural cyclical fluctuations of the gut, increases BDNF expression in mood regulating neuronal circuits, and enhances synaptic plasticity of the brain. Research on the underlying causes of mood disorders has linked impairments in neuroplasticity and cellular resilience to this pathophysiology, which fasting could mitigate. Depression and anxiety are reported as the top impediments to academic performance. Thus, an easily implemented treatment such as intermittent fasting may be an option for combating impaired mental health in college students. This research study tested time restricted feeding (TRF) and its impact on mood states. It was hypothesized that: if college students follow a time restricted feeding pattern, then they will be less moody due to TRF’s effects on the metabolism, brain, and gut. The study consisted of 11 college students: 5 following a four-week adherence to TRF (8am-4pm eating window) and 6 in the control group. The POMS questionnaire was used to measure mood states. The participants height, weight, BMI, body fat %, and POMS scores were tested at the beginning and end of the 4 week intervention. The results were as follows: weight p=0.112 (statistical trend), BMI p=0.058 (nearly significant), body fat % p=0.114 (statistical trend), POMS p=0.014 (statistically significant). The data suggests that following a TRF eating pattern can decrease moodiness and improve mood states.

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2019-05

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Vegetarian Diets Are Associated With Healthy Mood States: A Cross-Sectional Study in Seventh Day Adventist Adults

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Background: The physical health status of vegetarians has been extensively reported, but there is limited research regarding the mental health status of vegetarians, particularly with regard to mood. Vegetarian diets exclude fish, the major dietary source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and

Background: The physical health status of vegetarians has been extensively reported, but there is limited research regarding the mental health status of vegetarians, particularly with regard to mood. Vegetarian diets exclude fish, the major dietary source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), critical regulators of brain cell structure and function. Omnivorous diets low in EPA and DHA are linked to impaired mood states in observational and experimental studies.

Methods: We examined associations between mood state and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake as a result of adherence to a vegetarian or omnivorous diet in a cross-sectional study of 138 healthy Seventh Day Adventist men and women residing in the Southwest. Participants completed a quantitative food frequency questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), and Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaires.

Results: Vegetarians (VEG:n = 60) reported significantly less negative emotion than omnivores (OMN:n = 78) as measured by both mean total DASS and POMS scores (8.32 ± 0.88 vs 17.51 ± 1.88, p = .000 and 0.10 ± 1.99 vs 15.33 ± 3.10, p = .007, respectively). VEG reported significantly lower mean intakes of EPA (p < .001), DHA (p < .001), as well as the omega-6 fatty acid, arachidonic acid (AA; p < .001), and reported higher mean intakes of shorter-chain α-linolenic acid (p < .001) and linoleic acid (p < .001) than OMN. Mean total DASS and POMS scores were positively related to mean intakes of EPA (p < 0.05), DHA (p < 0.05), and AA (p < 0.05), and inversely related to intakes of ALA (p < 0.05), and LA (p < 0.05), indicating that participants with low intakes of EPA, DHA, and AA and high intakes of ALA and LA had better mood.

Conclusions: The vegetarian diet profile does not appear to adversely affect mood despite low intake of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.

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2010-06-01

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Examination of an Organometallic Complex on Insulin Resistance in Periadolescent Male Rats Following a 10-week High Fat Diet

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With the rising prevalence of obesity and diabetes, novel treatments to help mitigate or prevent symptoms of these conditions are warranted. Prior studies have shown that fossilized plant materials found in soil lowers blood sugar in a mouse model of

With the rising prevalence of obesity and diabetes, novel treatments to help mitigate or prevent symptoms of these conditions are warranted. Prior studies have shown that fossilized plant materials found in soil lowers blood sugar in a mouse model of diabetes. The goal of this study is to determine whether a similar organometallic complex (OMC) could prevent insulin resistance in the skeletal muscle brought on by chronic high fat intake by examining the protein expression of key enzymes in the insulin signaling pathway and examining glucoregulatory measures. Six-week-old periadolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=42) were randomly chosen to be fed either a high fat diet (HFD) (20% protein, 20% carbohydrates [6.8% sucrose], 60% fat) or a standard chow diet (18.9% protein, 57.33% carbohydrates, 5% fat) for 10 weeks. Rats from each diet group were then randomly assigned to one of three doses of OMC (0, 0.6, 3.0 mg/mL), which was added to their drinking water and fasting blood glucose was measured at baseline and again at 10 weeks. After 10 weeks, rats were euthanized, and soleus muscle samples were isolated, snap-frozen, and stored at -80°C until analyses. Fasting plasma glucose was measured using a commercially available glucose oxidase kit. Following 6 and 10 weeks, HFD rats developed significant hyperglycemia (p<0.001 and p=0.025) compared to chow controls which was prevented by high dose OMC (p=0.021). After 10 weeks, there were significant differences in fasting serum insulin between diets (p=0.009) where levels were higher in HFD rats. No significant difference was seen in p-PI3K expression between groups. These results suggest that OMC could prevent insulin resistance by reducing hyperglycemia. Further studies are needed to characterize the effects of diet and OMC on the insulin signaling pathway in skeletal muscle, the main site of postprandial glucose disposal. This study was supported by a grant from Isagenix International LLC as well as funds from Barrett, the Honors College at Arizona State University, Tempe Campus.

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2018-12

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An Urban Diet Impairs Tibial Vasodilation in Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura)

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Birds maintain resting plasma glucose concentrations (pGlu) nearly twice that of comparably sized mammals. Despite this, birds do not incur much of the oxidative tissue damage that might be expected from a high pGlu. Their ability to stave off oxidative

Birds maintain resting plasma glucose concentrations (pGlu) nearly twice that of comparably sized mammals. Despite this, birds do not incur much of the oxidative tissue damage that might be expected from a high pGlu. Their ability to stave off oxidative damage allows birds to serve as a negative model of hyperglycemia-related complications, making them ideal for the development of new diabetes treatments with the potential for human application. Previous studies conducted by the Sweazea Lab at Arizona State University aimed to use diet as a means to raise blood glucose in mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) in order to better understand the mechanisms they utilize to stave off oxidative damage. These protocols used dietary interventions—a 60% high fat (HF) “chow” diet, and a high carbohydrate (HC) white bread diet—but were unsuccessful in inducing pathologies. Based on this research, we hypothesized that a model of an urban diet (high in fat, refined carbohydrates, and sodium) might impair vasodilation, as the effect of this diet on birds is currently unknown. We found that tibial vasodilation was significantly impaired in birds fed an urban diet compared to those fed a seed diet. Unexpectedly, vasodilation in the urban diet group was comparable to data of wild-caught birds from previous research, possibly indicating that the birds had already been eating a diet similar to this study’s urban diet before they were caught. This may constitute evidence that the seed diet improved vasodilation while the urban diet more closely mimicked the diet of the birds before the trial, suggesting that the model of the urban diet acted as the control diet in this context. This study is the first step in elucidating avian mechanisms for dealing with diabetogenic diets and has potential to aid in the development of treatments for humans with metabolic syndrome.

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2020-05

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Testing the Anti-Glycemic Effect of Commercial Apple Cider Vinegar Pills

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A recent meta-analysis concluded that vinegar consumption could be considered effective adjunct therapy for improving glycemic control. Glycemic control strategies are useful for diabetic and pre-diabetic patients as a way of managing the symptoms of disease. However, liquid vinegar consumption

A recent meta-analysis concluded that vinegar consumption could be considered effective adjunct therapy for improving glycemic control. Glycemic control strategies are useful for diabetic and pre-diabetic patients as a way of managing the symptoms of disease. However, liquid vinegar consumption is often poorly tolerated and ingestion can invoke nausea. This pilot study examined the effect of liquid vinegar versus commercial vinegar pills on postprandial glycemia in 12 healthy adults. All participants were healthy with fasting blood glucose averaging 91mg/dl. This study examined the efficacy of liquid vinegar ingestion (25 g apple cider vinegar [1.25 g acetic acid]) versus vinegar pill ingestion (4 vinegar tablets [1.5 g acetic acid] either consumed whole or crushed and then dissolved in water) on postprandial glycemia. At 30 minutes following a standard test meal (bagel + jelly + juice; 106 g carbohydrate), blood glucose concentrations were reduced 12% in comparison to the pill groups or to a no vinegar control (135.6±15.8, 154.3±22.2, 152.7±30.6, and 157.7±22.8 mg/dl for the liquid vinegar, whole pill, crushed pill, and control groups respectively; p=0.023). These data suggest that in healthy adults, four commercial vinegar pills with a reported acetic acid content of 1.5 g acetic acid are not effective for improving glycemic control.

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2018-05

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AMBROFIT: A Research-Driven Practicum in Nutritional Product Development

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Abstract Ambrofit is a company I founded in February 2014 whose overarching goal is to bridge the gap between science and supplements. This thesis project is as an extension of, and upgrade to, Ambrofit's work. The project begins with a

Abstract Ambrofit is a company I founded in February 2014 whose overarching goal is to bridge the gap between science and supplements. This thesis project is as an extension of, and upgrade to, Ambrofit's work. The project begins with a brief discussion of the supplement industry, motivating the problem which myself and Ambrofit are trying to solve. It addresses the shortcomings of the industry, its regulatory history, and the causal factors which create the industry's environment. As the main part of the project, I design and execute a systematic, evidence-based nutritional product formulation process to create an scientifically sound ergogenic aid which can reliably accelerate training adaptations. The methodology starts with a round of exploratory research to discover potential ingredients then systematically analyzes each ingredient in multiple rounds of effectiveness and safety screenings until the final formula can be synthesized. Ergogenics were the focus of this project because Ambrofit's current product is an ergogenic aid, but I will apply this same process to formulate Ambrofit's whole product line in the future. The second arm of the project is a clinical study protocol design - an evidence-based product created from secondary research is a good start, but ultimately, the formula must be validated by direct research. The protocol describes an 8-week study with well-trained subjects which would either support or reject the formula's ability to accelerate anaerobic training adaptations. The project concludes with a discussion and application of Ambrofit's marketing. This part of the project was done with boots-on-the-ground; Ambrofit is already operating commercially, so I was able test marketing ideas live and evaluate their performance.

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2018-05

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Examining the Utility of a Laser Device for Measuring Height in Free-Living Adults and Children

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Background: Height is an important health assessment measure with many applications. In the medical practice and in research settings, height is typically measured with a stadiometer. Although lasers are commonly used by health professionals for measurement including facial imaging, corneal

Background: Height is an important health assessment measure with many applications. In the medical practice and in research settings, height is typically measured with a stadiometer. Although lasers are commonly used by health professionals for measurement including facial imaging, corneal thickness, and limb length, it has not been utilized for measuring height. The purpose of this feasibility study was to examine the ease and accuracy of a laser device for measuring height in children and adults.

Findings: In immediate succession, participant height was measured in triplicate using a stadiometer followed by the laser device. Measurement error for the laser device was significantly higher than that for the stadiometer (0.35 and 0.20 cm respectively). However, the measurement techniques were highly correlated (r2 = 0.998 and 0.990 for the younger [<12 y, n = 25] and older [≥12 y, n = 100] participants respectively), and the estimated reliability between measurement techniques was 0.999 (ICC; 95 % CI: 0.998,1.000) and 0.995 (ICC; 95 % CI: 0.993,0.997) for the younger and older groups respectively. The average differences between the two styles of measurement (e.g., stadiometer minus laser) were significantly different from zero: +0.93 and +0.45 cm for the younger and older groups respectively.

Conclusions: These data demonstrate that laser technology can be adapted to measure height in children and adults. Although refinement is needed, the laser device for measuring height merits further development.

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2015-08-31

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The Effect of Peanut and Grain Bar Preloads on Postmeal Satiety, Glycemia, and Weight Loss in Healthy Individuals: An Acute and a Chronic Randomized Intervention Trial

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Background: Peanut consumption favorably influences satiety. This study examined the acute effect of peanut versus grain bar preloads on postmeal satiety and glycemia in healthy adults and the long-term effect of these meal preloads on body mass in healthy overweight

Background: Peanut consumption favorably influences satiety. This study examined the acute effect of peanut versus grain bar preloads on postmeal satiety and glycemia in healthy adults and the long-term effect of these meal preloads on body mass in healthy overweight adults.

Methods: In the acute crossover trial (n = 15; 28.4 ± 2.9 y; 23.1 ± 0.9 kg/m2), the preload (isoenergetic peanut or grain bar with water, or water alone) was followed after 60 min with ingestion of a standardized glycemic test meal. Satiety and blood glucose were assessed immediately prior to the preload and to the test meal, and for two hours postmeal at 30-min intervals. In the parallel-arm, randomized trial (n = 44; 40.5 ± 1.6 y, 31.8 ± 0.9 kg/m2), the peanut or grain bar preload was consumed one hour prior to the evening meal for eight weeks. Body mass was measured at 2-week intervals, and secondary endpoints included blood hemoglobin A1c and energy intake as assessed by 3-d diet records collected at pre-trial and trial weeks 1 and 8.

Results: Satiety was elevated in the postprandial period following grain bar ingestion in comparison to peanut or water ingestion (p = 0.001, repeated-measures ANOVA). Blood glucose was elevated one hour after ingestion of the grain bar as compared to the peanut or water treatments; yet, total glycemia did not vary between treatments in the two hour postprandial period. In the 8-week trial, body mass was reduced for the grain bar versus peanut groups after eight weeks (−1.3 ± 0.4 kg versus −0.2 ± 0.3 kg, p = 0.033, analysis of covariance). Energy intake was reduced by 458 kcal/d in the first week of the trial for the grain bar group as compared to the peanut group (p = 0.118). Hemoglobin A1c changed significantly between groups during the trial (−0.25 ± 0.07% and −0.18 ± 0.12% for the grain bar and peanut groups respectively, p = 0.001).

Conclusions: Compared to an isoenergetic peanut preload, consumption of a grain bar preload one hour prior to a standardized meal significantly raised postmeal satiety. Moreover, consumption of the grain bar prior to the evening meal was associated with significant weight loss over time suggesting that glycemic carbohydrate ingestion prior to meals may be a weight management strategy.

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2013-03-27

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Restriction of Meat, Fish, and Poultry in Omnivores Improves Mood: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

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Background: Omnivorous diets are high in arachidonic acid (AA) compared to vegetarian diets. Research shows that high intakes of AA promote changes in brain that can disturb mood. Omnivores who eat fish regularly increase their intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and

Background: Omnivorous diets are high in arachidonic acid (AA) compared to vegetarian diets. Research shows that high intakes of AA promote changes in brain that can disturb mood. Omnivores who eat fish regularly increase their intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), fats that oppose the negative effects of AA in vivo. In a recent cross-sectional study, omnivores reported significantly worse mood than vegetarians despite higher intakes of EPA and DHA. This study investigated the impact of restricting meat, fish, and poultry on mood.

Findings: Thirty-nine omnivores were randomly assigned to a control group consuming meat, fish, and poultry daily (OMN); a group consuming fish 3-4 times weekly but avoiding meat and poultry (FISH), or a vegetarian group avoiding meat, fish, and poultry (VEG). At baseline and after two weeks, participants completed a food frequency questionnaire, the Profile of Mood States questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales. After the diet intervention, VEG participants reduced their EPA, DHA, and AA intakes, while FISH participants increased their EPA and DHA intakes. Mood scores were unchanged for OMN or FISH participants, but several mood scores for VEG participants improved significantly after two weeks.

Conclusions: Restricting meat, fish, and poultry improved some domains of short-term mood state in modern omnivores. To our knowledge, this is the first trial to examine the impact of restricting meat, fish, and poultry on mood state in omnivores.

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2012-02-14